Skip to main content

Full text of "Report of the Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities"

See other formats





MAIN 


LIBRARY 






/®n&& 


ILiC^^X^k 






xPSS 








10 




301 


.15 


C128 


78914? 


NOT TO BE TAKEN FROM THE LIBRARY 



DOCUMENTS .-.RTMENT 



SAN FRANCISCO PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1223 90214 9849 



CALIFORNIA LEGISLATURE 




Tenth Report of the 

Senate Fact-Finding Committee 

On Un-American Activities 

1959 

MEMBERS OF THE COMMITTEE 

SENATOR NATHAN F. COOMBS, Vice Chairman SENATOR JOHN F. THOMPSON 

SENATOR EARL D. DESMOND * SENATOR JOHN F. McCARTHY 

SENATOR HUGH M. BURNS, Chairman 

R. E. COMBS, Counsel 

MARY E. HOPE, Executive Secretary 

Published by ihe 

SENATE 

OF THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR GLENN M. ANDERSON 
President of the Senate 
HUGH M. BURNS JOSEPH A. BEEK 

President pro Tempore Secretary 

* Deceased, 1958 



Q./&3 



7S3143 

DOCUMENTS DEPlf 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 

Senate Chamber, State Capitol 
Sacramento, June 19, 1959 
Hon. Glenn M. Anderson 
President of the Senate, and Gentlemen of the Senate; 
Senate Chamber, Sacramento, California 

Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Senate : Pursuant to Senate 
Resolution No. 132, which appears at page 5111 of the Senate Journal 
for June 12, 1957, the Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities was created and the following Members of the Senate were 
appointed to said committee by the Senate Committee on Rules : Senator 
Nathan F. Coombs, Senator Earl D. Desmond,* Senator John F. Mc- 
Carthy, Senator John F. Thompson, Senator Hugh M. Burns. 

The committee herewith submits a report of its investigation, find- 
ings, and recommendation. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Hugh M. Burns, Chaiman 
Nathan F. Coombs, Vice Chairman 
John F. McCarthy 
John F. Thompson 



* Deceased, 1958. 

(3) 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/reportofsenatefa1959cali 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 9 

Period of Open Activity 9 

Communist Fallout 11 

The Soft Hook 12 

Infiltration of State Government 16 

Political Fronts 18 

Communist Political Techniques 21 

Independent Progressive Party 27 

Current Communist Political Activity in California 30 

Strategic Errors Rectified 34 

Infiltration of Education 41 

Confusion on the Campus 44 

Detecting Communist Teachers 50 

Can Communists Teach Objectively? 51 

The Objective Teaching of Communism 52 

Brooklyn College 53 

Faculty Questionnaire, Fund for the Republic Study, 

April, 1955 59 

Professors Refuse to Co-operate with F.B.I 81 

Who Runs the State University? 83 

Infiltration of Labor 87 

The Profintern 89 

Revolutionary Situation 91 

"World Federation of Trade Unions 94 

Phillip M. Connelly 98 

Public Utilities 99 

Statement by George Meany 104 

Infiltration of the Motion Picture Industry 109 

The Red Blacklist 114 

Infiltration of the Professions 117 

The Medical Profession 117 

The Legal Profession 120 

Red Legal Aid in California 123 

National Lawyers Guild 126 

Communist Front Organizations 135 

The Attorney General's List 138 

The Communist Book Stores 146 

The Party Goes Underground 148 

Underground, But Not Deep Enough 154 

The Vassiliev Document 156 

Infiltration of Federal Government 171 

Current Communist Techniques 178 

Petition for Communist School 184 

Communism and the Law 187 

The Supreme Court 187 

The Law Clerks 199 

Hancock v. Burns 203 

The Liquidators 206 

The Intimidation of Virginia Hedges 213 

INDEX 221 

(5) 



Copies of previous Un-Ameri- 
can Activities Reports may be 
available in California Public 
Libraries. 



(7) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

PERIOD OF OPEN ACTIVITY 

Several years ago this committee received a crate of documents from 
an anonymous source. The papers were of such a nature that they 
were readily identified and authenticated as the records of a top-flight 
little group of Communists who were operating the party's cultural 
and political apparatus in southern California. They contained hun- 
dreds of names, both those of Communists and sympathizers who could 
be safely contacted. There were files of correspondence, the member- 
ship and mailing lists of front organizations, and minutes of Commu- 
nist meetings. 

We were especially interested in the minutes of a strategy meeting 
by five Communists, because they were discussing us, and agreed that 
the committee could never have accomplished the work of the past two 
years unless it had at least a quarter of a million dollars in addition 
to the sum appropriated to it by the Legislature. 

Their statement, however flattering, was not so significant as the 
long-range strategy disclosed for future Communist activity on a 
statewide basis. The party was to concentrate on infiltration of politics, 
education, and trade unions, and was to do so as openly as possible. 
Aside from the fact that unforeseen circumstances have made it ex- 
pedient for these plans to be conducted largely from underground posi- 
tions, the program set forth in these documents has been meticulously 
followed. 

This windfall of highly secret documents came from the Communist 
Party to the committee in a rather curious manner. Someone had dis- 
covered that the party intended to move several packing cases and filing 
cabinets of documents from one location to another. The transportation 
was to be done late at night by truck and the details concerning the ar- 
rangements were supposed to be known to a very limited few. Neverthe- 
less, as one of the trucks containing the most critical filing cabinet 
started on its way from the old location to the new one, it rolled over a 
deep rut and that particular packing case was jarred off the truck and 
fell into the street. It so happened that an individual friendly to the 
committee was standing nearby and apparently had some inkling as to 
what was transpiring. He secured the documents and presented them 
to the committee. 

At that time there was considerable Communist activity at the Uni- 
versity of California in Los Angeles, and there had also been a good 
deal of activity among writers connected with the motion picture in- 
dustry. At the university during 1943 a function was held called the 
Writers' Congress, which we have described in detail in an earlier re- 

(») 



10 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

port. This function was participated in by the Hollywood Writers' 
Mobilization, also exposed by the committee as a Communist-dominated 
organization. Many of the names mentioned in the documents that came 
to the committee's attention in the manner described above were those 
of faculty members of the university, students attending that institut- 
ion, and prominent members of the Hollywood Screen Writers' Guild. 

The committee had been exceedingly active in investigating the 
university and the Hollywood Writers' Mobilization, as well as various 
Communist front organizations that functioned throughout the south- 
ern part of the State from 1941 through 1945. A great many public 
hearings had been held at which Communist functionaries, officials of 
front organizations, faculty members from U. C. L. A., faculty members 
from the Communist school in Los Angeles, teachers in the Los Angeles 
City School System, and people who were working in the motion picture 
industry were all subpoenaed and questioned at great length. 

We cite these matters to illustrate that from 1939 through 1955, 
Communist activity in the United States, and particularly in New 
York and California, was brazen, open, impertinent, and publicly 
flaunted for all to see. There were demonstrations in public offices and 
picket lines in front of public buildings. There were student demonstra- 
tions on the campuses and at the front gates of various universities 
throughout the State. There were party line pamphlets and reams of 
propaganda emitted by hosts of Communist front organizations that 
were flourishing from one end of the State to the other. There were 
motor caravans that advanced on the State Capital during sessions of 
the Legislature; there were open letters, public demonstrations of all 
sorts, and great strikes such as those at North American Aviation Com- 
pany and Warner Brothers studio, led by Communists who disdained 
to conceal their open participation in these tiny revolutions and tests of 
the class conflict. It was, indeed, an era of open Communist Party 
activity in this State, and the committee reacted by holding many open 
hearings and amassing great volumes of testimony. 

Since 1955 all of this has changed. There is no longer this defiant 
and brazen activity on the part of the Communists in this State. On the 
contrary, they have retreated by plan to carefully prepared positions 
and have insinuated their unknown members into strategic positions 
throughout our governmental and social structure. The front organiza- 
tions formerly so useful to the party have now been abandoned, with 
very few exceptions. Consequently, the state committee has held fewer 
hearings and devised new techniques to meet the new challenge posed 
by this abrupt change in Communist Party operational techniques. 

This transition from open to underground activity was under- 
taken because of excellent and logical reasons, all of which will be 
explained in detail hereafter. The party is working more feverishly than 
ever before, and we will show later in this report how successful the new 
technique has been when we reproduce statements from the Communist 
Party itself taking credit for some of the most momentous changes 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 11 

wrought for the protection of subversive elements in our country since 
the Communist Party began operating in the United States in 1919. 

It is unfortunately true that too many people are inclined to gauge 
the success of the various governmental agencies investigating subver- 
sive activities by the amount of sensational headlines those investiga- 
tions produce. During the early years of Communist activity pub- 
licity was necessary in order to combat the subversive menace and 
to break through public apathy and misunderstanding as to the real 
nature of the problem. That time has now passed. Much of the old 
apathy remains, but it is still no longer necessary to convince the 
average American citizen that Communism is indeed subversive, that 
the American Communist Party and every one of its members are 
subject to the complete disciplinary control of the Soviet Union, that 
the party is the great reservoir from which espionage agents are 
recruited for international Communism, and that the Communist Party 
is determined, at any cost, to destroy all non-Communist governments 
throughout the world and to establish in their place a world Communist 
dictatorship. 

A great many uninformed individuals have a tendency to believe that 
since the Communist Party of the United States has recently shrunk in 
membership to an all-time low, that the Communist menace is now a 
thing of the past; that all committees should be disbanded, the F.B.I. 
should be emasculated, and that we should all return to our business of 
making the most of our political and economic opportunities. This naive 
attitude and this incredible ignorance concerning the Communist 
menace is international Communism's greatest weapon against us. Ex- 
perts in the anti-Communist field have told us over and over again, that 
it is not the number of Communists about which we have to worry so 
much, it is the incredible facility with which they insinuate themselves 
into strategic positions from which they exercise a control far dispropor- 
tionate to their numerical strength. At the height of its success the 
Communist Party of the United States comprised approximately 
100,000 members; in 1943, there were about 3,000 known members in 
Los Angeles County alone. After considering all of the reliable sources 
available to it, this committee is convinced that the national strength of 
the Communist Party at the present time is between 15,000 and 20,000. 

Communist Fallout 

Let us, at this point, indicate a matter that has never been discussed 
before in this country, insofar as we are aware, but that has been 
mentioned briefly by a British writer, Mr. Colm Brogan, in an article 
which he entitled, "Beware the Ex-Communist. " Every Communist 
Party in the world, with the exception of the party in the Soviet Union 
and those which lie behind the Iron Curtain, has an enormous member- 
ship turnover every year. Those members who climb to positions of 
authority or who are recruited for espionage purposes are not suffered 
to leave without a terrific struggle. But the rank and file members 
are continually coming in and out of the party organization. They 



12 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

do not, however, appear before any governmental body, confess the 
error of their ways, explain the matters that led up to their disillusion- 
ment and disaffection, and give their country or their state the benefit 
of their knowledge concerning a conspiratorial and subversive effort 
to gnaw away at the foundations of those governments. On the con- 
trary, the ex-Communist usually leaves the party because he is mad at 
some superior functionary, because he is unhappy at an assignment 
that is distasteful to him, or because he disagrees with the current 
Communist Party line. After 18 years experience in this work, your 
committee is absolutely convinced that the overwhelming majority of 
rank and file Communists who leave the party are prompted to do so 
because in their opinion it is not strong enough and is not taking 
enough emphatic action in its unceasing efforts to subvert and destroy 
the State and nation. These ex-members are still Marxists, they are still 
Communists, and they have a peculiar choice of freedom as they are 
no longer bound by the inexorable ties of party discipline and the cur- 
rent Communist Party line. 

On several occasions the committee has subpoenaed these former 
members only to find that they are more defiant than ever, more 
determined to show their old comrades that they are steeled fighters 
in the world class struggle ; and we have even convicted them and sent 
them to jail, where they proudly served a term of 30 or 60 days and 
emerged more dedicated and more fanatic than before — proudly wear- 
ing the martyr's badge as a symbol of their Marxian determination 
and zeal. 

During every normal year the American Communist Party has lost 
approximately 25 percent of its total membership for one reason or 
another. Most of the turnover is due to disaffection on the part of rank 
and file members as already stated, but there is also swift disciplinary 
action for the untrustworthy, the recalcitrant, the dissident, the trouble- 
maker — those who stray from the path of rectitude and fail to toe the 
mark demanded by rigid party discipline. By this we can easily see 
what an enormous reservoir of former Communists has been created 
since the founding of the party in 1919, and we then realize that the 
Communist Party has a poisonous fallout of its own which is constantly 
increasing and which poses a far more deadly threat to our American 
way of life than the fallout that is emitted by the nuclear experiments 
which the Communist Party is so determined shall be stopped. 

The Soft Hook 

The Communist Party shifted its activities into high gear approxi- 
mately 35 years ago and it should now be quite plain that a great many 
individuals who commenced as rank and file party members have since 
achieved such positions of strategic importance and prominence, both 
to themselves and to the Communist cause, that they resigned from the 
party to protect themselves in their exalted positions and to further 
the cause of world Communism by posing as sincere liberals. It is 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 13 

ironically true that a great many of these former Communists became 
honestly disillusioned with the party and sought to sever the last vestige 
of connection with it. They were suffered to do this by the Communist 
functionaries until the time came when their services were necessary 
for the cause. At that time it was quite a simple matter to remind these 
unfortunate hostages that the party still retained indisputable evidence 
of their former membership, and now that the individual was happily 
married, had several children, was secure in a remunerative and influ- 
ential position, he could easily be destroyed if his former affiliation was 
disclosed. The usual technique is referred to by the Communist Party 
as getting the victim on "the soft hook." He would be asked to perform 
some trivial service for the party, such as permitting a party secretary 
to be employed in his office so that she could take his telephone calls, 
open his mail, arrange his appointments, monitor his speaking engage- 
ments, and channel her fund of strategic information into the right 
places. Once this had been done, the hook sank deeper and deeper. 
Finally, he would become so hopelessly enmeshed in party activities 
against his will that a complete break appeared to him utterly impossi- 
ble without sacrificing his career, his position, his friends, and even 
risking the alienation of his family. 

We have referred to this technique time and again in previous re- 
ports, and those who believe the Communist Party incapable of such 
unethical and immoral conduct are incredibly naive. Let us analyze a 
hypothetical case, but one which is predicated solidly on documentary 
evidence in the committee's files. Universities have been and always 
will be a principal target for Communist colonization and infiltration 
because they deal with impressionable young students studying to be 
lawyers, doctors, engineers, nurses, social workers, teachers, and to 
occupy other positions of leadership and prestige. Let us, therefore, use 
a mythical university as the scene for our hypothetical case. 

Suppose we take the case of a student who is preparing himself to 
be a teacher of, say, economics. Naturally brilliant and hard working, 
this young man soon made an enviable reputation as a scholar. He 
graduated with honors in the midst of a severe depression but found 
work with one of the many agencies of the Federal Government, the 
National Economic Commission on Migratory Workers. Here he was 
surrounded by Communists, and soon discovered that unless he went 
along with the party program he would be out of a job. Every 
morning copies of the Daily Worker, the People's World and the 
propaganda pamphlets of the State, County and Municipal Workers 
of America and the United Federal Workers of America were scattered 
around the office, and the anti-Communists were ruthlessly eliminated 
regardless of their abilities, while those who remained neutral and 
passive were relegated to the more unimportant positions with no 
prospects of advancement. It eventually became evident that even the 
head of the agency in Washington was a Communist Party member, 
or at least an ardent fellow-traveler, so brazen were the activities of 
his employees. 



14 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Working in intimate association with party members, in an atmos- 
phere where Communism somehow appeared to be fashionable, and 
where only Communists were rapidly advanced and accepted by the 
leadership, our young student was easily pursuaded to become a party 
member. He joined, not so much because of his ideological convictions 
but more as an expedient to hold his job under adverse circumstances 
and to further himself as much as possible. Thereafter he worked for 
one federal agency after another, his promotions came easily, and 
his circle of close association with leading Communists became ever 
wider. With a few he even formed genuine friendships, but after the 
war was over and the depression ended he lost interest in party affairs 
and went back to the university as a graduate student. He took his 
doctorate, secured a faculty position and settled down to achieve promi- 
nence in his field. Success came rapidly and he married, began to raise 
a family, took an active interest in university politics and the same 
qualities that had served him so well as an undergraduate, and as a 
federal employee, and as a professor, now made him an influential 
member of the academic world. He was a member of powerful commit- 
tees through which new faculty members were being selected, and 
through which the university affairs were conducted. 

It was at this point that one of his old comrades came to see him 
and asked him to do a little service for the party, first congratulating 
him on his fine family and his success at the university. There were no 
threats, no promises ; none were necessary. Here was a chance to make 
a clean break but there would be an enormous price to pay. There were 
his wife and children, his colleagues, his job ; everything he had worked 
for placed in sudden jeopardy. And it was really such a little favor, 
after all — merely to use a certain secretary who was already a capable 
university employee. She needed a better job, so his old friend said, and 
the party wanted to do something for her. In the end she got the job, 
and the barb of the soft hook was sunk fast. The new secretary began 
suggesting the names of applicants for faculty positions that would be 
acceptable to the party and insisted that others be rejected. Every 
evidence of resistance on the part of her employer met with hints of 
disclosure of his past. 

As the years went by more secretaries were placed ; faculty members 
in favor with the party were appointed to the most important com- 
mittees, and were somehow enabled to rise rapidly in their several 
departments. The university had been awarded several vital and highly 
secret research projects for the Federal Government, and these in par- 
ticular seemed peculiarly attractive to several of the relatively new 
members of the faculty and to some clerical workers who had been 
recommended by the party through its campus contacts. No amount 
of security screening could possibly prove them to be anything but 
extremely progressive as they had no documentable records of subver- 
sive affiliation or activity. That, of course, is why they were so carefully 
selected and why they were so useful. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 15 

Eventually our mythical university came to be run by its academic 
committees instead of by its board of trustees. Most of the trustees in 
institutions of this type are appointed because of their wealth and 
prestige and are never expected to actually supervise the running of 
the university anyway. Therefore it was quite simple for this vacuum 
to be filled by the faculty, and for it to take over and operate the 
institution by a complicated system of committees. Inevitably, the com- 
mittees that exercised the most authority were composed of the most 
radically "liberal" professors, "manic-progressives," as Mr. David 
Boroff calls them. Thus was created a tightly-controlled clique of elite 
professors whose influence was far greater than one might expect. And 
how were they manipulated into these positions, and by whom were 
they controlled ? Why, by a tiny, hard core of Communist functionaries 
who made a tool of a former party member by patiently waiting and 
watching until he reached a position of importance and had a family, 
and then they used the "soft hook" technique to blackmail him into 
total obedience. 

And this, in brief, is how a few amoral Communist professionals can 
control a university, a labor union, and many other large and predomi- 
nately non-Communist organizations. Does this seem a bit too lurid and 
sensational? Too farfetched? Too melodramatic? We can only repeat 
that while wholly hypothetical, it is based on solid evidence in the com- 
mittee 's possession. The Alberts case, the Laura Law case, the Hudson 
case, and the Abrams case seemed far more incredible until they were 
proven to be Communist murders ; three of them in California. 

Bearing in mind that in 1937 there were at least 3,000 Communists 
in Los Angeles County, that New York has always had a larger mem- 
bership than California, and that the alltime high for the United 
States was some 100,000 party members, we may quite safely put 
the average number of persons subject to party discipline at 20,000 
per year. And if there has been a membership turnover of approxi- 
mately 25 percent, this would mean a 35-year reservoir constantly 
being supplied with ex-Communists. 

Experience has demonstrated beyond all doubt that an extremely 
small percentage of these former Communists really sever their alle- 
giance to the cause. As Mr. Brogan, British journalist, puts it: 

"When a man submits to some years of discipline and indoctri- 
nation, Communism does something to him, and it cannot be un- 
done unless the man himself makes a painful and total reappraisal, 
not only of his political beliefs, but also of his whole approach to 
life. The men who leave the Party over a personal quarrel, a dis- 
pute over some particular issue, or for reasons of their own per- 
sonal convenience, are quite unlikely to make this reappraisal. Yet 
these are the great majority of those who do leave. Ideologically, 
they are still more or less on call. ' ' * 

1 "Beware the Ex-Communist," by Colm Brogan. American Opinion, Nov., 1958, Vol. 
1, No. 9, page 10. 



16 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

We have seen how the Communist Party of the United States during 
its 35 years of activity has left a poisonous fallout of former members, 
virtually none of whom have completely broken away from their old 
ideological ties and their dreams of a world Communist government. 
In addition, there is also a group of highly dedicated and specially 
trained individuals who comprise what is known in party parlance as 
the "sleeper apparatus." These individuals make regular payments of 
Communist Party dues in the normal manner, have never been per- 
mitted to attend party meetings, are instructed to pose an anti- 
Communist conservatives, and to insinuate themselves into the most 
strategic possible positions and lie dormant until such time as they are 
able to exert their influence for the party's benefit in a time of critical 
need. It is not appropriate at this place to mention the names and 
positions occupied by some of these people, but such a list will be given 
and supported by documentary evidence at a subsequent place in this 
report. There has always been a fairly large underground apparatus 
of the Communist Party — leaving on the surface for public view a 
propaganda machinery such as newspapers and magazines, the media 
through which these are disseminated such as the bookstores in San 
Francisco and Los Angeles, the Communist Party recruiting centers 
and educational institutions, such as the California Labor School in 
San Francisco and Los Angeles, and a smattering of Communist fronts 
that are used to attract the unwary non-Communist liberals and imbue 
them with the necessity for supporting the Communist Party line and 
possibly to recruit some of them as party members. 

During the period that we are now discussing, the period of open 
Communist activity, the underground was relatively small and that 
portion of the party functioning above ground relatively large. As we 
shall see later, in 1955 and 1956 the entire Communist Party apparatus 
was submerged except for a tiny fragment that was left to operate the 
newspapers and the monthly ideologically magazine published by the 
National Committee of the Communist Party of the United States. 

INFILTRATION OF STATE GOVERNMENT 

The Communist Party of California has made two efforts to infiltrate 
the political structure of the State and exercise a profound influence 
on its government. The first of these efforts occured during 1938 and 
was carried through the election of 1940 ; the second effort occured in 
1948 and was carried through the elections of 1950. Whether or not 
the party made a similar effort in 1958 remains to be seen. There is 
considerable pursuasive evidence to the effect that such an effort has 
already been made and will be intensified during 1959. 

By the mid-thirties the Communist Party all over the United States 
was beginning to feel its strength. This was largely because its activity 
was not impeded to any appreciable degree, and no adequate intelli- 
gence work had been done for the purpose of collecting reliable infor- 
mation concering the identities of the leaders, the nature of the physical 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 17 

organization of the party, an analysis of its techniques and familiarity 
with its ideological background and its propaganda. Consequently, with 
the meeting of the Seventh "World Congress of the Communist Inter- 
national in Moscow in 1935, and the institution of the so-called "United 
Front" tactic, each of the foreign Communist parties was ordered 
to discontinue its practice of functioning alone and independently and 
to adopt a program of subtly boring into all mass organizations for 
the purpose of switching them into conformity with current party line. 
In December, 1936, the Communist Party of California ordered its 
Political Commission to create a People's Legislative Conference, 
through which the trade unions, churches, peace groups, farmers organi- 
zations and the EPIC movement could be consolidated. There were 17 
Communists appointed to this commission and they immediately opened 
offices in San Francisco and Los Angeles. They observed the new 
ground rules by manipulating several well-known non-Communist pro- 
gressives into the new front organization as officers, and over their 
signatures a call was issued for a meeting to be held in Sacramento on 
January 16, 1937. More than 200 organizations were represented and 
the People's Legislative Conference was under way. The Communists 
carefully placed their own members in obscure but powerful jobs to 
keep activity under control, this responsibility being entrusted to five 
highly trained persons. 

During the 1937 session of the Legislature 90 bills, all drafted by 
the Professional Section of the Communist Party in San Francisco, 
were presented by a group of Assemblymen who were organized by 
their Communist contact for this very purpose. The inauguration of 
this Legislative Conference was only the preliminary step. The party 
had perfected a much more elaborate and far-reaching plan. It wanted 
to inaugurate a California Labor's Nonpartisan League; to send mem- 
bers into the Democratic and Republican Parties; to replace conserva- 
tive and middle-of-the-road Legislators with more liberal candidates 
and thus to write the laws, elect the executives — in short, to capture 
political control of the State. The plan almost succeeded, as we shall 
see. 

On April 19, 1937, under the auspices of the San Francisco Central 
Labor Council, a mass meeting was held. Non-Communist labor leaders 
advocated formation of a nonpartisan league but the project got out 
of control and soon collapsed. But Communists do not give up so 
easily, and it was decided to have the People's Legislative Conference 
declared an affiliate of the league. Preparations were accordingly made, 
a meeting of 300 delegates convened at Santa Maria on June 20, 1937, 
and it was announced that henceforth the People's Legislative Con- 
ference would be known as Labor's Nonpartisan League in California. 
New officers were elected and while only one was a Communist, he was 
the secretary-treasurer and wielded enormous influence. In order to 
insure that there would be no possibility in losing control, however, a 



18 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

majority of the members of the State Executive Committee were under 
complete control of the Communist Party apparatus. 

The drive to infiltrate and control the Democratic Party, in par- 
ticular, was to be accomplished through a specially organized spearhead 
of seven members of the Legislature and two co-ordinators. By Septem- 
ber, 1937, the new machinery was working smoothly and thus in less 
than a year the Communist Party of California had employed a group 
of politically ambitious liberals as tools in erecting a powerful political 
machine completely under Communist control. An organizing conven- 
tion was held in San Francisco on December 11, and 12, 1937, and the 
first part of the operation was completed. The second phase consisted 
in the capture of the Democratic Party, if possible, and the planting 
of a powerful Communist nucleus in the Republican Party. 

Labor's Nonpartisan League effectively consolidated the labor vote; 
it now remained to bring together the non-labor liberals and progres- 
sives. Accordingly, a second organization was formed, the California 
Committee of One Hundred for Political Unity. It eventually became 
the California Committee for Political Unity, directed by a Communist 
fraction of 14 people, each an experienced, tough, reliable party 
member. 

Much of the foregoing information is taken from reports of infor- 
mants who actually operated at high levels and in positions of authority 
in the organizations heretofore mentioned ; their evidence has been care- 
fully checked and corroborated, and in addition, the committee has 
taken considerable information from a book by Robert E. Burke, 
Olson's New Deal for California, University of California Press, 
Berkeley, California, 1953, as well as the testimony of the Secretary of 
the Communist Party of Los Angeles County, Jack Moore, and various 
Communist Party publications. The committee also referred to The Pol- 
itics of California, by David Farrelly and Ivan Hinderaker, Ronald 
Press Company, New York, 1951, and various documents and records of 
the United Organizations for Progressive Political Action, Labor's 
Nonpartisan League, Statewide Legislative Conference, and other 
organizations. 

One of the informant's reports concluded, "It is clear that in 1937 
and 1938, the Communist Party in California transformed its tradi- 
tional methods and forms of political work in accord with its United 
Front tactics. Statements made by "William Z. Foster and Earl Browder 
indicate that the Communist Party intends to further develop its 
political activities so that it may play a decisive role in the 1940 
elections." 

Political Fronts 

And this informant could not have predicted more accurately. Los 
Angeles County, with its enormous voting population, had been care- 
fully cultivated. As a matter of fact, the Communists had, in 1935, 
created the United Organizations for Progressive Political Action with 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 19 

35 constituent members. Meetings were held weekly in cafes and restau- 
rants in the city, and by 1936 more than 70 organizations had been 
drawn into the UOPPA — all very progressive. Its organ, the United 
Progressive News, was published from 416 Bank of America Building, 
Second and Spring Streets, Los Angeles, by a staff of seven — all Com- 
munist Party members. United Organizations for Progressive Political 
Action tested its strength in organizing the campaign to recall Governor 
Merriam. This provided an excuse for obtaining the names and ad- 
dresses of people who were sufficiently opposed to conservative politics 
and to the alleged reactionary policies of the Governor to sign recall 
petitions. This is an old Communist trick and was employed with aston- 
ishing success in 1932 and 1934 when petitions were circulated for the 
ostensible purpose of winning the Communist Party a place on the 
primary ballot in Los Angeles, and again by the Independent Pro- 
gressive Party in 1948 to qualify that organization to participate in the 
statewide election. The real purpose of this device, however, consisted 
of obtaining thousands of names of liberal and progressive individuals 
from which to recruit new members for the party, or at least to enlist 
as many of them as possible as ardent fellow travelers and supporters 
of the Communist Party line. By June 23, 1936, UOPPA had endorsed 
a slate of 7 candidates for Congress, 19 for the State Assembly and 11 
for the Judiciary. 

The Communist Party Political Commission usually held its meetings 
at 3989 Denker Avenue in Los Angeles, and later met in various houses 
and downtown restaurants. A former member of the commission told 
our committee under oath: 

"That our commission discussed ways and means of influencing 
various prominent persons in the Democratic Party — I recall in 
particular (name omitted) — and frankly discussed the past record, 
weaknesses and stupidities of such persons with a view toward 
controlling them; one of the tactics most frequently planned as a 
method of controlling a political figure was to invite him to a 
Communist Party fraction meeting, planning on revealing to him 
after he had been lured into the meeting, that he was sitting in 
an 'open' fraction meeting, and giving him to understand that 
this fact would be used against him unless he did the bidding of 
the Communist Party; 

"At that time I realized that few Americans who had been 
reared to believe the best in their fellow man could withstand such 
Machiavellian cynicism in politics, and realized full well that such 
scheming, unprincipled political manipulators would be very 
successful in politics; at that moment I realized the true meaning 
of Georgi Dimitrov's 'popular front' speech; he meant that the 
Communists could accomplish more by devious indirection than 
they would by standing on a soap box and shouting revolution, as 
they had in the past; but by that time I also realized that there 
was no hope of finding honesty or frankness within the Communist 



20 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Party ; heretofore I had put down much of the things with which 
I was dissatisfied to ' lack of development ' and to the ' wrong inter- 
pretation of the Communist Party line;' now I knew that the 
higher one went, the worse the corruption; 

"That the fates of many political figures were decided at meet- 
ings of the aforesaid commission, in view of the fact that the Young 
Democrats, the CIO, a large bloc of the motion picture colony, as 
well as the Democratic Party itself, could be manipulated by these 
Communist schemers; our Commission had the facilities to reach 
everyone of the supposed 3,000 Communist Party members in Los 
Angeles County with the directives — 'musts' — and these individu- 
als, in turn, because each one of them was as active or more so 
than myself, influential in several organizations, could multiply 
his influence by several hundreds; thus our Los Angeles County 
Political Commission of the Communist Party was determining a 
large part of the policies of Los Angeles City and County and the 
State of California." 

In discussing the techniques that were employed to utilize non- 
Communists and the various Communist front organizations, the state- 
ment continued: 

' ' Individuals who were ' liberal ' merely because of their human- 
itarian impulses could be brought under the Communist Party 
political influence through such organizations as the United China 
Relief and the Friends of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade; the 
Jewish people could be influenced through their hatred of Nazis, 
through the Hollywood Anti-Nazi League; that Mexicans could be 
influenced through the Spanish Speaking People's Congress; that 
Negroes could be influenced through the National Negro Congress, 
and the Japanese- American voters through the publication Doho ; 
women, especially housewives, could be reached through the League 
of Women Shoppers ; and so on, to say nothing of the 21-year-old 
youths which the Communist Party tried to reach through its 
Youth Assemblies, which later became the California Youth Legis- 
lature, member of the national Communist-controlled American 
Youth Congress; I know from Communist literature and official 
Communist statements that all of the foregoing organizations were 
at that time controlled by the Communist Party ; 

"That we discussed some briefly, some at length, the role, in 
relation to Communist Party program, of the Los Angeles News- 
paper Guild, the National Lawyers Guild, the Screen Writers 
Guild, the Screen Actors Guild, the Screen Directors Guild, the 
Teacher's Union, the International Alliance of Theatrical and 
Stage Employees Progressive Conference * * * ; the CIO Council ; 
the Musicians ' Union ; the Culinary Workers Union, as well as the 
Workers Alliance and the new-born Communist co-ordinating body 
for WPA, the Arts Unions Council; 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 21 

"That those were our implements; our methods were described 
previously as basely cynical; the coating of idealism which was 
wrapped around the Communist Party plans when they were 
handed down to the more tender comrades with whom I had pre- 
viously associated was now left off ; without so much as a reference 
to the Communist 'enabling act,' that is, Lenin's statement that 
'the end justifies the means,' this commission plunged into the 
California political field to build a secret, camouflaged, efficient 
political machine ; 

"That we probably had less than a thousand active Communist 
cadres (the Communist Party term to indicate a human unit, 
which is a 'thing,' not a being, in Communist thought) in the 
entire Southern California area who were adept enough in par- 
liamentary tricks, smooth enough to camouflage the Communist 
Party line, daring enough to face and bluff out attacks, cynical 
enough to proceed on orders without idealistic justification, and 
who were tied, hand, brain and hide, to the Communist Party. 
We had to juggle them around, give each many roles to play, 
co-ordinate all work in order to make the Communist Party cam- 
ouflage machine sound like a million volts. It required more than 
training, or even long experience, and even the cleverest and the 
slipperiest of American type political maneuvering. We had 
access to, and drew from, the Communist Party's Asiatic form of 
intrigue ; the use of teamwork and a combination of brazen affront- 
ery and sly-psychological tricks * * * " 2 

Communist Political Techniques 

On February 6 and 7, 1937, a citywide conference was held in the 
Angelus Hotel, at Fourth and Spring Streets sponsored by a division 
of UOPPA, called the Youth Federation for United Political Action. 
Thirty-six sponsoring organizations sent delegates and 21 adult ad- 
visors ; four of the observers were mature members of the Young Com- 
munist League, although there was very little for them to do as the 
affair was completely under Communist control from its inception. 

Shortly before the Los Angeles City elections in the spring of 1937, 
a flood of propaganda gushed from the UOPPA office — postal ballots, 
sample polls, straw votes and lists of candidates endorsed by the or- 
ganization. By this time the party, its friends, its network of front 
groups, its press, and its legion of fellow travelers, had become most 
active. If the Political Commission was successful in the municipal 
campaign, the apparatus could readily be expanded and shifted into 
an even higher gear for the 1938 state elections. Already the ground- 
work had been prepared, the situation seemed made to order for Com- 
munist Party strategy and the time was ripe to follow the direction of 
the Communist International and apply the tactic of the United Front. 



a Affidavit of Rena Marie Vale, former member of the Communist Party Political 
Commission, November 23, 1942. 



22 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

The Communists had already managed to slip many of its members 
into the Republican administration of Governor Merriam, and concen- 
trated them in the State Relief Administration. This provided an ideal 
medium through which they were brought into close contact with ap- 
plicants for relief, and afforded an excellent opportunity for the in- 
doctrination and recruiting of a great mass of maladjusted and embit- 
tered people. Already the party had singled out Governor Merriam 
as a symbol of reaction, and clamored for his recall and defeat. 
Party propagandists mobilized to urge the election of a liberal admin- 
istration and hoped to send more of its members to help the newly- 
elected officials spread the new "progressive" way of life throughout 
the State. It is hardly necessary to point out, as indeed the Communists 
have frankly admitted, that both major political parties have always 
been subject to infiltration — the obvious strategy being to "help" with 
every major campaign in the hope of manipulating undercover Com- 
munists into positions of political influence or other strategic impor- 
tance to the party. 

By March, 1937, the activity that preceded the Los Angeles City 
election had reached such a pitch that UOPPA moved to larger quar- 
ters in the Spring Arcade Building at 541 South Spring Street, and 
augmented its staff considerably. Not all of its candidates were elected 
in the spring of 1937, but enough success was achieved to encourage 
the Communist Political Commission to give its approval for an ex- 
tended participation in an all-out effort in the state election of 1938. 

"While the United Organizations for Progressive Political Action was 
the pivot around which the Los Angeles municipal elections turned, 
so was Labor's Non-Partisan League the strategic center for the state 
election of 1938. At Santa Maria, on June 20, 1937, 300 delegates met 
to discuss the further activities of the People's Legislative Conference. 
Once again the Communist Party fraction which completely dominated 
the organization kept well in the background and arranged to have a 
large majority of non-Communists take the floor. The real purpose of 
the Santa Maria conference was to have the delegates pass a resolution 
authorizing the executive committee of the California People's Legis- 
lative Conference to "make formal application as soon as such applica- 
tion is possible on behalf of the conference for affiliation to Labor's 
Non-Partisan League." Already the Communist Party fraction had 
been in correspondence with the officers of the Labor's Non-Partisan 
League and it was agreed that the quickest way to firmly establish the 
league in California was to have it absorb the People 's Legislative Con- 
ference. The party fraction also had in mind that if this plan was 
successfully accomplished, the Communist Party would continue to 
dominate the organization regardless of its name. In further prepara- 
tion for party control when the conference would become Labor's Non- 
Partisan League, new officers were elected as was a new State Executive 
Committee of 28 persons. With one exception, all of the officers were 
non-Communists. The party felt, however, that the nominees would 
continue their co-operation, but as an additional precaution a large 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 23 

majority of the State Executive Committee were Communist Party 
members. 

The minutes and report of Labor's Non-Partisan League, on the 
occasion of its California state convention, held in San Francisco, on 
December 11 and 12, 1937, indicate how completely the Communist 
Party controlled every activity of the organization. The credentials 
committee of six included five members of the Communist Party, and 
after a motion had been adopted that only delegates from the A. F. 
of L., the C. I. 0., the Railway Brotherhoods and other branches of 
Labor's Non-Partisan League could be seated at the convention, on a 
subsequent recommendation of the credentials committee and the ap- 
proval of the convention, the delegates from the Workers Alliance and 
the National Negro Congress were also seated. Both of these organiza- 
tions were dominated by the Communist Party. The organization report 
on the structure of Labor's Non-Partisan League was given by its state 
secretary, Herbert Resner, a party member. Wyndham Mortimer, 
International Vice-President of the United Automobile Workers of 
America, and a member of the Central Committee of the Communist 
Party, and Louis Goldblatt, assistant C. I. 0. Regional Director, and 
also a Communist, were given the floor and in detail outlined a policy 
regarding Labor's Non-Partisan League which, needless to say, fully 
represented the Communist Party position. Thus, for the first time in 
California, the Communist Party, through its control of this and other 
organizations, was in a position to exercise a predominant voice in a 
general state election, and it became equally clear that in 1937 and 
1938 the party in California transformed its traditional methods in 
the form of political work in strict accordance with the new tactic of 
the United Front promulgated by the Secretary of the Communist 
International at the Seventh World Congress of that body held in the 
Soviet Union. Statements made by William Z. Foster and Earl Browder 
indicated that the Communist Party intended to further develop its 
political activities so that it could play a decisive role in the political 
affairs of the State. 

The Communist Party achieved a greater success in the state election 
of 1938 than it did in the Los Angeles municipal election in the pre- 
ceding year. It had endorsed the successful candidates for Governor, 
Lieutenant Governor and several members of both houses of the 
Legislature. Even before the election, arrangements had been made 
for the placement of Communists and fellow travelers in positions con- 
trolled by political patronage, and while jobs were parceled out to 
carefully selected people so that the liberals and progressives supported 
by the party would replace conservatives, anti-Communists and neu- 
trals in the key positions of government, there were far from enough 
positions to go around. It was only natural that the most important 
positions be filled with relatively conservative men who figured most 
prominently in the open conduct of the campaign, but the Communists 
were not interested in these posts; they concentrated on office staffs, 
executive secretaries and, most vital of all, those departments of 



24 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

government through which they could contact masses of people: the 
Departments of Labor, Agriculture, Public Works, Social Welfare and 
Relief. 

William Z. Foster, the head of the Communist Party of the United 
States, was quite aware of this patronage problem and he wrote in the 
ideological publication of the National Committee of the Communist 
Party, in 1939 : 

"The distribution of appointive jobs — municipal, county, state 
and federal — has always been a central foundation of the old 
Party's mass mobilization system. Whole groups of voters are 
clustered about each political job. Big machines are built on this 
basis, and the two parties are constantly torn with struggles over 
rich prizes. 

"To overcome this evil, patronage practice will be a big but 
necessary task in Democratic front political foundations. Ap- 
pointive political jobs will continue for an indefinite time yet, 
and the way to handle their distribution is for the Democratic 
front party to take firm responsibility, and not the leave them to 
the control of political overlords. ' ' 3 

And, speaking of the role to be played by the Communist Party dur- 
ing this period of its open activity, Foster concluded: 

"* * * the whole matter of improving the system of political 
mass organizations should be carefully studied and its lessons 
applied diligently and with dispatch. In this task the Communist 
Party, with its Marxian training, militant spirit and wide mass 
following, bears a great responsibility. ' ' 4 

Another prominent official of the Communist Party, Paul Cline, the 
Los Angeles County Chairman, had also written some material for The 
Communist in the edition for November, 1938, in which he corroborated 
to a large extent the statements made under oath by Kena Vale, the 
former member of the Political Commission. He said : 

"Within the brief space of two months the federation was able 
to secure the affiliation of over 400 organizations and groups with 
an aggregate membership of nearly 300,000 people. Participating 
* * * were the biggest Methodist churches in the city, Labor's 
Non-Partisan League, the Federation for Political Unity, the Mo- 
tion Picture Democratic Committee, scores of A. F. of L. and 
C. I. O. unions, large numbers of women's groups, Negro groups, 
and youth organizations. In composition, the federation [Federa- 
tion for Political Unity], represented a true cross section of the 
people of Los Angeles. Most significant was the fact that the high- 
standing Methodist church leaders and conservative businessmen 

s The Communist, February, 1939, page 138. 

* "New Methods of Organization," The Communist, op. cit., p. 146. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 25 

* * * were ready and able to find a common ground of action with 
representatives of left-wing groups like the I. L. D. [International 
Labor Defense] and the I. W. 0. [International Workers Order] . 

"The Communist Party, as a vital element in the great Demo- 
cratic front movement that is rapidly surging forward in Cali- 
fornia, will continue unreservedly to devote itself to this end. ' ' 5 

William Schneiderman, during the campaigns in 1937 and 1938, and 
for a number of years both before and after these events, was the head 
of the Communist Party for the State of California. Writing with con- 
siderable authority, he also corroborated the statements made by Miss 
Vale when he wrote: 

" * * * the organization of the Democratic front for victory in 
the elections is not an easy and simple task, due to the extremely 
complicated political situation and the many factors which will 
stand in the way of the unification of the Democratic forces. We 
Communists are keenly aware of the responsibilities we bear to 
bring about this unity. We have become an important factor and 
a recognized force in the labor and progressive movement, the 
progressive forces are beginning to appreciate and understand 
the role we are playing in the building of the Democratic front." 

And writing about the 1938 campaign, he said: 

"* * * Today this movement is gathering around its support 
for Senator Olson, the leading progressive for the Democratic 
nomination for Governor in the August primary. * * * The 
Non-Partisan League has conducted an energetic campaign for 
political unity of labor." 6 

After the primaries Schneiderman said: 

"The Communist Party in California is participating in the 
election campaign with the aim of contributing its part for the 
unification of all democratic forces for the defeat of reaction. 

* * * The Party is becoming a recognized force for unity in the 
labor and progressive movement, and as such is receiving even 
greater support of progressive-minded people who appreciate the 
role of Communists in helping to build the Democratic front. We 
are conscious of our task; that out of this election struggle must 
come, not only a progressive victory, but a stronger, mass Com- 
munist Party capable of fulfilling still greater responsibilities in 
the struggles to come." (Committee's italics.) 7 



B The Communist, November, 1938, pp. 1021-1027. 
8 The Communist, July, 1938, pp. 663, 664. 

7 The Election Struggle in California," by William Schneiderman. The Communist, 
October, 1938, pages 919 and 926. 



26 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Governor Olson was not a Communist, but he was a sincere and 
dedicated liberal in the true sense of the term. Shortly after he had 
assumed office he declared: 

"We are determined to oppose equally the despotism of Com- 
munism and the menace of Fascism. 8 

Being naive in matters subversive, it was therefore relatively 
simple to surround Governor Olson and a great many of his more 
important assistants with Communist Party secretaries and clerical 
workers. For example, shortly after the new Governor assumed his 
duties letters began to come out of his office over the signature of a 
woman who had formerly served on the Political Commission of the 
Communist Party of Los Angeles County, and who was now a trusted 
clerical worker in the Governor's Office. 9 

We now know something of the political techniques used by the 
Communists in California in two extremely important elections, one 
municipal the other statewide, and when the new administration took 
over its Governor was surrounded by party members. The State Relief 
Administration was heavily infiltrated during the Merriam regime; 
now it was saturated. John Jeffery, a Communist, headed a union 
known as the State, County and Municipal Workers of America, so 
utterly dominated by the party that it was more an integral part of 
the organization than one of its fronts. All Communists employed by 
the state were members of the SCMWA which rapidly grew into a 
powerful and arrogant pressure group. All of the key relief adminis- 
trators were Communists; so were most of the case workers and other 
office employees. This afforded them contact with thousands of relief 
applicants who were herded into another union, the Workers Alliance, 
headed by Communist Alexander Noral. Here again the Communists 
exhibited their unfailing determination to undermine all outsiders and 
to help one another. Not only did they promote themselves, but so 
long as the relief recipients stayed in the Workers Alliance, dutifully 
attended its meetings and paid rapt attention to the speakers imported 
by the party, there was no trouble with their relief status. Their griev- 
ances were promptly taken up by Workers Alliance committees that 
conferred with their comrades in the SCMWA, and always to the satis- 
faction of the complainant. This, of course, was not too difficult because 
the Communist Party was operating both unions. 

As their numbers grew, as they placed their members in more and 
more key positions, these young Communists became more brash. At 
first they were merely impertinent; now they were overbearing. Some 
members of the Workers Alliance got more than enough of being regi- 
mented into this union and made to listen while Communist organizers 
harangued them, under penalty of being deprived of the common 
necessities of life. In rural communities throughout the state, citizens 
resented this sudden invasion by groups of radical state relief admin- 
istrators and began to take a hard look at this social phenomenon 

* Olson's New Deal for California, op. cit., p. 24. 

9 1943 report, Un-American Activities in California, affidavit of Rena M. Vale, p. 157. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 27 

masquerading under the guise of "liberalism." They found Commu- 
nist papers and Communist propaganda freely and abundantly dis- 
tributed in the relief offices, and immediately complained to their rep- 
resentatives in Sacramento. So indignant were the citizens, and so 
insistent were the demands that this ridiculous mess be cleared up, 
that an Assembly committee was appointed for that purpose. It inves- 
tigated the situation in the State Relief Administration, reported that 
it was being operated by Communists, exposed the real nature of the 
Workers Alliance and the SCMWA, and handed its written report to 
the Assembly at the 1941 general session of the Legislature. Armed 
with the reliable facts concerning the situation, the Legislature acted. 
Communists were fired from the State Relief Administration, and the 
situation was alleviated. But the undercover party members still clung 
to the administration like barnacles, as stenographers, as secretaries, 
as office workers, and a very few in extremely important and sensitive 
positions. Particularly in the Departments of Labor, Employment, So- 
cial "Welfare and similar agencies that were of strategic importance 
to the party, a concentration of Communists was found. For example, 
Dorothy Healey was employed by the Department of Labor in an 
important position that brought her into constant contact with masses 
of potential recruits to Communism. She is now the Chairman of the 
Communist Party of Los Angeles County ; and there were others whose 
names have been mentioned through many of the reports previously 
issued by this committee. 

Independent Progressive Party 

Almost simultaneously with the beginning of American Communism, 
that young and lusty movement sought to infiltrate and take over the 
National Farmer-Labor Party. In 1922, there was a Conference for 
Progressive Political Action (the term which was to be borrowed by 
the Communist Party in Los Angeles some 14 years later) at Cleveland 
and from it the Farmer-Labor Party drew renewed vigor — enough 
to once more attract Communist attention. Accordingly, the Commu- 
nists sent representatives to the Farmer-Labor Chicago convention in 
1923, packing the hall with delegates from more than a dozen of its 
fronts all posing as separate and independent organizations. Having 
thus resorted to the device of packing the convention, the Communist 
minority easily seized control of a far larger non-Communist political 
party. An observer, Robert Morss Lovett, declared that as invited 
guests the Communists "came into the house and carried off the ice 
cream. ' ' 10 

Having obtained control, the Communists sought to swell the ranks 
of the Farmer-Labor Party by widespread appeals for additional mem- 
bers. But, instead of attracting workers, the Communists repelled them. 

10 The Techniques of Communism, by Louis F. Budenz, Henry Regnery Co., Chicago, 
1954. See also, American Communism, a Critical Analysis of Its Origins, Develop- 
ment and Programs, by James O'neal and G. A. Werner. E. P. Dutton & Co., 
Inc., 1947. 



28 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

The underhanded devices of the bold hypocrisy, the utter ruthlessness 
and the complete disregard for truth or ethics or the welfare of others 
were hardly characteristics that could attract non- Communist member- 
ship. Soon the ranks were depleted and only the Communists and those 
who were under party control remained. So the first attempt to 
operate through a third party failed. 

In 1947 a group of liberals decided to back Henry A. Wallace for 
President of the United States, and around this movement there de- 
veloped a third independent political party, the Independent Progres- 
sive Party. Immediately the Communists saw an opportunity once 
more to use this ultra progressive movement for their own ulterior 
motives. Relying on the approved techniques for Communists in such 
matters, and profiting by experience, delegates from a wide array of 
front organizations were sent to actively participate in conventions and 
meetings throughout the country, but particularly in New York and in 
California. 

When John L. Lewis started the C. I. 0. and ran short of organizers 
the Communists provided them in abundance, and before Mr. Lewis 
found out what was really going on he had been eased out of his own 
organization and the Communists were in control. So it had been with 
the Farmer-Labor Party in 1923 ; so it had been with the California 
elections in 1937 and 1938, and so it was with the Independent Progres- 
sive Party in 1947 and 1948. 

The Communist apparatus provided scores of eager and energetic 
precinct workers and propagandists. Their members staffed the offices 
of the I. P. P. all over the country. They provided the petition circu- 
lators, and the Communist press lambasted the other two major parties 
and sang the praises of the Independent Progressives throughout the 
campaign. 

On July 7, 1947, the Daily People's World, the California Commu- 
nist newspaper, announced that a Democrats for Wallace meeting would 
be held in Fresno on July 19th. In the issue for May 28, 1948, the 
Communist paper printed a list of Independent Progressive Party en- 
dorsements for Northern and Central California districts, accompany- 
ing the roster with the following statement: 

"Neither Henry Wallace nor presidential electors for him will 
appear on the ballot at the primary. He is to be nominated by a 
state convention of the Independent Progressive Party in August, 
for the ballot in the November general election." 

And in the issue for June 3, 1948, an editorial in the Communist 
paper declared : 

"The June 1, primary was the opening round of the critical 
election struggle of 1948. It was not yet, however, a decisive test of 
the relation of forces in California or the Nation. It could at best 
give only the first indications of the political strength of the pro- 
gressive forces and the Democratic coalition, expressed through 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 29 

candidates supported by the new Independent Progressive Party, 
barely two months old. 

The light vote was due primarily to absence of a contest in the 
presidential primary. Truman and Warren were unopposed in the 
Democratic and Kepublican primaries, and Henry Wallace was 
not entered on the primary ballot (his nomination to be made by 
a state convention in August). Thus, in a year when voters look 
upon the presidential race as all-decisive, the lack of a contest in 
the primaries resulted in a light vote." 

<<# t • t k e e i ec tions have projected the new Party as a major 
force on the political scene in California. It is necessary to note, 
however, a number of weaknesses exhibited by Progressive forces 
in the election, which if overcome in time could have resulted in 
a more impressive result : 

The split in the labor movement, caused by the A. F. L. leader- 
ship and right-wing leaders in the C. I. 0., prevented the labor 
movement from playing a decisive role in this election. The split 
in the C. I. 0. prevented the Political Action Committee from 
playing the major role it did in the past, although progressive 
C. I. 0. unions made an important contribution to the support of 
progressive pro-Wallace candidates. 

The pro- Wallace candidates who won the primaries did so on a 
basis of a broad coalition of labor and progressive forces in both 
the Democratic Party and the new Party. In the majority of cases, 
however, pro-Wallace candidates did not have such a broad coali- 
tion supporting them, and depended mainly on left-progressive 
forces in the campaign. 

The progressive trade unions did not mobilize full support 
behind progressive candidates, showed some vacillations as a result 
of right-wing pressure, and in some cases gave only half-hearted 
support to progressive candidates. 

Some pro-Wallace candidates, or their campaign committees, 
thought it 'smart politics' to tone down their identifications with 
the Wallace forces, and in some cases were very weak in present- 
ing the important issues in the fight for peace, labor's rights, and 
civil liberties. 

All these questions deserve a fuller and more detailed analysis 
later, when the results in full are studied. 

The main thing is that the new party movement has gotten 
off to a good start. The next step is to prepare for the presidential 
election struggle and to build a mass movement of support behind 
the Wallace platform and ticket, and elect the Progressive candi- 
dates for Congress and the Legislature that have come through 
the primaries." 

Some of the I. P. P. candidates for election to state and national 
positions were known party members, some were fellow-travelers, others 
were opportunists and a few were apparently too naive to realize that 



30 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

the Independent Progressive Party in California was nothing more nor 
less than a creature under Communist domination. The chairman of 
the Independent Progressive Party in California was Hugh Bryson, 
then President of the Marine Cooks and Stewards Union, which had 
been expelled from the C. I. 0. because it was found to be Communist 
dominated, and who was later convicted and sent to a federal peni- 
tentiary for having lied about his Communist affiliations and activities. 

Over and over again the committee has received indisputable evi- 
dence of the active Communist participation in the Independent Pro- 
gressive Party in this state; another example of how a small, dis- 
ciplined, highly trained and dedicated Communist minority can 
penetrate, manipulate and assume control of a much larger non-Com- 
munist body. Certainly the overwhelming majority of individuals 
throughout the country, and most assuredly in California, who voted 
for the Independent Progressive Party candidates, were themselves 
sincere liberals who were dissatisfied with the two major parties for one 
reason or another, and, as we have seen, a majority of those who par- 
ticipated in the Los Angeles municipal election of 1937 and the state- 
wide election of 1938, were not Communists but most decidedly were, 
consciously or unconsciously, following the Communist Party line and 
toiling in the Communist vineyard. An analysis of the techniques used 
by the party during these campaigns reveals much. It discloses a com- 
mon political denominator that runs through all of the party 's strategy 
in infiltrating and controlling operations of this type. It should be 
quite manifest that only by a familiarity with the successful techniques 
employed by the Communists in the past can we be adequately pre- 
pared to prevent them from succeeding in the future. 

Let us now turn to 1958 and 1959 and see, if we can, what lies ahead 
so far as Communist political activity is concerned. Obviously, the best 
source is the Communist Party itself, and we are fortunate in having 
available some of the reliable party statements issued within the last 
few months that cast considerable light on its future policies. 

Current Communist Political Activity in California 

We have previously pointed out that only the incredibly naive and 
misinformed can possibly believe that after the death of Stalin, the 
accession of Khrushchev and the era of underground activity, that the 
Communist Party has suddenly become insignificant and no longer 
poses any threat to our way of life. The following quotations from the 
monthly ideological publication of the National Committee of the Com- 
munist Party of the United States should remove all doubt, even in 
the minds of the most skeptical, concerning the party's future political 
plans. In May, 1958, party member Albert J. Lima, Chairman of the 
Northern District of the Communist Party of California, and a member 
of its national committee, wrote : 

"The strength of labor and the minority (Democratic) confer- 
ence, as well as the strong progressive trend among the club dele- 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 31 

gates, made itself felt in issues and candidates. The attempt of the 
machine to steamroller support for the team of Attorney General 
Brown for Governor and Congressman Clair Engle for U. S. Sena- 
tor, ran into stiff opposition. Brown had overwhelming support 
from all groupings, mainly because he was considered to be the 
most substantial candidate with a possibility of beating the Repub- 
licans. ' ' 

a* # # j n ano ther memo by Nemmy Sparks, the Southern Cali- 
fornia District dealt with the problem in the following manner : 

'Are the Republican and Democratic Parties twin parties of 
Capitalism? Of course they are. 

The state co-ordinating committee, representing both dis- 
tricts of the Party, considered the approach to individual 
candidates along the following lines : We stated that the main 
interest of labor and the people as a whole in this election lies 
in the struggle on issues; in the effort to develop a coalition 
among the forces of the people that will last and continue to 
grow after the election; and to defeat the major standard 
bearers of reaction. 

It was proposed that any independent candidacy should be 
considered in relation to the above point. An independent 
candidacy with a base among the general Left, it was felt, 
could exercise considerable influence on the issues in public 
debate and counteract the pressures upon candidates to water 
down issues and to make concessions to reactionary opponents. 
The alternative to the above could be a Party candidate whose 
campaign would be much more limited, but who could present 
the Party 's position on the issues of the election. Because of the 
ballot restrictions in California this might have to be in the 
form of a write-in candidate for the finals. 

The above policy tends to be caught between extreme view- 
points. On one hand some say only candidates should be sup- 
ported who can get the broadest kind of support. From this 
source, Left-independent candidates are strongly opposed un- 
less they have substantial labor and liberal support. In the 
present uncertain political atmosphere and lack of organiza- 
tional forms, candidates who could run independently and 
have support in labor and liberal circles are very reluctant 
to be candidates. The Left, therefore, tends to find itself con- 
fined to pressuring major party candidates on issues as the 
only form of electoral activity. ' 

<<# * * rp ne 1958 elections can result in a resounding rebuff to 
the Republicans and their plans for the 1960 election. It can also 
be the arena in which the Left begins to solve some of its prob- 
lems. ' ' n 



Political Affairs, May, 1958, pp. 29-39. 



32 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Kobert Thompson, national Communist functionary declared: 
<<* # # j n a num ber of important unions, and in some area 
union conferences, party forces as a part of a growing Left have 
been able to play a tangible and constructive part in the shaping 
of union programs and activities on the unemployment issues. 
Another such area has been Party activities in the fight against 
anti-labor, so-called ' right-to-work ' legislation, particularly in Cali- 
fornia and Ohio. 

* * * There are clear indications that both Labor and the 
Negro people's forces are participating more actively and more 
independently than has been true in recent years. 

Labor's participation in the California primary campaign was 
an outstanding example of this. 

* * * Our Party is becoming more active in all of these situa- 
tions. The presentation of a Party legislative program has been 
helpful in this. Of greatest importance is the fact its electoral 
policy is taking clear shape nationally and in various states. 

Three propositions form the broad framework within which 
this policy is developed. These were stated by Arnold Johnson in 
his article on the 1958 elections in the June Political Affairs: 

1 (a) To do everything possible to influence the elections in 
the interests of the people. 

(b) To promote even greater independence of labor and its 
allies and a broad people's coalition policy based on the workers, 
and the Negro people, farmers, and all other democratic forces. 

(c) To bring forward the Party and its program, strengthen 
its influence and build it in the course of the campaign.' " 12 

Albert J. Lima, in his capacity as Northern District Chairman of 
the Communist Party of California, had this to say about party par- 
ticipation in California politics in September, 1958 : 

"Of course the trade union leadership has always been part 
and parcel of politics, but eventually the needs and demands of 
the class transcend the tenuous political ties of the leadership with 
corrupt bourgeoise politics. 

Our Party had agitated during this entire period [1937-1950] 
for a farmer-labor party and many unions adopted resolutions in 
support of this demand. Nationally, Labor's Non-Partisan League 
conducted vigorous campaigns on issues and candidates. Certainly 
the stage was set for the U. S. labor movement to follow the path 
established by labor of the countries in Europe — the forming of 
their own political party. 

However, the outbreak of World War II, and the flexibility 
of the two-party system, plus some peculiar electoral methods 
which retard the development of third political parties in our 
Country, combined to head off this development. 



"On the Work and Consolidation of the Party," by Bob Thompson. Political Affairs, 
August, 1958. pp. 37-52. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 33 

The next period in which the possibility of breaking with the 
political control of the monopolists emerged was 1947-1948. Once 
again there were many factors present which indicated the pos- 
sibility of such a development. * * * The need was present, but 
the willingness and determination of decisive sections of the labor 
movement was not. The move toward a third party was premature 
and abortive and the two-party system was more secure than ever, 
because of the split in the labor movement and the expulsion of 
the progressive * unions from the C. I. 0. From that point the 
decisive influence of the C. I. 0. on the political and economical 
life of our Country began to wane. 

Thus, we have examined the question twice before at 10-year 
intervals and it is being posed again. (Committee's emphasis.) 

There is a definite trend which indicates the possibility of win- 
ning important sections of the labor movement to organize and 
act independently of the two major parties. For example, in Cali- 
fornia the labor movement is not relying on the Democratic and 
Republican Parties to guarantee the struggle against the right- 
to-work threat. It has plunged into independent political action 
in a major way and in a more aggressive manner than for many 
years. ' ' 

* * * for us, and for the entire Left, it is necessary to try to 
determine the potential and eventual outcome in order to map out 
strategy and tactics. 

In other countries, where labor has formed an independent 
political party welfare issues are adopted as national laws. In our 
Country, the labor movement has pressed for 'fringe benefits' 
which embody many elements adopted as national laws in other 
countries. This has been particularly true in recent years and has 
been a further expression of the U. S. workers attempt to take up 
the slack of the lack of a political party of its own. 

The International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union 
on the West Coast has been discussing this question and formally 
adopted a general program for an independent political grouping. 
Their role in the right-to-work fight in California has been a posi- 
tive contribution to the entire labor movement, while maintaining 
a sharp and critical attitude for the slowness of the top leadership 
of the A. F. of L. in California." 13 

It should be carefully noted that the line italicized for emphasis by 
the committee, "Thus, we have examined the question twice before at 
10-year intervals and it is being posed again," constitutes a complete 
verification of the fact that in 1938, when the Communist Party of 
California played a decisive role in our state election and in 1948 
when it endeavored to launch a party of its own, both movements 

• The CIO called them Communist-dominated. 

18 "On Labor and Political Action," by Albert J. Lima, Northern District Chairman 

of the Communist Party of Ca ifornla. Political Affairs, September, 1958. p. 58, 

et seq. 

2— L-4361 



34 UN-AMEEICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

originated and were dominated by the Communist Party of this state 
And not only does this verification come from an authority of unques 
tionable accuracy, but Mr. Lima also predicts that the time is now 
ripe, in 1958, for the California Communists to again engage in all-out 
political activity. Let us see why 1958 was selected as an appropriate 
time for this sort of action. 

In 1938 several mass organizations were used separately at first, and 
then welded together into a potent political machine. The separate 
organizations were the United Organizations for Progressive Political 
Action, Youth for Political Action, and the California People's Legis- 
lative Conference. The organization into which they were amalgamated 
was Labor's Non-Partisan League. 

In 1948, the impetus behind the Independent Progressive Party in 
California came largely from the Communist-dominated unions such 
as the United Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers, the International Long- 
shoremen's and Warehousemen's Union, and the Marine Cooks and 
Stewards Union, as well as such potent fronts as the Civil Rights 
Congress and the Arts, Sciences and Professions Council. In addition 
there was the customary camp -following group of assorted leftists rang- 
ing all the way from genuine fellow travelers to naive do-gooders. 

The Independent Progressive Party started with considerable furor 
but quickly lost its momentum. It had been suspect from the start. 
Hugh Bryson's record of Communist activity as president of the 
Marine Cooks and Stewards had already been made public by this 
committee. 14 When he was selected as statewide president of the newly- 
launched party, many of the California newspapers quoted from our 
report and there was very little excuse for anyone to plead a lack of 
knowledge concerning the subversive leadership of the IPP. Further- 
more the organization immediately adopted the current Communist 
Party line and devoted about as much time to jamming through party 
resolutions disseminating party propaganda as it did to purely political 
matters. Another serious error made by the IPP was the contest of 
its own candidates against such liberal Democrats as Helen Gahagan 
Douglas and Chester Holifield, both of whom refused to co-operate with 
the new political party and scrupulously ignored it throughout the 
campaign. This mistake was recognized by the party strategists in 
October of 1948, but it was then too late to remove the names from 
the ballots and the belated withdrawal of the IPP candidates from 
all positions where liberal Democrats were running on the Demo- 
crat ticket simply made matters worse by focusing attention on an 
already bad situation. 15 

Strategic Errors Rectified 

The major blunders committed by the Communist Party strategists 
in 1938 and 1948, are now quite evident. In the first campaign there 
was very little effort to conceal the fact that the Communist Party 

"See 1947 report, pp. 194, 151, 160, 163-166. 

M The Politics of California, by David Farrelly and Ivan Hinderaker. Ronald Press 
Co., N. Y., 1961, p. 100. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 35 

iras masterminding a great deal of the political maneuvers and after 
he campaign was over the impertinence of the young party members 
pho were staffing the State Relief Administration and some of the 
ilder and highly indoctrinated Communists who held other state posi- 
tions, became so offensive that the California voters were aroused and 
;wept the subversive elements out of state employment. In the second 
election the Independent Progressive Party permitted itself to be in- 
filtrated and captured by the Communists, led by a well-known Com- 
munist, and once again demonstrated the same weakness by using the 
novement as a vehicle of dissemination for Communist propaganda 
rather than operating it as a purely political organization. 

In the 1958 election there was no separate autonomous organization, 
t being clear that the Communists could not support Knowland, who 
)bviously stood little chance of winning from the outset; there was 
10 third party for them to use, and there was no amalgamation of 
'riendly organizations through which party strategy could be directed, 
rherefore, there was only one alternative and that was to throw party 
support to candidates who stood greatest chance of getting elected and 
striving to subtly infiltrate the new administration with undercover 
party members. 

Most important of all, however, was the profound change in the 
Communist Party line that occurred in 1956, that signaled the com- 
mencement of the second United Front period throughout the world, 
ind which served as a guide for the strategy of the Communists in 
:his state during the 1958 campaign. We mentioned this change in 
)ur last report, but not in any political connection. Let us now see 
what practical effect it has had upon our political situation. 

The Twentieth Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 
was held in Moscow during February, 1956. The open meeting was 
held early in that month, and a few days later a "secret" meeting 
was held and attended by hand-picked delegates who assembled to 
lear confidential remarks by Nikita Khrushchev. The secret was 
well kept until it burst like a bombshell from the American State 
Department into the pages of the American press. Even the Daily 
Worker of New York was obligated to carry the story, and since it 
purported to be a verbatim account of what transpired at this ' ' secret ' ' 
sonclave, and was later authenticated by the Kremlin, we can be 
quite certain of its accuracy. 

It was natural that the most sensational content of this second speech 
should be played up in the American newspapers, and this consisted 
3f the castigation of the late Joseph Stalin, a condemnation of his ruth- 
less practices, a repudiation of the purge trials that swept the Soviet 
Union in a blood bath from 1935 to 1939, downgrading of the Soviet 
Secret Police system, and assurances to the Russian people that they 
would henceforth have more freedom. The writers in the Soviet Union 
were assured that they would be able to express their thoughts 
without being censored or repressed by the Soviet hierarchy; Com- 
munist Parties abroad were told to pursue their separate ways to 



36 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

eventual attainment of the Communist utopia in their own manner, 
and in conformity with the environment in which they operated; citi 
zens were also invited to express their criticisms of the existing regime 
— all of these things being the ingredients of a newer and freer way 
of life for the Communist peoples of the world. 

The first book that appeared after this pronouncement was one by the 
Russian author, Dudintsev called "Not by Bread Alone." It rocked 
the Soviet Union from one end to the other, and immediately the 
censorship of the Stalin era was again clamped down hard. Then in 
Yugoslavia Milovan Djilas wrote a book called, "The New Class," and 
he was immediately clapped into prison for daring to criticize the 
Communist Party of Yugoslavia. And in China Mao-Tse Tung duti- 
fully followed the dictates of the Kremlin by announcing that in 
every field of flowers at least a hundred should rise and express their 
criticisms of the Chinese Communist regime. That regime was almost 
smothered beneath an avalanche of posies, which resulted in the blos- 
soms being neatly severed from their stems by the sweeping sickles of 
the Chinese Communist political police. Poland and Hungary took 
Khrushchev at his word and started on their separate ways toward the 
Communist goal by enthusiastically taking measures to get the Rus- 
sian agents out of their countries. We now know what happened; 
Anastas Mikoyan promising that everything would be settled by ne- 
gotiation, lulling the counter-revolutionists into a false sense of security 
by his solemn assurances, thus gaining time to marshal the tanks 
and other armor and Soviet troops for the purpose of slaughtering so 
many of the civilians that the revolution was wiped out in another 
bath of blood. 

But there was something else, an even more important content in 
the Khrushchev speech that has not received much attention in the 
press of our country, but which has exerted a profound effect on Com- 
munist strategy throughout the world, and particularly in the United 
States. We have seen the result in California in unmistakable terms, 
and it will assuredly determine the strategy of the party in endeavor- 
ing to move into our political situation during the next few years. 

Khrushchev also said that henceforth it would be proper and desir- 
able for foreign Communist Parties to make common cause with other 
mass liberal organizations. This meant the launching of the second 
United Front, and permitted the Communists to collaborate with the 
Socialists, the Trotzkyites, and a whole array of ultra-liberal organi- 
zations. No longer would they operate through the intricate apparatus 
of Communist front organizations, because this was no longer necessary. 
Front organizations were being exposed to public view for exactly 
what they were as fast as the party could create them. They were in- 
filtrated by government agents, their rosters of members and their 
mailing lists were obtained, their party line activities were analyzed, 
and they were so mercilessly brought under the glaring light of public 
scrutiny that they soon ran short of members. The only people they 
could recruit were people who already had long records of Communist 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 37 

collaboration, and they were so few in number that the front organi- 
zations began to wither away from lack of financial and popular 
support. The same thing, to a large degree, was true of the Communist- 
dominated unions. From 1948 through 1950, the A. F. of L. and the 
C. I. 0., particularly the latter, conducted sweeping investigations that 
resulted in the expulsion of a number of these old Communist saturated 
unions and they, too, were exposed to public view so thoroughly that 
the party deemed it inexpedient to use them for political purposes on 
a wide front in this state. 

Now it would be possible for the Communists to make common cause 
with the other organizations that have been heretofore mentioned, and 
they immediately proceeded to do so, commencing during the latter 
part of 1956, and continuing on an accelerated scale until the present 
time. In the 1957 report we pointed out that within a matter of weeks 
after Khrushchev's speech the California Communist Party was obeying 
this change in the party line by permitting its officers to meet with 
representatives of the Socialist Party, the Young Socialist League, and, 
what was far more astounding, with members of the Trotzkyite move- 
ment. 

Those who read our report of subversive infiltration at U. C. L. A., 
will recall that in connection with the death of a student, Sheldon 
Abrams, we found among his papers abundant proof that such meetings 
were indeed being held in 1956; and moreover, that they were the 
first in the United States to implement Khrushchev's directive for the 
opening of the second United Front. 

The testimony of Dr. Robert Neumann, of the U. C. L. A. Depart- 
ment of Political Science, was of great value in making clear what the 
United Front strategy was and how it was devised at the Seventh 
World Congress of the Communist International in 1935. It was this 
United Front tactic of working through other liberal groups and 
through a confusing complexity of front organizations with appealing 
names and carefully concealed Communist control that made possible 
the amazing success of the Communists in this country in their wide- 
spread penetration of our American institutions immediately thereafter. 
Labor unions, universities, the entertainment fields, the creative arts, 
and governmental agencies were the main targets — including of course 
the invasion of our state government in 1938 by the enthusiastic use of 
this United Front technique. 

But such successes proved too heady a wine; the party became too 
defiant, too overbearing. The people reacted, the Legislature appointed 
a committee to find out what was going on and report the facts, and 
there then began an era of exposing the extent of the infiltration, a 
description of the front groups and the people who operated them 
from concealed positions — and, in direct proportion to the degree of 
exposure, the potency of the California Communist Party began to 
decline. It became extremely difficult to attract liberals to front organ- 
izations that had been thoroughly revealed as under Communist control. 
And so it was with the motion picture industry, the universities, the 



38 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

trade unions, the public utilities and the various departments of the 
state government. Once the people thoroughly understood the nature 
and imminent menace posed by the operations of the Communist Party 
they reacted as might be expected of loyal and patriotic citizens and 
began to cleanse themselves of the undercover Communists who had 
managed to worm their ways into strategic positions by the tactic of 
the United Front. 

The public utilities, instead of having only special agents who policed 
the institutions, thereupon began to employ men with F. B. I. or mili-J 
tary and naval intelligence experience to help them get rid of the Com- 1 
munists already in their employ and lock the doors against continued! 
infiltration. The universities began to co-operate in the same direction,! 
as did the school systems, the trade unions and the entertainment fields. f 
The Federal Bureau of Investigation then began gathering the evidence 
from its undercover agents and launched a series of prosecutions under 
the Smith Act that deprived the party of its leadership, and the! 
Supreme Court consistently upheld the rights and prerogatives of 
legislatures in keeping themselves actively informed concerning sub-| 
versive threats to state governments, upheld the convictions that were: 
obtained by the Federal Bureau of Investigation under the Smith Act, j 
and upheld convictions of contempt against defiant party members 
who adopted a practice of invariably invoking the Fifth Amendment 
when questioned about their subversive activities and affiliations and 
using the forums of the legislative committees and the courtrooms as! 
media for the dissemination of violent Marxist propaganda. 

Driven to underground positions and compelled to break the physical 
organization of the party into tiny units of three to five members ; its I 
means of communication and propaganda disrupted by reason of the 
long continued exposure and conviction of leaders, the Communist 
Party was becoming desperate. It then declared war on the Supreme 
Court of the United States in 1952, and devoted virtually all of its 
attention to the liquidation of legislative investigative committees and 
bringing about a reversal of the Supreme Court decisions that had 
enabled the committees and the government to operate so successfully 
in hamstringing the activities of the Communist conspiracy throughout 
the country. Then came the launching of the second United Front as a 
result of the Khrushchev speech at the Twentieth Congress of the Com- 
munist Party of the Soviet Union in February, 1956, and, as we have 
seen from its own documents, the party began to resume its old arro- 
gant attitude, to emerge from concealment and participate in a political 
campaign in 1957 and 1958 in California. We shall see a little later 
how the party claimed the credit for bringing about a change in the 
decisions of the United States Supreme Court dealing with subversive 
matters, and how it created a new national front organization for the 
purpose of bringing about the liquidation of legislative committees and 
hampering the activities of the Federal Bureau of Investigation and 
other governmental intelligence agencies engaged in counter-subversive 
work. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 39 

This, then, was the background against which the party resumed 
its political activities in California in 1957 and 1958. We have already 
pointed out, and emphasize again, that the Communist Party expressed 
itself as completely dissatisfied with both of the major political parties, 
although it had infiltrated both to some extent. During the 1958 election 
it had no choice but to repudiate the conservative Knowland and en- 
deavor to insinuate some of its older adherents into the administration 
of Governor Brown. The new Governor had made it abundantly clear 
that he wanted no cooperation from the Communist Party in California, 
or any other place, and he repudiated their support and was unalter- 
ably opposed to Communism. The Democratic Governor who preceded 
him 10 years earlier had also made clear his anti-Communist attitude 
when he declared : ' ' We are determined to oppose equally the despotism 
of Communism and the menace of Fascism." 16 

One of the candidates for election to the office of State Superintend- 
ent of Public Instruction during the 1958 campaign was Holland Rob- 
erts, frequently but erroneously referred to as Dr. Holland Roberts. 
On March 6, 1958, this item concerning his candidacy appeared in the 
San Francisco Call-Bulletin: 

"Ex-Labor School Head May Seek Office. 

San Jose, Mar. 6, (AP). Dr. Holland Roberts, whose Cali- 
fornia Labor School was called 'an instrument of the Communist 
Party' by a government board, may run for State Superintendent 
of Public Instruction. 

He took out nomination papers yesterday and has until March 
28 to file petitions. 

The Subversive Activities Control Board, set up under the 
McCarran Act of 1950, made the report concerning this school 
after a hearing in January, 1957. Dr. Roberts was director of the 
now defunct school. 

He said last May that the school was closing because it lacked 
funds to fight the board's ruling in the courts. 

Roberts, in taking out nomination papers, said he lived in 
Palo Alto and was an educator. 

He had been an associate professor of Education at Stanford 
University in 1944, when he resigned to join the Labor School in 
San Francisco, becoming director in 1949. 

Before a House Un-American Activities Committee, headed by 
Representative Harold Velde, (R.-Ill.), Roberts denied in 1956 that 
the school was subversive and that it had Communists and Com- 
munist sympathizers on its faculty." 

In passing, it may not seem inappropriate for us to point out some- 
thing that the newspaper article overlooked. The committee investi- 
gated the California Labor School, beginning in 1945, branded both it 
and its director Communist and subversive, and referred to the school 
in its reports for 1947, 1948, 1949, 1951, 1953 and 1955. We examined 

18 "Olson's New Deal for California," op. cit., p. 24. 



40 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Roberts under oath on several occasions, and he was identified as a Com- 1 
munist Party member by several witnesses, including a former mem- 
ber of the party who served as Mr. Roberts' secretary while he was 
director of the school in San Francisco. He also served as chairman 
of the American-Russian Institute in San Francisco, one of the few 
potent Communist front organizations still operating on a nationwide 
basis. Both the school and Dr. Roberts had been identified as sub- 
versive and Communist since 1945, and the fact appeared with 
monotonous regularity in the newspapers up and down the Pacific 
Coast. Notwithstanding this fact, Mr. Roberts did run for State Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction in 1958, and polled more than 400,000 
votes. The Communist press and all of its propaganda machinery 
worked feverishly in this campaign, and while even Roberts' most 
energetic supporters expressed the belief that he would be unable to 
prevail over the incumbent, nevertheless it is a demonstration of cur- 
rent Communist vote-getting ability and capacity for hard work that 
should not be overlooked or underestimated. 

What, then, is the present situation concerning Communism in Cali- 
fornia politics? It should now be quite clear that we can learn much, 
and perhaps profit a good deal, by knowing something about the devices 
and general strategy used by the party in the past. In 1938 and 1948 
there were many Communist fronts that were used to great advantage 
as entering wedges to force a way into the political field. Today there 
are only a few and these were thoroughly exposed almost as soon as 
they commenced business. But bear in mind that these fronts did not 
disappear because of any desire by the party. On the contrary, they 
were maintained as long as possible and often ran deep into the red. 
They collapsed because of exposure for what they really were, exposure 
by government agencies — certainly not because they were liquidated 
by the Communists according to plan. 

Now we are in the era of the second United Front and we have 
secured ample evidence in California that the party has obediently 
been making common cause with other liberal organizations since April 
of 1956. It is also becoming more evident daily that the party is mobi- 
lizing a large group of so-called "sleepers"; that is, party members who 
have never been required to attend meetings, have never received any 
written evidence of affiliation, and who are instructed to pose as con- 
servatives or at least mild liberals in order to avoid detection. Once 
they are called into service, however, they are useless to the party 
unless they follow the party line and promote party interests. Any 
such activity always makes them vulnerable to detection, exposure and 
elimination from sensitive positions. The American Communists are 
still striving diligently to form an independent and liberal political 
body of their own, and we can conclude this section with no better 
authorities than one from the leader of the Southern California Dis- 
trict of the Communist Party of California and an official statement 
by the National Committee of the Communist Party of the United 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 41 

States. Dorothy R. Healey, heretofore mentioned as having once been 
in the employ of the State Department of Labor, recently declared : 

"Our district has attempted to provide leadership on some po- 
litical fronts of immediate concern to the welfare of the people. 
The H-bomb campaign, Little Rock and the South in general, the 
struggle for Negro rights, the 1958 election (committee's empha- 
sis) and the anti-labor drive in California were among the ques- 
tions discussed at the district council, with a concrete program 
proposed to the club for action." 17 

The National Committee has informed us in unmistakable terms 
that the radical element in American labor, comprising such Commu- 
nist dominated unions as the United Mill and Smelter Workers; the 
United Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers; the American Com- 
munications Association ; the International Longshoremen 's and Ware- 
housemen 's Union, and the Public Workers of America — plus all ultra- 
liberal organizations — will be forged into one major and independent 
political party by the Communists, if their present plans materialize. 
Basically, it will be a "politically independent" labor force, with 
broad liberal affiliation and support. 18 

Since no written evidence of membership in the Communist Party 
has been used since December, 1947, since the party is extremely sen- 
sitive to counter-infiltration and is therefore functioning largely under- 
ground, since most of its front organizations have been forced out of 
existence, the only practical method that can be employed to combat 
Communist infiltration in politics and other fields of activities lies in 
a thorough understanding of Communist practices, a familiarity with 
the Communist Party line as it changes from time to time, and an 
accurate knowledge of what undercover Communists may be expected 
to do once they have managed to insinuate themselves into positions of 
political authority. Armed with adequate knowledge of these matters, 
it is possible to prevent the infiltration of sensitive political positions 
which is a manifestly simpler thing to do than to handle the situation 
once the infiltration has succeeded, as was most forcibly illustrated by 
the administration of Governor Olson. 

INFILTRATION OF EDUCATION 

Infiltration of our educational institutions has always occupied a 
high place on the Communist Party program. Originally the intent 
was to use this reservoir of impressionable young students for recruit- 
ing purposes. During World War II, and even to a larger degree 
thereafter, infiltration of our educational institutions has been used 
for another purpose because the government has allocated to many 
of our larger colleges and universities enormous contracts for con- 
ducting secret researches that are valuable to the defense of our nation. 



17 "On the Status of the Tarty," by Dorothy R. Healy. Political Affairs, March, 1958, 
p. 40. 

18 "A Policy for American Labor," by the National Committee, Communist Party of 
the United States. Political Affairs, Aug., 1958. p. 11. 



42 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Consequently, it is desirable for the Communist Party to plant its 
undercover members in strategic positions so that they can have an 
overall picture of this highly sensitive research activity. 

In order to get a proper perspective of present conditions in Cali- 
fornia regarding the infiltration of our educational institutions, let i 
us examine it against the background of the last national convention 
of the Communist Party of the United States and the remarks made 
by the nation's outstanding expert on Communism, J. Edgar Hoover, 
regarding the convention and the program adopted by the party 
thereafter. Mr. Hoover explained how carefully the program was 
rigged to create the illusion that the American Communists would no 
longer obey the Kremlin but would henceforth go it alone, something 
like Tito; that party leaders were no longer trusted by the rank-and- 
file membership; that the party was torn asunder by internal dis- 
sention; that membership had dwindled so much that American 
Communism should no longer be regarded as a grim and serious threat 
but merely as a minor irritation. 

Actually, this elaborate piece of misdirection was part and parcel 
of what we have termed "operation lullaby." This 1957 national con- 
vention of the party was rehearsed with all the meticulous attention to 
assigning the actors their various roles, to setting the stage, to arranging 
the lighting effects and the dramatic impressions that might have been 
devoted to a stage production. Indeed that is what the convention was, 
in accordance with Communist custom. Said Mr. Hoover: 

"The skillful Communist propagandist, Mr. Simon W. Gerson, 
sought to create several illusions in connection with the change in 
Party leadership and organization which has given a completely 
distorted and slanted view of what happened. To illustrate : 

Prior to the convention rumors were planted that Foster and 
Dennis were to be ousted. The convention did abolish all offices. 
This was slanted to convey the impression that the convention 
action was a slap at Stalinism. Actually, this strategy had been 
carefully charted at a two-day preconvention meeting in New 
York. The convention did create a new national committee of 60, 
20 of whom were elected at the convention. In addition, an 11- 
member administrative committee was chosen to direct the day- 
to-day business of the Party until the National Committee could 
designate a Secretariat. Of the 16 members of the old National 
Committee not in prison, nine were elected among the 20 members- 
at-large. Others may be elected by the districts to fill the 40 
additional posts in the near future. Several of the Old Guard, 
including Foster and Dennis, were elected to the Administrative 
Committee. 

The illusion was created that there was a break with the past 
since Miss Charlene Alexander of Los Angeles, aged 26, and no 
hardened Bolshevik, got the largest number of votes among the 
20 members elected to the National Committee. This was the 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 43 

Party's way of currying favor with the Negroes since seven of 
the 20 elected were Negroes, including Miss Alexander. Actually, 
the average age of the 20 elected was 45 years of age and their 
average length of membership in the Communist Party was 22 
years. Gerson led reporters to believe after the convention that 
Gates had cemented his position and won out in his fight against 
the cult of the individual. There were headlines such as 'U. S. 
Reds Quit Foster, Kremlin,' and the press reported that the Party 
'dumped' Foster and 'voted out of office' Eugene Dennis, who 
had been replaced with 'collective leadership.' Actually, the Com- 
munist Party had created a broad new national committee and a 
Secretariat in line with the new Soviet line of 'collective leader- 
ship. ' Foster, who had been criticized as having developed his own 
'cult of the personality,' was now a part of a 'collective' commit 
tee in Moscow style; in fact, this had already been decided prior 
to the convention." 
####### 

"This was a convention made up essentially of functionaries. 
In fact, one Party leader bemoaned the fact that few workers 
were there. In the balloting on February 12, 1957, for the Na- 
tional Committee only 13 votes were allotted to the entire Southern 
region, with 136 out of the 292 ballots allotted to New York State, 
33 to California, 24 to Illinois, 20 to New Jersey, and other states 
and regions ranged from one to 12 ballots. 

The fact is the Communists could not stand for the free press 
to observe their proceedings because they cannot long survive the 
truth. Norman Schrank, Executive Secretary of the New York 
State Communist organization, launched a verbal assault on news 
photographers and was observed to push a photographer aside 
which is illustrative of their attitude. 

The Communist Party's 1957 convention was designed to hood- 
wing the public with a 'new look.' Its program is designed to 
enable them to develop a militant assault, to accomplish their 
' historic mission ' of wrecking and infiltrating this nation. ' ' 19 

In July, 1955, Mr. Hoover had made a visit to California, and while 
spending a portion of his vacation in La Jolla issued the following 
statement : 

"The Communist Party, U. S. A., today is concentrating tremen- 
dous effort in the State of California. Roughly 15 percent of all 
Communist Party members of the nation reside in California, 
ranking this State second only to New York in Party membership. 

10 Statement by J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, to the 
Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and 
other internal security laws, of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States 
Senate, Eighty-fifth Congress, First Session. "An Analysis of the 16th Annual Con- 
vention of the Community Party of the United States," March 12, 1957, United 
States Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 1957, pp. 9-10. 



44 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

"The growing population, industry and strategic location of 
California has made this state a prime Communist target for years, 
and that is why the party is operating a highly efficient under- 
ground apparatus in California, as well as trying to increase above- 
ground operations. ' ' 20 

As California's population has continued to increase, so have the 
activities of the Communist Party in this state, one of the most im- 
portant of those activities being the infiltration of our educational in- 
stitutions and our trade union organizations. In previous reports we 
have described in detail the extent to which the party has managed to 
send its members into the educational institutions, both at the univer- 
sity level, in the high schools and, to some extent, in the grammar 
schools. In tracing the history of this infiltration we have shown that 
it reached its peak during the period from 1939 to 1944, and since 
1944 has been steadily declining, although .it is still a most serious 
problem. 

Several years ago this committee established a co-operative plan with 
the administrative heads of most of the universities and colleges in the 
state and this plan is still in operation. It affords a system whereby 
representatives of the committee and representatives of the various col- 
leges and universities can exchange information concerning problems; 
and it does not, and it never did, entail the maintenance of any organ- 
ization of undercover investigators on any university campus or the 
employment of students as informers. Its purpose is simply to provide 
as much reliable and expert assistance as possible in aiding the various 
university administrators to devise practical means of preventing the 
infiltration of their several institutions by subversive agents. The com- 
mittee can conceive of no legitimate objection to this sort of co-opera- 
tive enterprise by anyone except the most ardent type of party mem- 
ber or fellow traveler. 

Such a vociferous clamor was raised by the Communist Party and its 
subservient organizations shortly after this co-operative plan got under 
way, and such a determined effort was made to wreck it by sensational 
and widely-publicized accusations, that the committee was thereby 
afforded ample evidence that the system was eminently successful in 
disrupting the party's infiltration of our schools. 

Confusion on fhe Campus 

One reason that the academic world has not taken the problem of 
Communist infiltration more seriously may lie in the fact that far too 
many educators even yet fail to realize that Fascism does not change 
its character simply because it flourishes as a Soviet-directed conspiracy 
to conquer the world instead of being directed by Adolf Hitler. We 
once examined a Communist theoretician and asked him if he was in 
favor of Fascism. This, of course, drew an angry denial. He was then 
asked to define Fascism and did so with great feeling and precision. 

80 Los Angeles Times, July 31, 1955. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 45 

He declared that Hitler's Nazi regime was an excellent example of a 
Fascist government ; so was Mussolini 's Black Shirt regime in Italy. 
Pressed for details, this witness explained how under Fascist rule the 
will of the dictator is imposed on the people by force ; how he controls 
all the machinery of government — transportation, communication, edu- 
cation, the military — and enforces his will by unleashing waves of 
secret police terror. This witness had unwittingly described the Fascist 
character of the Soviet regime with its one-party system controlled by 
an absolute dictator who also enforces his will through a secret police, 
controls the entire machinery of government, and sweeps his colleagues 
out of office whenever the mood strikes him. An example of this oc- 
curred in the Soviet Union recently when Malenkov, Kaganovich, 
Molotov and Shepilov were summarily removed from office by Khru- 
shchev and swept into relative oblivion as traitors to the Communist 
Party, which is the only party in the Soviet Union and which actually 
wields the power through its Presidium which, in turn, is the creature 
of Khrushchev. 

The inhuman tortures inflicted by the Soviet Secret Police are far 
more horrible than any ever employed by the Nazis ; they covered a 
much longer period and affected more people by many millions. Those 
who have read Mr. David Dallin's authoritative studies of slave labor 
in the U. S. S. R., will know that the Nazi and Italian Fascists com- 
bined never even approached this massive forced labor program where 
human slaves were used like animals. 

Dr. Mark Graubard, Associate Professor of Natural Science at the 
University of Minnesota, commented pointedly on this peculiar political 
astigmatism on the part of many intellectual leaders in the United 
States in an editorial which is worth quoting in this connection : 

"Whatever happened to the American sense of proportion, not 
to mention the American conscience? At a time when millions of 
people in Europe and Asia live under a Communist terror, denied 
the elemental freedoms of action and thought which we take for 
granted, leading writers and intellectuals in the free United States 
spread abroad the falsehood that oppression and book-burning pre- 
vail in the United States, that terror stalks our universities, school 
boards, libraries, and even haunts the average citizen. 

What a contrast to the situation in the U. S. A., when another 
totalitarian tyrant, Adolf Hitler, rose to power! Even before the 
Ayrian laws, the pogroms, and the incineration chambers darkened 
the German horizon, the reaction of the American public, its gov- 
ernment and the college campus was prompt and unequivocal. 

In the fall of 1933, as the Executive Secretary of the first anti- 
Nazi Student Congress in America, at Columbia University, I 
felt the pulse of this moral response. Our organization expressed 
the deep current of American sentiment that pervaded Rotary 
Clubs as deeply as labor unions, cultural societies as much as 
corner pubs. Opposition to Naziism in the United States was nation- 



46 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

wide. In colleges committees were formed to aid refugees from 
Nazi persecution; student newspapers protested the exclusion of 
Jews from German universities, the burning of books and the race 
laws. Some Americans even suggested intervention; others de- 
manded a boycott of German goods. 

Others, of course, during war or having some sympathy with 
Hitler's supposed aims, denounced these protests as interven- 
tionism, insisted that each nation had a right to act as it pleased, 
and declared that the Roosevelt administration's anti-Nazi actions 
were propaganda equaling that of the Nazis. But, regardless of 
differences as to what this country should do about it, there was 
little confusion about the evil of Naziism. 

How different the scene today! For the past 10 years Com- 
munism has shouted to the world that America must be destroyed, 
that America is the chief warmonger, the cause of world poverty 
and mainspring of tyranny and oppression. Its first task was to 
obliterate America's good name among the peoples of the world. 
For this enterprise the Soviet propaganda machine has received 
aid from the writers of hysterical books and articles deriding 
America as a tyrant. 

Soviet propaganda has encountered no opposition of the kind 
that Nazi propaganda futile in the United States. There is hardly 
a single campus committee to aid refugees from the Sovietized 
universities in Europe and Asia ; no Student Anti-Communist Con- 
gresses; no Women's Leagues Against Concentration Camps. The 
eloquent voices of our liberal leaders are raised more passionately 
against alleged American misdeeds and tyranny than against the 
darkness behind the Iron Curtain. One receives no telegrams urg- 
ing ones signature under a Manifesto pledging the signers 'lives, 
fortunes and sacred honor' to the downfall of the Red tyranny. 
There are no placards reading 'Stop Khrushchev!' attached to 
the front bumpers of motor cars. There were some silly aspects of 
the anti-Nazi campaign in the late 1930 's, but at any rate few of us 
confused slavery with 'human engineering,' or tyranny with 
progress. 

Had American liberalism displayed the same moral vigor 
against Communist fanaticism that it did against Hitlerism, the 
world might be a safer place, and our moral leadership, established 
by our stand against aggression in the 1930 's and our unstinted 
effort in "World War II, would be unquestioned. We are now J 
paying dearly in taxes, confusion and fear for maintaining a 
double standard of political morality. ' ' 21 

Despite these facts there are still far too many educators who, for 
some obscure reason, stubbornly cling to the notion that somehow the 
Nazis were foul and evil and the Communists much nicer ; that whereas 



"Where Are Yesterday's Foes of Dictatorship?" by Dr. Mark Graubard. Editorial, 
Saturday Evening Post, July 2, 1955, p. 10. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 47 

every intellectual had a solemn duty to oppose Naziism and Fascism 
a la Mussolini with all the strength he could muster, it was somehow 
unfashionable to oppose Fascism of the Red variety. This attitude no 
doubt stemmed from several causes and chief among them was the 
fact that during the era of the Spanish Revolution and thereafter until 
the close of World War II, thousands of American educators, writers, 
artists, actors, musicians and liberals flocked in droves to join the 
Communist front organizations of that era ; that many of them actually 
became members of the Communist Party in the deluded idea that they 
were striking a blow for humanity on a world-wide basis. After World 
War II, when it became apparent that the Communists had been using 
us for their own hypocritical purposes during the time they were collab- 
orating with us against a common enemy, and with their enslavement 
of the six Balkan nations behind the Iron Curtain, their acceleration 
of Communist Party activity in the United States and their espionage 
activities that were exposed throughout the world, these American 
intellectuals became disillusioned. They were faced with the necessity 
of shrouding their Communist Party front affiliations and their Com- 
munist Party membership in the deepest secrecy, and it was therefore 
quite easy for them to adopt the idea that Communism was not so bad. 
Then, too, we were engaged against the Italian and German Fascists in 
a common cause with the Red Army, and consequently many Americans 
adopted the idea that while Italian and German Fascism were evil, 
Russian Fascism was relatively innocuous. 

Whatever the basic causes for this phenomenon among the American 
intelligentsia, it constitutes a formidable obstacle to the effective pro- 
tection of colleges and universities against subversive infiltration by 
members of the Communist Party, or individuals under Communist 
discipline. People who have been banded together in Communist Party 
activities, acting in a tight conspiratorial group, or engaged in a com- 
mon cause through front organizations, are inclined to protect one 
another after leaving this type of activity. Thus in a university the 
ultra-liberal Left composed of individuals who have been party members 
or active in front organizations find it expedient to protect one another 
against exposure, thereby forming a somewhat antagonistic clique 
against their more conservative colleagues. A university professor, 
Morton Cronin, who was associate professor of English at Los Angeles 
City College, has recently declared that the outwardly serene collegiate 
air frequently serves as a veneer under which there exists an academic 
jungle where the competition is indeed savage and where each depart- 
ment solidly establishes its own moral, sociological, political and aca- 
demic standards which it nurtures and perpetuates by inflicting quick 
academic penalities on anyone who violates them. He tells us that am- 
bitious young graduate students are being steeped in the liberal tradi- 
tion, and continues by declaring that : 

"The world of academic liberals, in short, is saturated with 
careerism. There is a kind of liberal who cannot conceive a greater 



48 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

tragedy than to lose his job or fail a promotion. When he feels, 
as he occasionally does when someone is sacked because of his 
politics, that America is no better than Russia, he is being quite 
sincere. For him nothing could be worse than to impede a man 's ad- 
vancement in the world. But this sympathy does not extend to 
conservatives — businessmen, professional men, and publishers, for 
instance, whose views conflict with his. He will merrily cheer a 
boycott among their customers, clients and subscribers. And, what 
is more to the point, his sympathy does not extend to his con- 
servative or independent colleague who finds himself unpopular 
because of his departures from liberal doctrine. ..." 

"Liberals," continues Professor Cronin, "may err at times, 
but are quite incapable of committing a real sin. * * * This is 
why so many liberals who have flirted with Communism now feel, 
even in the face of genuine disillusionment, no actual guilt. They 
feel, in fact, that their mistake was one that any decent person 
should have made. 

"The morally complacent, since they feel that they are never 
really wrong, easily become morally authoritarian. * * * " 22 

We have observed this antagonism of the extreme liberal members 
of college faculties toward even the mildest of their conservative col- 
leagues and we have discussed this phenomenon with responsible faculty 
members at several large universities. In many instances we have 
found honest liberals who would be indignant if accused of conducting 
their academic researches in a biased and unscholarly manner; yet 
their prejudices run so deep that they will stubbornly proclaim the 
innocence of Hiss and Oppenheimer without even reading the tran- 
scripts and the official reports in these cases — documents easily pro- 
cured from the United States Printing Office, Division of Public Docu- 
ments, Washington 25, D. C. 

During the last war these same liberals would have been aghast if 
members of the German-American Bund had been allowed to teach 
political science — or law. And the Bund was only a front organization. 
But if members of the American-Russian Institute or the California 
Labor School or the Jefferson School of Social Science wanted to teach 
— then, by some peculiar process of the liberal-academic mind, it became 
quite proper. The Nazis and the Bund were subversive ; the Communists 
and their fronts and their training schools are also subversive, this 
could not be denied — but it was wrong for the former to teach but 
quite all right to open the halls of ivy to the latter. 

While on this topic we should at least make some passing reference 
to what seems to us an example of how the normal precision and 
objectiveness of true scholarship may be warped by prejudice. Several 
years ago a book was financed by one of the large tax-exempt founda- 
tions as a part of some studies in civil liberties. This particular book, 



22 Abstracted from The Individualist, Vol. 3, No. 1, Intercollegiate Society of Individ- 
ualists; see National Review, Dec. 20, 1958, p. 392. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 49 

The Tenney Committee, was written by Edward L. Barrett, Jr., Pro- 
fessor of Law at the University of California in Berkeley. We wish to 
make it clear that we cast no aspersions on Professor Barrett's loyalty, 
but we are convinced that he was yet another sincere liberal whose lack 
of practical experience in the amorality of Communism led him to act 
as an innocent victim of a smear job. 

While Professor Barrett wrote this book, there is no question about 
the fact that the entire study, including the attack on the committee, 
was directed by Professor Walter Gelhorn, a faculty member on the 
staff of the largest Communist indoctrination center in the United 
States: The Jefferson School of Social Science. 

Anyone certainly has the right to criticize the committee or any 
agency of government or any public official and many have availed 
themselves of the privilege. Suppose Professor Gelhorn had been teach- 
ing at a school for the training of kleagles of the Ku Klux Klan, or 
in an academy operated by Gerald L. K. Smith, or in a school for the 
perpetuation of Naziism. We are convinced that the reaction against 
the selection of a man with such a background would have provoked 
an immediate, loud and insistent objection from the highly alert and 
articulate Left. But the fact that a professor in a Communist school 
was acting as the editor-in-chief of a study of a committee investigating 
Communism provoked no ripple on the academic waters. The Legis- 
lature has taken the position, based on pertinent information, that no 
person under the discipline of the Communist Party should be afforded 
the privilege of teaching in the schools of this state. This attitude 
was expressed in legislation that provided boards of education with 
the necessary authority to fire teachers who sought refuge by invoking 
the Fifth Amendment when questioned about subversive affiliations 
and activities, or who defied the board of education by refusing to 
discuss these matters or revealing their membership in the Communist 
Party. 23 

This legislation has been used with success by the Los Angeles City 
Board of Education, and its constitutionality has been uniformly up- 
held in a series of suits instituted and vigorously prosecuted by several 
teachers. The law does not, however, reach the Communist teacher 
concerning whom there is no available evidence of affiliation with the 
party since September 10, 1948, which is the period specifically covered 
by the act. Formal membership in the party has always been difficult 
to prove, and since no cards or books have been issued to members 
since 1947, the period covered by the act coincides with the period 
of extreme caution by Communists to conceal the identity of members. 
The persistent investigations, exposures, prosecutions and disruption 
of leadership mentioned earlier have been largely responsible for this 
retreat to underground positions and the elaborate precautions set 
in operation by the party for its own protection. Thus, while many 

28 See Senate Bill No. 1367, Ch. 1632, Stat. 1953; an act to add Ch. 2 to Div. 7 of the 
Education Code, and to add Sec. 14130.5 to said code, and to amend Sees. 13521 
and 13526 of said code, relating to School District employees. 



50 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

members whose Communist activities precede 1948 have impressive 
and easily documented records, those who have become members since 
1948 are much more difficult to expose. 

Detecting Communist Teachers 

While these undercover members can often be slipped into our 
schools, the supply is begining to run thin. And if a teacher or uni- 
versity professor teaches without trying to influence his colleagues or 
indoctrinate his students for any considerable length of time, he is not 
only useless to the party during that interval but his enthusiasm tends 
to wane because of this inactivity. We have learned from the testimony 
of hundreds of former Communists who spent many years in the party 
apparatus that their lives are completely dedicated to Communist work, 
and every waking hour is devoted to some sort of Communist activity. 
Operating at such a feverish pitch the average party activist has little 
time for critical analysis of the party, and his enthusiasm is kept 
aflame by constant association with his comrades in an endless series 
of front organization activity and secret party meetings. The instant 
an undercover teacher is permitted to become active he must do so by 
spreading the party line as subtly as possible to avoid detection and 
exposure; he must make contact with his colleagues and urge them to 
attend at least a few meetings of organizations that espouse the Com- 
munist party line, and he must carry on these activities constantly, 
reporting the results thereof for evaluation by his party superiors. This 
is a very difficult thing to do, and the job is becoming more difficult 
in direct proportion to the degree of exposure and education of the 
public at large, and school administrators in particular, in the tech- 
niques and methods employed by just this type of Communist. 

Issuance of a Communist book or card, embossed with the hammer 
and sickle and containing little spaces for the pasting of dues stamps, 
is, after all, merely a symbol of membership, a matter of bookkeeping. 
The real and only infallible test to be applied is to determine by an 
individual's activities and affiliations over a long period of time 
whether or not he is under Communist Party discipline and performing 
his Communist duties in accordance with the current party line. This 
is not a very difficult matter to determine, because the undercover 
Communist is always on the horns of a dilemma: if he lies dormant 
thereby guaranteeing that he will not be exposed and rendered useless 
to the movement, he is without value to the party; if he is activated 
and carries on his Communist duties according to plan, he invariably 
risks exposure and is ultimately rendered useless. Consequently, the 
most valuable weapon that can possibly exist to combat Communist 
infiltration— not only in our school system but throughout the entire 
fabric of our government and our way of life — lies in a complete 
familiarity with the nature of the Communist movement, its history, 
its growth, its physical organization, its ideology, its discipline, the 
constantly changing international party line which is invariably echoed 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 51 

in this country, and the little tricks and artifices the Communists em- 
ploy. Armed with this type of information the problem becomes greatly 
simplified, and so successful has been the dissemination of accurate 
information that the Communist Party, in 1952, was compelled to take 
a drastic step and to declare positively and clearly that it would 
attempt to bring about a change in the legal precedents established 
by the Supreme Court of the United States in order to give themselves 
time to gather their forces and renew their subversive efforts under 
more favorable legal circumstances. "We will discuss that matter in 
detail in a later section dealing with Communist penetration of our 
legal system. 

Can Communists Teach Objectively? 

It has been emphasized many times by official agencies charged 
with the duty of investigating these matters, and by the testimony of 
many former Communist teachers, that no person can become steeped 
in Communist literature, subjected to the rigidity of Communist dis- 
cipline, thoroughly imbued with the Communist ideology, and then 
step into a classroom and do objective teaching. Any layman who has 
the slightest knowledge about the practical aspects of the Communist 
movement knows that this is true. Bella V. Dodd, Ph. D., was formerly 
an undercover Communist member of the New York Teachers' Union, 
and for a time operated its legislative program. Dr. Dodd masqueraded 
for many years as a non-Communist liberal, stoutly denying her Com- 
munist affiliations and earnestly supporting the Communist cause until 
she became disillusioned, broke with the party and rendered her coun- 
try an invaluable service by giving the benefit of her experiences to 
the Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on Internal Security. In testifying 
before that body she said, in part : 

"All Communist teachers who read the literature of the Com- 
munist Party and of the Communist movement cannot help but 
slant their teaching in that direction. I was a teacher of economics, 
and of political science, and it was very easy for me to slant my 
teaching that way. As a matter of fact, I wasn't even conscious 
of slanting it. That was the way I was thinking, and that was 
the way I was teaching it, because I had become imbued with the 
whole philosophy and system of Communism. * * * Yes, Commu- 
nism is a total philosophy. If you believe in it you live it, you 
breathe it, you teach it. * * * You take it with you seven days a 
week, 24 hours a day. * * * The students wouldn 't recognize it as 
Communism; nobody else might recognize it as Communism. But 
there is no doubt in my mind that the Communist teacher teaches 
the Communist way." 24 

There are some teachers and educators who maintain that members 
of the Communist Party should have the same right to teach in our 
educational institutions as any other member of a legal organization 

"Testimony of Bella V. Dodd, Ph.D., before Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, 
March 10, 1953, pp. 543, 544. 



52 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

providing they are academically equipped to do so. This group urges 
that the only reason Communists should be fired is when they are 
caught indoctrinating students in the classroom with Communist ide- 
ology. We hasten to point out that in order to monitor every teacher 
and every professor in every class that might be used as a medium 
through which to indoctrinate students with Communist theories, each 
school would have to maintain a staff of investigators and informers 
of enormous size, and that such an activity is completely reprehensible 
and inimical to our American way of life. The operation of any such 
undercover organization of investigators would truly strike a serious 
blow at academic freedom and destroy the very processes we are en- 
deavoring to preserve. Furthermore, in our opinion, it is quite unneces- 
sary to resort to such tactics. We have been accused in the past of 
having used such a system on the campuses of California universities, 
and we have denied the charge with all the emphasis at our command. 
We still deny it and reaffirm that we have no intention of adopting any 
such system. At the same time, we assuredly have no intention of dis- 
closing our confidential sources of information to the Communist Party 
or any of its supporters. 

The Objective Teaching of Communism 

It is a gratifying privilege to be able to report that in California 
during the last four years there has been a growing awareness among 
university students concerning the true nature of the Communist 
menace, and a far greater resistance to attempts at indoctrination. Re- 
ports from the major universities in the state, as well as from many 
of the state and junior colleges, indicate that as these institutions have 
been concentrating more on objective teaching about the origin, devel- 
opment and operation of the Communist Party and the world Com- 
munist movement, there has been a steady decline in Communist 
activities on the campuses. This is not to say that the danger is by 
any means over; we will point out at the conclusion of this article 
persuasive evidence that the menace is still very much with us, but 
it is definitely on the decline and we see no reason to anticipate that 
the decline will not continue. The expulsion of the Los Angeles Feder- 
ation of Teachers from the American Federation of Labor, the exposure 
of the United Public Workers of America as a Communist front organ- 
ization that was directing the activities of the Los Angeles Federation 
of Teachers in the southern part of the state, and the co-operation 
between educational administrators and this committee, have all con- 
tributed toward the common objective of preventing the infiltration 
of our educational system by members of subversive organizations. 

In July, 1957, Assistant Secretary of State Francis 0. Wilcox 
addressed the National Educational Association's Centennial Conven- 
tion in Philadelphia, and declared it imperative that the cold, hard 
facts about Communism, both in theory and in practice, be taught in 
the schools and colleges throughout the country. He was followed by 
James B. Conant, former president of Harvard, who has declared on 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 53 

many occasions that no person under Communist discipline should be 
I permitted to teach in an educational institution. Now that we have 
been jarred out of our complacency by the realization of the astounding 
progress the Soviet Union has been making in the scientific and educa- 
tional fields, we have begun to re-examine our own educational system. 
The slowly mounting resistance to the blandishments of these subtle 
recruiting techniques in our educational institutions is apparently not 
: confined to California. At Harvard a group of students recently got 
fed up with listening to the apostles of Marxism, and became particu- 
larly resentful when Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer was welcomed as a 
i featured speaker on the campus. Joining with influential alumni who 
; had also become disgusted, they formed an organization called The 
Veritas Foundation and started a backfire. This move attracted such 
quick and widespread support from other universities that it is now 
national in scope with headquarters in New York City. 25 

At the University of North Carolina the student paper recently ob- 
served that : ' ' The University used to be a political hotbed. It used to 
be a place where Communism ran rampant and radical organizations 
sprang from the ground. There are no such organizations currently 
present on the campus. * * * " 26 

Brooklyn College 

Brooklyn College in New York is a good example of how students 
reject Communist attempts at indoctrination and recruiting once they 
are equipped with information that enables them to understand this 
subversive movement for what it really is. During the thirties, and 
until the middle forties, Brooklyn College had the reputation of being 
one of the most heavily infiltrated institutions in the nation. There 
was an exceedingly active branch of the Young Communist League at 
the college, and its members obtained solid control of the student news- 
paper, perpetuating each other in key positions on the editorial staff 
year after year and using the paper as an influential propaganda 
weapon. In a previous report we have described an identical technique 
that was used by the Communist group at U. C. L. A. At Brooklyn 
College there were the usual well-organized and rebellious demonstra- 
tions against constituted authority, there were picket lines and circu- 
lation of leaflets, recruiting was widespread, front organizations flour- 
ished, and, in short, there was the general and familiar pattern of 
activity that is characteristic of every institution where Communist in- 
filtration is allowed to get out of control. 

With the advent of a new president, Dr. Harry D. Gideonse, there 
came a stiffening of the administration's attitude toward this problem. 
Dr. Gideonse was not only aware of the real menace of Communism, 
he was also thoroughly familiar with its amorality, its tricks and its real 
objectives. Furthermore he displayed a remarkable sense of perspective 



25 The Veritas Foundation, P. O. Box 340, New York 5, New York. 

26 Excerpt from The Tar Heel, University of North Carolina ; see National Review, 

Dec. 20, 1958, p. 392. 



54 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

that was reflected in his determination to effect a transition of power 
from radical student leaders who were primarily concerned with per- 
petuating their political ideas, to student leaders who were interested 
in the college as a college and at the same time to preserve academic 
freedom in its true sense. 

The student paper was emancipated from the grip of the radical 
clique; every outburst of party-line propaganda was countered by a 
calm and well-reasoned statement on the president's bulletin board; 
courses in Russian and on the history of the Communist movement were 
established, and the situation was gradually but firmly brought under 
control. 

President Gideonse has, like Chancellor Raymond Allen at U. C. L. A., 
written some excellent articles on the problems of Communist infiltra- 
tion. He, like Dr. Allen, has been to the Soviet Union, and he is 
admirably equipped to maintain constant vigilance against a resump- 
tion of subversive infiltration at Brooklyn College, and at the same time 
to preserve its academic and democratic integrity. There are still radi- 
cal student groups at the college and they exist in complete freedom — ■ 
but they are not subversive. 

It has been charged that President Gideonse has throttled freedom 
of the press by wresting control of the paper away from the radicals 
and restoring it to the students at large so it can present a divergence 
of views instead of one ideology. There has also been some criticism of 
his alleged tendency to insist upon a conformity to the conservative 
point of view. But this sort of thought comes mostly from the extreme 
left and ignores the fact that in this college, with 85 percent of the 
students Jewish, 11 percent Catholic and 4 percent Protestant, the re- 
jection of Communism has come from the students themselves. They 
show little evidence of being cowed or regimented by the administra- 
tion ; their emphasis is on getting an education instead of participating 
in radical politics. 27 

If one student is subjected to intensive recruiting pressure, succumbs 
through a lack of knowledge of Communism, and gets drawn into the 
vortex of the conspiracy to the point of no return, he can and usually 
does cause untold damage to our society. Take the case of Abram 
Flaxer. 

According to an abundance of sworn testimony by many witnesses, 28 
Flaxer was born in Lithuania on September 12, 1904, came to the 
United States in 1911, and obtained derivitive citizenship in 1917. After 
graduating from Boyce High School in Brooklyn, he entered New York 
City College where he was successfully indoctrinated with the Commu- 
nist ideology. He did graduate work at Columbia where the indoctrina- 
tion was accelerated and he became a party member. He used an alias, 
or party name, John Brant, and although having majored in science 
he devoted much of his time to the performance of party work in trade 
unions. 



» See "Brooklyn College," by David Boroff, Harpers, Dec, 1958, p. 42. 
28 See : United Public Workers of America, report of Senate Internal Subcommittee, 
1952. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 55 

In 1936, Flaxer became President of the United Public Workers of 
America, a union that was expelled from the C. I. 0. 14 years later 
because, as the parent organization put it : "* * * The policies and 
activities of the UPW are consistently directed toward the achievement 
of the program and purposes of the Communist Party rather than the 
objectives and policies set forth in the C. I. 0. Constitution." 

This Communist-dominated union was comprised of members who 
were employed by the munipical, state and federal governments and 
who occupied many highly sensitive positions. By 1952, the United 
Public Workers of America had absorbed the State, County and Mu- 
nicipal Workers of America and its membership totaled 35,000 persons. 
There was one postoffice local in Los Angeles. 

In previous reports we have documented many instances where grad- 
uates of the state university and other California educational institu- 
tions have become indoctrinated while attending school and then went 
on to occupy extremely high and influential positions in the Communist 
apparatus of this country. We wish to make it crystal clear, and can- 
not overemphasize the fact, that while there has been an apparent 
waning of Communist activities in the California universities and col- 
leges, and that this seems to be reflected in other institutions throughout 
the country, the danger is still with us. There has been a growing 
resistance on the part of students that comes with the possession of 
facts concerning the real nature and practices of Communism. But we 
must also bear in mind that the Communist Party is now working 
underground ; that it has adopted the Khrushchev directive of working 
through liberal non-Communist organizations instead of through its 
own front groups, and that Communist activity is much harder to 
detect than it was during the period when the party was working in 
the open. 

Reverting once more to Brooklyn College, since we have selected 
this as formerly one of the heaviest-infiltrated institutions in the 
country, we find the following faculty members who invoked the Fifth 
Amendment regarding their Communist Party membership, or ad- 
mitted such membership, when questioned by the United States Senate 
Internal Security Subcommittee. 29 

They were Joseph Bressler, Assistant Professor of Health and Edu- 
cation, who invoked the Fifth Amendment on February 10, 1953; 
Frederic Ewen, Assistant Professor of Literature, who followed the 
same procedure on September 24, 1952; Irving Goldman, instructor in 
Anthropology, who admitted having been a member of the Communist 
Party until 1942, in a session of the subcommittee held on April 1, 
1953; Elton Gustafson, instructor in health and education, who in- 
voked the Fifth Amendment on past and present membership in the 
Communist Party on February 24, 1953; Eugene Jackson, instructor 
of German and former Chairman of the Foreign Language Depart- 

»See: "Subversive Influence in the Educational Process," report of the Subcommittee 
to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and other Internal 
security laws to the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Eighty-third 
Congress, First Session, July 17, 1953. 



56 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

merit of the New York City Schools, who invoked the Fifth Amendment 
on September 23, 1952; Alex Benjamin Novikoff, part-time instructor 
in Biology who invoked the Fifth Amendment on April 23, 1953 ; Melba 
Phillips, instructor in Mechanics and Physical Science, who invoked 
the Fifth Amendment on October 13, 1952; Sara Riedman, assistant 
instructor in Biology, who invoked the Fifth Amendment on October 13, 
1952; Harry Slochower, Associate Professor of German, who invoked 
the Fifth Amendment on September 24, 1952; Bernhard J. Stern, 
instructor in Chemistry, who invoked the Fifth Amendment on Sep- 
tember 24, 1952, and Murray Young, instructor in English, who invoked 
the Fifth Amendment on February 24, 1953. 

It is interesting to note the results of the series of hearings whereby 
the Internal Security Subcommittee investigated infiltration of the 
educational process of the country by the Communist Party. In the 
preface to the report heretofore referred to, the subcommittee said: 

"The Internal Security Subcommittee, in the second year of its 
inquiry into Communist penetration of the educational system, 
held hearings in Washington, New York, Boston, and Chicago. 
The subcommittee was continuing under Chairman William E. Jen- 
ner (R., Ind.) the inquiry into Communist penetration into the 
educational process begun in 1952 under the chairmanship of 
Senator Pat McCarran (D., Nev.). 

Altogether it heard more than a hundred witnesses in the field 
of education in public session and many more in executive session. 
Of this number 82 educators, about whom the subcommittee had 
evidence of Communist Party membership, refused to answer ques- 
tions about their Communist affiliations, invoking instead their 
constitutional privilege against self-incrimination. Three others 
admitted Communist Party membership, but defied the committee 
in refusing to supply further details. Twenty were responsive wit- 
nesses. 

Of the 82, 40 were faculty members or employees of 16 differ- 
ent universities. The others were teachers in secondary school or 
persons who held other positions in the educational system. 

The subcommittee received impressive evidence from former 
Communist organizers that the Soviet organization was continu- 
ously engaged in a plan to penetrate our educational institutions at 
every possible point, thus posing a serious threat to our national 
security. The Communist agents who spun the very real web of 
conspiracy and intrigue within the framework of the United States 
Government departments, in almost all cases, were cradled in our 
distinguished universities and colleges. The subcommittee observed 
that the universities and colleges are, understandably, more and 
more participating in government, creating policy and shaping our 
national destiny and that the expressions and sentiments of educa- 
tors are more and more flowing into the main stream of our 
national culture. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 57 

The subcommittee's function in the educational field is to 
examine the workings of the Communist apparatus and to deter- 
mine whether it is necessary to have additional legislation against 
new and undefined crime. The subcommittee has no authority or 
power to prosecute for criminal action. That is the function of the 
prosecuting arm of the executive branch of the government. It is 
the function of the legislative branch of the government to go 
forward and determine whether or not new laws are necessary or 
old laws are outmoded. For these reasons, congressional committees 
must operate in an area where actions dangerous or undesirable to 
the public welfare are not yet defined in the law as crimes. This 
distinction was the determining factor in setting up our standards 
and procedures. 

At the beginning of this year, Senator Jenner issued for the 
subcommittee a statement of policy in which he said : ' If a totali- 
tarian organization such as the evidence shows to exist in our 
nation's schools is allowed to flourish in our institutions of learn- 
ing, unexposed and unchecked, not only will our youth be infused 
with seeds of their own and the nation's destruction, but academic 
freedom, the right to free inquiry, the right to dissent, the develop- 
ment of our culture, and the right to express free ideas and free 
thoughts will be choked and stifled. 

* * * Our purpose is to protect and safeguard academic 
freedom. Academic freedom is under attack by a monstrous growth 
no individual or community of scholars can fight alone. Traitors 
cannot operate in the free market if armed highwaymen constantly 
harass them from secret hideouts on the public roads. The free 
market of ideas cannot function if hidden conspirators are waiting 
at every vantage point to break and destroy the loyal people who 
are going quietly about the business of teaching our youth to the 
best of their ability. 

Our committee is not concerned about telling the leaders of our 
schools and colleges what to teach, or how to teach. It is concerned 
with showing them where this alien conspiracy is hidden, that it is 
fully armed with every weapon, waiting to attack at every vantage 
point. It is concerned with helping our academic leaders to meet 
the threat. There can be no academic freedom until this Soviet con- 
spiracy hidden in our schools and colleges is exposed to the light, 
and the rule of Moscow over its adherence in the educational world 
is broken.' " 30 
So far as the situation in California is concerned, the committee need 
only remind interested readers that a few years ago we reported the 
case of a young student who received his first Marxian indoctrination 
while attending high school in Southern California, then went to Stan- 
ford University where he was recruited into the Communist Party and 

30 Subversive Influence in the Educational Process, Senate Internal Security Subcom- 
mittee, op. cit., pp. 1 and 2. 



58 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

developed for high-level Communist work abroad. Finally realizing the 
inherent danger of this type of work in the Communist apparatus and 
resolving to break away from the party, this young man left Stanford 
against the wishes of his Communist superiors and started his studies at 
U. C. L. A. His dead body was found in the basement of a student dor- 
mitory near the campus shortly after he had attended a Communist 
Party function in downtown Los Angeles with four students who were 
also members of the apparatus. According to expert witnesses, including 
the chief autopsy surgeon of the Los Angeles County Coroner's Office, 
this young man was murdered in order to prevent him from disclosing 
what he had learned about high-level operations of the party abroad 
and on the Pacific Coast. The committee still has an abundance of 
documentary proof, including the death threat, that was received by 
this young man from his Communist superiors. 

In 1956, there was a similar instance at U. C. L. A. where a graduate 
student was found dead in his apartment, and again expert testimony 
established the fact of his murder and the committee retains in its 
possession records of his attendance at Communist functions and meet- 
ings with important Communist functionaries that amply demonstrates 
a motive to keep him from making more disclosures. This latter young 
man was not a member of the Communist Party, and had not been sub- 
mitted to its discipline so far as we know. 

There is not the slightest doubt about Communist infiltration of 
California institutions of higher learning. The Communist Party would 
obviously be idiotic to suddenly neglect this abundant field for recruit- 
ing and indoctrination, and for the development of reliable members 
who can keep the underground apparatus of the party informed about 
current strategic defense researches that are being carried on in our 
universities. 

When this committee undertook to make some inquiries about sub- 
versive infiltration at the University of California in 1952, there was a 
storm of faculty protest. Three years later the Fund for the Republic 
undertook a completely unofficial and gratuitous investigation in the 
same identical field. In the first instance the committee and the presi- 
dent of the university, then Dr. Robert Gordon Sproul, were made the 
objects of a tirade of abuse, innuendo, unsupported accusations and 
attacks from all quarters — including the leftwing element in some of 
the Bay area newspapers — simply because the State University and 
the State Legislature presumed to co-operate for the purpose of deter- 
mining the extent of subversive infiltration of the institution and to 
take such measures as might be deemed necessary to combat it. When 
the Fund for the Republic set up shop in April, 1955, for the purpose 
of making a detailed study of civil liberties, loyalty and subversion in 
connection with the university, there was not a whisper of protest. 
Even when representatives of the Fund for the Republic circulated a 
detailed and loaded questionnaire among the faculty members there 
were no eruptions from the faculty about this nosiness, no expressions 
of indignation from the Academic Senate because the Fund for the 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 59 

Kepublic presumed to pry into university affairs, there was no dis- 
pleasure because the academic freedom of the institution was being 
damaged. The American Civil Liberties Union looked on with tacit 
approval, and there was no objection from the Regents of the univer- 
sity at this unofficial snooping expedition. The Fund for the Republic 
established a base of operation within walking distance of the university 
campus and happily set about quizzing everybody it could find, and 
actually making a written survey which would indicate to whomever 
might be interested the division between the pro-Communist, ultra- 
liberals, freewheeling Socialists, and fellow travelers on the one hand, 
and the usually inarticulate, conservative faculty members on the other. 
Many of the questions propounded in this Fund for the Republic survey 
are of great significance. 

If we had undertaken to make this survey in writing there would 
have been a truly earth-shaking revulsion. Why ? Why this supine sub- 
mission by faculty and acquiescence by administration to this under- 
taking by an unofficial, purely gratuitous, self-appointed group, and 
such violent resistance when, without going to anything like these 
extremes, the Legislature sought to tender its services in a co-operative 
effort to stem the tide of subversive infiltration? The highly vocal 
spokesmen for the "liberal" clique are quick to protest about the inva- 
sion of academic freedom, but they apparently have one standard for 
those who seek to protect the state against subversion in the perfor- 
mance of official duties, and another standard for the same kind of a 
survey in greater detail by written questionnaire by an unofficial organ- 
ization like the Fund for the Republic. We consider this questionnaire 
of such importance that we set it forth herewith, all italics being 
emphasis added by the committee. 

Faculty Questionnaire, Fund for the Republic Study, April, 1955 
Q. 1-a. Is it your impression that there is greater concern these days 
than six or seven years ago on the part of the public and groups 
outside the college over teachers' political opinions and what 
political matters are taught in the classroom, or not? 

Greater concern ; not greater concern ; don't 

know 

b. In general, do you feel this greater concern has caused any 
harmful effects on the climate of freedom in the country, or do 
you think this charge of harmful effects has been overdone ? 

Caused harmful effects ; charge overdone ; not 

sure 

c. In what ways does this greater concern cause harmful effects ? 
Any others ? 

d. Can you tell me any advantage in this greater concern on the 
part of the public? Any others? 



60 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

e. Now, while there may be disagreement over the seriousness of 
the effect of this greater concern, let's talk for a moment about 
the areas that some people say might be affected in a harmful 
way. Here is a list of such areas. (Hand respondent card.) If 
you had to make a choice, can you tell me the one area on the 
list where you think the most harmful effects might be felt ? 

It impairs the intellectual role a college should play in a 
democracy ; It discourages constructive public discus- 
sion of important issues ; it degrades the academic 

profession ; it prepares the ground for totalitarianism 

; it really has no serious effects 

Q. 2-a. In the past few years have you felt that your own academic 
freedom has been threatened in any way or not? 

Threatened ; not threatened ; don't know 

b. In what way or ways do you feel your academic freedom has 
been threatened ? 

Q. 3-a. Do you feel there is a greater threat to intellectual activity 
in America than there was a generation ago, less of a threat, 
or don't you see any difference? 

Greater threat ; less of a threat ; no difference 

; don't know 

b. What is that greater threat? Anything else? 

Q. 4. There has been a good deal of discussion recently about 
whether or not the proposed admission of Red China to the U. N. 
is a proper subject for intercollegiate debate. 

a. How do you feel about it ; do you approve or disap- 
prove of intercollegiate debates on the admission of Red China 
to the U. N. ? 

Approve ; disapprove ; don't know 

b. Suppose you were a faculty adviser to the debating team right 
here and the president told you he wouldn't allow the team to 
debate the admission of Red China issue, would you protest vig- 
orously to him, or just say you disagreed and leave it at that, 
or would you accept his order and not say anything? 

Protest vigorously ; just say disagree and leave it 

; don't know ; comments : 

c. Suppose the president of this college (university) said that 
he wanted the team to debate the admission of Red China issue, 
would you do anything about it? 

Yes ; no ; don't know 

4. What would you do ? Anything else ? 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 61 

Q. 5-a. Suppose you were faculty adviser to a student organization 
here on this campus that proposed inviting Owen Lattimore, Far 
Eastern expert (now under indictment in Washington), to speak 
at a public meeting here. Do you think Lattimore ought to be 
allowed to speak here or not? 

Out to be allowed ; ought not to be allowed ; 

don't know 

d. Suppose the president did ban Lattimore from speaking and 
the students who invited him asked you to join with them in 
protesting the ban. Would you protest the ban vigorously, or 
just say you disagree and leave it at that, or would you accept 
his ban and not say anything? 

Protest vigorously ; just say disagree and leave it 

; not say anything ; don't know 

c. Suppose the president of this college (university) said that 
he would not interfere with the invitation to Lattimore, would 
you do anything to try to prevent his appearance on this 
campus ? 

Yes ; no ; don't know 

d. What would you do? Anything else? 

Q. 6. Here is a list of things that some people say have happened 
to social science faculty members. I wish you would run down 
the list and then tell me for each whether or not this has hap- 
pened to you or crossed your mind here at (name of col- 
lege/university). (Hand respondent list.) 

1. Have some colleages here on the campus ever given you ad- 
vice on how to avoid getting into political trouble at this college? 

Yes ; no ; don't know 

2. Do you find yourself being more careful now and then not 
to bring up certain political topics with your colleagues in order 
not to embarrass them? 

Yes ; no ; don't know 

3. Have you noticed more of a tendency lately in social gath- 
erings on the campus to avoid controversial political topics? 

Yes ; no ; don't know 

4. Do you find in your recommendations of reference materials 
to students that you are more careful today not to recommend 
something that might be later criticized for being too contro- 
versial ? 

Yes ; no ; don't know 

5. Have you ever wanted to join an organization, and despite 
the possibility of personal criticism for joining it, you went 
ahead and became a member anyway ? 

Yes ; no ; don't know 



62 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

6. Do you find in your conversations with your fellow faculty 
members that there is lots more talk these days about teacher 
firings than other political security problems? 

Yes ; no ; don't know 

7. Do you feel more inclined these days to advise the student 
political group not to take extreme positions for their own well- 
being ? 

Yes ; no ; don't know 

8. Have you ever wondered that some political opinion you've 
expressed might affect your job security or promotion at this 
college ? 

Yes ; no ; don't know 

9. Have you ever thought about the possibility that the adminis- 
tration of the college has a political file or dossier on every fac- 
ulty member, including yourself? 

Yes ; no ; don't know 

10. Do you find that you are more hesitant today to sponsor a 
student political group that advocates unpopular ideas ? 

Yes ; no ; don't know 

11. Do you ever find yourself wondering if because of your 
politics or something political you said or did that you might 
be a subject of gossip in the community ? 

Yes ; no ; don't know 

12. If a student had told you about some political indiscretion 
in his youth, but now you were convinced of his loyalty, and if 
the FBI came to you to check on that student, would you report 
this incident to the FBI? 

Yes ; no ; don't know 

13. If you were to hire a teaching assistant, would you wonder 
if his political background might possibly be embarrassing to 
you? 

Yes ; no ; don't know 

14. If you were considering a move to another college, have you 
wondered if anyone at that college would ask anyone at your 
present college about your political background and political 
biases you might have in your teaching? 

Yes ; no ; don't know 

15. Have you toned down anything you have written lately be- 
cause you were worried that it might cause too much contro- 
versy ? 

Yes ; no ; don't know 

16. Have you worried about the possibility that some student 
might inadvertently pass on a warped version of what you have 
said and lead to false ideas about your political views ? 

Yes : no ; don't know 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 63 

17. When you have private talks outside of the classroom with a 
student whose views are unpopular do you try to help him to 
conform to the prevailing views on the campus ? 

Yes ; no ; don't know 

18. Have you ever wondered if there was something political 
you said or did that would cause you to become unpopular with 
any group of alumni? 

Yes ; no ; don't know 

19. Have you occasionally refrained from expressing an opinion 
or participating in some activity in order not to embarrass the 
trustees of the college administration? 

Yes ; no ; don't know 

20. Have you recently wanted to express publicly a political 
point of view on something, and despite your worry that you 
might be criticized for saying what you did, you said it just 
the same? 

Yes ; no ; don't know 

21. Do you occasionally go out of your way to make statements 
or tell anecdotes in order to bring home the point directly or 
indirectly that you have no extreme leftist or rightist leanings? 

Yes ; no ; don't know 

7-a. Have you signed any loyalty oath here at this college in 
which you pledged to disavow all subversive activities and ideol- 
ogies ? 

Yes ; no ; don't know 

b. Did you welcome the chance to sign the oath, or did you feel 
some reluctance about signing it, or didn't you have any strong 
feelings one way or the other ? 

Welcomed the chance ; reluctant about it ; no 

feelings either way 

c. Why did you sign it — because you felt your job was at stake 
or that it wasn 't worth making an issue over this, or what ? 

Job at stake ; not worth making issue over ; 

other 

d. Suppose you were asked to sign an oath in which you pledged 
to disavow all subversive activity and ideologies, would you re- 
fuse, sign it with some reluctance, or welcome the opportunity? 

Kefuse ; sign with reluctance ; welcome oppor- 
tunity ; don't know 

e. What's the main reason you feel this way? Any other rea- 
sons? 

f. Why would you sign it — because you would feel that your job 
was at stake or that it wasn't worth making an issue over this, 
or what? 

Job at stake ; not worth making issue over ; 

other 



64 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Q. 8-a. Have you ever worked on a project or received a government 
grant or worked for the government at a job in which security- 
clearance from the government was necessary? 

Yes ; no ; don't know 

b. Have you ever been turned down for a government job or 
for work on a government project on which you suspect might 
have been political grounds, or hasn't this happened to you? 

Have been turned down ; hasn't happened I 

don't know 

Q. 9-a. Can you tell me which periodicals dealing with politics or 
public affairs you generally read — (here we don't mean tech- 
nical journals)? Any others? 

b. I wonder if you would tell me what political groups or or- 
ganizations interested in public affairs you belong to or make 
contributions to? Any others? 

Q. 10-a. Do you usually express your own political views on the 
subjects you teach, or do you usually try to avoid expressing 
your point of view? 

Usually express own views ; avoid expressing own 

views ; don't know 

b. After expressing your own point of view, have you ever 
wondered afterward if you should have said it or not? 

Wondered ; never wondered ; 

don't know 

c. Can you tell me more about it? 

Q. 11-a. Have you ever felt your point of view on a political subject 
was reported unfavorably to higher authorities or hasn't this 
happened to youf 

Yes ; no ; don't know 

b. Can you tell me more about it? Anything else? 

c. Have you ever felt that you were being watched in a class- 
room? 

Yes ; no ; don't know 

d. Can you tell me more about it ? Anything else ? 

Q. 12-a. Leaving aside Communist groups, are there any groups 
that teachers like you might belong to that you feel are likely 
to be attacked as being subversive? Any others? 
b. Again, leaving aside Communist publications, which publica- 
tions that teachers like yourself might receive do you feel are 
likely to be attacked as being subversive? Any others? 

Q. 13-A. Have you ever been a member of a political group which 
advocated a program or a cause which has been unpopular or 
controversial, or haven't you been a member of any such group? 

Been a member ; never been a member ; don't 

know 



UN-AMEKICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 65 

b. Has anyone ever criticized you for belonging to such a group 
or not? 

Yes ; no ; don't know 

c. Can you tell me more about that criticism? Anything else? 

d. Do you think your having belonged to this political group 
adversely affected your academic career, or don't you think it 
had any bearing on it? 

Adversely affected ; no bearing ; don't know 



e. Even though nothing has happened so far, are you very wor- 
ried that this past association might some day have an effect on 
your academic career, only a little worried, or aren't you con- 
cerned about it? 

Very worried ; a little worried ; not concerned 

; don't know 

Q. 14-a. If someone accused you of Leftist leanings, would you 
expect most, some, only a few, or hardly any of your colleagues 
to rally to your support? 

Most ; some ; only a few ; hardly any 

; don't know 

b. Now what about the administration of the college — do you 
think they would support you wholeheartedly, with reservations, 
or hardly at all? 

Wholeheartedly ; with reservations ; hardly 

at all ; don't know 

Q. 15. Some claim there hardly exists an area in the social sciences 
which does not lend itself to value judgment — that is, subject 
to difference of opinion. 

a. Now, in general, for the courses you teach, which emphasis 
would you lean to: (hand respondent card) 

(1) Such controversial matters should be discussed fre- 
quently in undergraduate teaching because of the educa- 
tional value of such discussion 

(2) One should answer such questions honestly when they 
come up but not seek out such discussions 

(3) In times like these it is better to avoid the discussion 
of such controversial issues as much as possible. 

Comments 

b. Have you always generally held this point of view or have 
you come to feel this way in the past few years? 

Always held this view ; come to feel this way in the 

past few years ; not sure 



66 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Q. 16. In teaching subjects which might require questioning of tra- 
ditional values, which of these two approaches do you personally 
feel is the better educational policy for teachers to follow: 

(1) After proper discussion, to argue in a measured way 
for his own point of view ; or, 

(2) To give all sides of the question impartially without 
revealing his own views 

Hard to decide 

Q. 17. If you had to make a choice, in general, which of these two 
approaches do you think ought to be more emphasized more 
in teaching the social sciences to students in their first two 
years of undergraduate studies? 

(1) To give the students a basic grounding of facts on the 
subject ; or 

(2) To get the students thinking about the problem areas 
in the subject 

Hard to decide 

Q. 18. (Hand respondent card) (Don't read question) 

In an engineering school education, it is said to be important for 
students to understand the prevailing state of the mechanical 
arts. In addition, their education should prepare them to make 
their own original contributions and to accelerate new develop- 
ments. 

Some say this is directly comparable to the intellectual train- 
ing of students in the social sciences. It is argued that these 
students should be prepared to make their own original contri- 
butions to help society to better meet the needs of its people. 
How important do you see this element of creative preparation 
in the teaching of the social sciences to undergraduates: An 
urgent part of undergraduate teaching, or a quite important 
part of undergraduate teaching, or a minor part of undergrad- 
uate teaching, or not the proper function of undergraduate 
teaching, or you have honestly not given it much thought? 

Urgent need of undergraduate teaching , or quite 

important part of undergraduate teaching , or 

minor part of undergraduate teaching , or not proper 

function of undergraduate teaching , or 

honestly have never given it much thought , or don't 

know 

Q. 19. Do you feel your philosophy on how to teach is pretty typical 
of that of most of your colleagues on the social science faculty 
here, or do you feel your philosophy is slightly different or very 
much different from that of your colleagues? 

Pretty typical ; slightly different ; very much 

different ; don't know 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 67 

20-a. How closely do you follow civil liberties problems and issues 
in the news — as much as any other news, more than most other 
news, or not as much as other news? 

As much as any other news ; more than most other 

news ; not as much as other news ; don't know 



b. Can you tell me which specific cases, if any, came to your 
mind when I asked you this last question ? Any others ? 

c. Apart from any cases here in this college, what civil liberties 
or academic freedom cases, if any, have occurred around here 
in this area even though they may not have been in the national 
news? Any others? Tell me which specific cases, if any, came 
to your mind when I asked you this last question? Any others? 

d. Do you find yourself discussing civil liberties issues and prob- 
lems with your friends, colleagues, or family members fairly 
often, just occasionally, or hardly ever? 

Fairly often ; just occasionally ; hardly ever 

; don't know 

Q. 21. Compared to six or seven years ago, is it your impression that 
individual students are less willing to express unpopular politi- 
cal views (in the classroom, etc.), more willing, or hasn't there 
been much change? 

(a) In the classroom less ; more ; no change 

; don't know 

(b) In private talks with faculty members outside the class- 
room, less ; more ; no change ; don't 

know 

Q. 22. Compared to six or seven years ago, is it your impression that 
students seem to be less willing to form and to join student 
political organizations advocating what might be unpopular po- 
litical beliefs, are they more willing, or would you say there has 
been no appreciable change? 

Less willing ; more willing ; no change ; 

don't know ; no such groups here 

Q. 23. In your judgment, what are the things that could make a 
member of the social science faculty here controversial? Any- 
thing else? 

Q. 24. Is it your impression that members of the social science fac- 
ulty here are less willing (to express unpopular political views, 
etc.) than they were six or seven years ago, more willing, or 
hasn't there been much change? 

(a) To express unpopular political views in the classroom: 

less willing ; more willing ; not much change 

: don't know 



68 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

(b) To express unpopular political views publicly in the 

community : less willing ; more willing ; not 

much change ; don't know 

(c) To express unpopular political views privately among 

friends : less willing ; more willing ; not much 

change ; don't know 

(d) To serve as faculty advisers to student political groups 

that might advocate unpopular causes: less willing ; 

more willing ; not much change ; don't know 



Q. 25-a. Do you have the impression that compared to six or seven 
years ago, some members of the faculty here are more worried 
about possible attacks and accusations on their political beliefs 
and activities, less worried, or don't you think there has been 
much change ? 

More worried ; less worried ; not much change 

; have become bolder ; don't know 

b. From what sources do they think the attacks might come? 
Anywhere else? 

Q. 26-a. Now I would like to ask you about the research your col- 
leagues do, the papers they publish, or the books they write, and 
the speeches they make. Any or all of these; do you feel that 
some of your social science colleagues here have avoided subjects 
that might have political repercussions more than they might 
have had six or seven years ago, less than they might have had 
then, or don't you think there has been much change? 

Avoid subjects more ; avoid subjects less ; no 

change ; don't know 

b. Without naming names of individuals, can you give me some 
specific illustrations of the sort of thing they have done in these 
cases ? Anything else ? 

Q. 27. Do you feel that in the selection of reference materials they 
recommend to students, your social science colleagues here have 
become more careful today, as compared to six or seven years 
ago, or less careful to keep out material that might prove too 
controversial, or don't you think this has generally happened? 

More careful ; less careful ; have become bolder 

; don't know 

Q. 28-a. Have there been any cases here in this college where you feel 
that academic freedom of any member of the faculty has been 
threatened? 

Yes ; no ; don't know 

b. Can you tell me about it ? ( Them ? ) Any others ? 

c. What effects did the incident (s) have on the rest of the fac- 
ulty here? Anything else? 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 69 

29-a. Has any group or person accused anyone on this faculty 
here of being subversive or of engaging in any un-American 
activities in the past few years? 

Yes ; no ; don't know 

b. Can you tell me about it? (Them?) Anything else? 

c. "What did you think of the whole affair (s) ? 

d. Do you feel the administration handled the incident in a way 
which protected the reputation of the college (university, etc.) 
or not? 

Protected the reputation of the university with the public 

at large: yes ; no ; don't know 

Protected the rights of the faculty: yes ; no ; 

don't know 

Protected the educational standards of the college (univer- 
sity) : yes ; no ; don't know 

30. If you had to make a choice, in a case in which a member of 
the faculty is accused of being subversive or engaging in un- 
American activities, which do you think it most important for 
the college (university) administration to protect — the reputa- 
tion of the college (university) or the rights of the faculty 
members ? 

Reputation of college (university) ; rights of faculty 

member ; depends ; don't know 

31-a. Thinking back over the last few years, do you know of any 
cases of teachers here who probably would have been added to 
the staff if they hadn't had controversial political views, or don't 
you know of any such cases? 

Know of such a case ; don't know of any case 

b. Do you know of anyone ivho is no longer teaching here as a 
resxdt of his political views, or don't you know of any such cases? 

Don't know of such a case here ; don't know of any 



c. Do you think it is possible at this college (university) that 
a man with- slightly greater merit who was unconventional could 
be passed over for a permanent appointment in favor of a man 
with somewhat less merit who was conventional, or don't you 
think that could happen here? 

Could happen here ; could not happen here ; 

don't know 

d. Can you tell me about any cases here such as this— again 
without mentioning names? Any others? 

32. Compared to what you know about other academic institu- 
tions, would you say that working conditions here (teaching 
load, salaries, and so on) are: unusually good; good, but could 



70 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

be improved; fair; or not good, but could be worse; or unusu- 
ally bad? 

Unusually good ; good, but could be improved ; 

fair ; not good, but could be worse ; unusually 

bad ; no opinion 

Q. 33-a. Compared to what you know about other academic institu- 
tions, by and large, would you say that relations among faculty 
members here are : unusually good ; good, but could be improved ; 
fair ; are not good, but could be worse ; or unusually bad ? 

Unusually good ; good, but could be improved ; 

fair ; not good, but could be worse ; unusually 

bad ; no opinion 

b. Compared to what you know about other academic institu- 
tions, by and large, would you say that relations between the 
faculty and administration of this college (university) are: 
Unusually good; good, but could be improved; fair; are not 
good, but could be worse ; or unusually bad ? 

Unusually good ; good, but could be improved ; 

fair ; not good, but could be worse ; unusually 

bad ; no opinion 

Q. 34-a. Has the faculty and the administration discussed the ques- 
tions of academic freedom in joint meetings within the last 
year ar not? 

Yes ; no ; don't know 

b. Do you feel the administration of the college has taken a 
clear stand on matters of academic freedom or not? 

Yes ; no ; don't know 

c. How would you describe the administration's stand on mat- 
ters of academic freedom? Anything else? 

Q. 35-a. Of course it is possible to have events that stir up strong 
feelings on the local or state as well as the national level. Which 
would you say you have had more of around here — local, state, 
or national controversies? 

Local ; state ; national ; don't 

know 

b. Can you tell me about any local events that have created 
strong pro and con feelings here in the past few years? 

Q. 36. Is it your impression that the administration of this college 
(university) is under more pressure to avoid controversy from 
(trustees, etc.) than it was six or seven years ago, less pressure, 
or that there hasn't been much change? 

(a) Trustees: more ; less ; not much change 

; don't know 

(b) Alumni: more ; less ; not much change 

; don't know 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 71 

(c) The community right here: more ; less ; 

not much change ; don't know 

(d) The Legislature or local politicians: more ; 

less ; not much change ; don't know 



Q. 37. If you had to choose one, who would you say has the most 
powerful voice here on this campus in determining the degree 
of academic freedom that exists here — the trustees, the presi- 
dent, the dean, the heads of departments, the faculty, the stu- 
dents, or who? 

Trustees ; president ; dean ; heads of 

departments ; faculty ; students ; all 

; none ; other ; don't know 

Q. 38. Now, I should like to ask you some questions about a man 
who admits he is a Communist. 

(a) Suppose he is working at a defense plant. 
Should he be fired, or not? 

Yes ; no ; don't know 

(b) Suppose he is a clerk in a store. 
Should he be fired, or not? 

Yes ; no ; don't know 

(c) Suppose he is teaching in a college. 
Should he be fired, or not? 

Yes ; no ; don't know 

Q. 39. Now I would like you to think of another person. (Hand 
respondent card.) A man whose loyalty has been questioned 
before a Congressional committee, but swears under oath he has 
never been a Communist. 

(a) Suppose he has been working in a defense plant. 
Should he be fired, or not? 

Yes ; no ; don't know 

(b) Suppose he is a clerk in a store. Should be be fired 
or not? 

Yes ; no ; don't know 

(c) Suppose he is teaching in a college or university. 
Should he be fired or not ? 

Yes ; no ; don't know 

Q. 40. How great a danger do you feel that American Communists 
are to this country at the present time — a very great danger, 
a great danger, some danger, or no danger? 

A very great danger ; a great danger ; some 

danger ; hardly any danger ; no danger ; 

don't know 



72 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Q. 41. If there are students who want to join it, do you think that 
a (Young Democratic Club, etc.) ought to be allowed on this 
campus or not? 

Young Democratic Club : allowed ; not allowed ; 

depends ; don't know 

Young Republican Club : allowed ; not allowed ; 

depends ; don't know. 

Students for Democratic Action: allowed ; not al- 
lowed ; depends ; don't know 

Young Socialist League: allowed ; not allowed ; 

depends ; don't know 

Young Communist League: allowed ; not allowed 

; depends ; don't know 

Q. 42. In general, how do you feel about a social science teacher 
who is an admitted Communist f Do you or don't you feel that he 
is not very different from any other teacher with unorthodox 
views, etc? 

(a) He is not very different from any other teachers with 
unorthodox views: Yes ; no ; don't know 

(b) He is troublesome mainly as a source of embarrassment 
to the college: Yes ; no ; don't know 

(c) He is not fit to be a teacher: Yes ; no ; 

don't know 

(d) He is a dangerous person to have students exposed to: 
Yes ; no ; don't know 

Q. 43. Do you think there is a definite advantage in having a teacher 
with radical or nonconformist views on the social science fac- 
ulty here, or do you think that is a luxury at best, which this 
faculty cannot afford? 

Definite advantage ; luxury cannot afford ; 

cannot decide 

Q. 44. On political matters, do you feel that you are more liberal or 
more conservative than most of the trustees here at this college, 
etc.? 

(a) Most of the trustees here at this college: more liberal 
; more conservative ; same ; don't know 



(b) Most of the administration here: more liberal ; 

more conservative ; same ; don't know 

(c) Most of the faculty here : more liberal ; more con- 
servative ; same 

(d) Most of the alumni of this college : more liberal ; 

more conservative ; same ; don't know 

(e) Most people in the community in which the college is 

located: more liberal ; more conservative ; same 

; don't know 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 73 

(f) (If "more liberal" or "more conservative" in a, b, c, 
d, or e above) Have you felt some pressures — direct or in- 
direct — to conform to the prevailing political pattern or 
haven't you felt any of these pressures? 

Have felt : have not felt ; don't know 



(g) How have these pressures shown themselves? In any 
other ways ? 

Q. 45. Here is a list of four occupations (hand respondent card). 

A. Now suppose a typical businessman were to rank these 
four occupations by the prestige he holds for each — in what 
order do you think he would rank each? 

B. How do you think a typical Congressman would rank 
them? 

C. Finally, how do you think the typical trustee of your 
college (university) would rank them? (Note: rank from 
1-4 for each category.) 

Manager of a branch bank : 

(a) Businessman ; (b) congressman ; (c) trus- 
tee 

Account executive of an advertising agency: 
(a) Businessman ; (b) congressman ; (c) trus- 
tee 

Lawyer : 

(a) Businessman ; (b) congressman ; (c) trus- 
tee 

A college professor : 

(a) Businessman ; (b) congressman ; (c) trus- 
tee 

Don't know 

FACTUAL DATA 

1. How long have you been teaching in colleges or universities? 

Less than. five years ; 5 up to 10 years ; 10 up to 20 

years ; 20 up to 30 years ; 30 years or more 

2. How long have you been teaching at this college or university? 

Less than five years ; 5 up to 10 years ; 10 up to 

20 years ; 20 up to 30 years ; 30 years or more 



3-a. Do you have a permanent or rotating chairman of your depart- 
ment? 

Permanent chairman ; rotating chairman 

b. Are you now or have you been a department head here? 
Yes ; no ; don't know [Sic] 



74 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

c. (Do you) (Does your department chairman) (department 
head) have a considerable amount of latitude and authority in 
making policy decisions or would you say (you) (he) (are) is 
essentially concerned with administrative details? 

Considerable amount of latitude and authority ; es- 
sentially concerned with administrative details ; 

don't know 

4. Can you tell me what degrees you hold ? 

B.A ; B.S ; M.A ; M.S ; Ph.D. 

; other ; don't know [Sic] 

5-a. What department are you in? 

Economics ; History ; Government ; An- 
thropology ; International Relations ; Sociology 

; Geography ; Social Science ; Social 

Studies ; Political Science 

b. What courses do you now teach? 

c. Do you get a great deal of opportunity in the courses you 
teach to discuss controversial issues, only little opportunity, or 
hardly any at all ? 

Great deal of opportunity ; only little opportunity 

; hardly any at all ; don't know [Sic] 

6. Will you tell me what ranking you hold — instructor, lecturer, as- 

sistant professor, associate professor, or full professor? 

Instructor ; lecturer ; assistant professor 

; associate professor ; full professor ; 

don't know [Sic] 

7. Do you have a permanent appointment here on this faculty or 

not? 

Yes ; no ; don't know [Sic] 

8. Have you ever hired any teaching assistants? 

Yes ; no ; don't know [Sic] 

9-a. Have you written a dissertation ? 

Yes ; no 

b. Has it been published in full or in part? 

In full ; in part ; not been published 

c Have you published any (other) papers? 

Yes ; no 

d. How many? 

Two or less ; two or more 

e. Have you published any (other) books? 

Yes ; no 

10-a. Can you tell me any academic honors which have been be- 
stowed on you ? 
b. Have you served on any college or university committees? 

Yes ; no 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 75 

c. Have you held office in any professional or academic so- 
cieties ? 

Yes ; no 

d. Have you delivered any papers at the meetings of any pro- 
fessional or academic societies? 

None ; one or more ; three or more 

11. Have you ever applied for a Fullbright Lecturer or Scholar 
Award ? 

Yes ; no ; don't know [Sic] 

12. Have you served as a consultant to industry or any other or- 
ganizations excluding the Federal Government? 

Yes ; no ; don't know [Sic] 

13-a. Is you salary today higher than it was five years ago ? 

Yes ; no 

b. By what percent has it gone up? 

Less than 5 percent ; less than 10 percent ; 10- 

20 percent ; 20-30 percent ; 30 percent or more 

; don't know [Sic] 

c Do you have any outside source of income besides your sal- 
ary? 

Yes ; no 

14. Are you a member of the American Association of University 
Professors ? 

Yes ; no 

15-a. Are you married, single, widowed, or divorced ? 

Married ; single ; widowed ; divorced 



b. Do you have any children? 

yes ; no 

c How many? 

1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4 ; 5 ; 6 or more 



16 . Have you (your husband) ever served in any branch of the 
Armed Forces? 

yes ; no 

17. Sex? 

Male ; female 

18 . What is your age ? 

20-30 ; 31-40 ; 41-50 ; 51-60 ; 61 

or older 

19 . Race : 

White ; Negro 

20 . Do you mind telling me where your grandparents were born ? 

United States ; Canada ; Great Britain 

(England, Scotland, Wales) ; Ireland ; Ger- 
many ; Scandinavia (Norway, Sweden, Denmark) 



76 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

; Italy ; other "Western Europe (Netherlands, 

Belgium, France, Switzerland, Spain, Portugal) ; 

Poland ; other Eastern Europe (Austria, Hungary, 

Czechoslovakia, Rumania, Bulgaria, Greece, Yugoslavia, 
Albania, Russia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia) 
; all other ; don't know 

21. Can you tell me your father's occupation? 

22. Do you mind telling me your religious preference? 

Protestant ; Catholic ; Jewish ; other 

; none ; don't know 

23. How many times in the 'past year, if at all, has a representative 

from the F. B. I. talked with you — for any purpose? 

None ; one or two ; three or more 

24. Are the people you see the most of socially mainly from your 
department, from the faculty generally, or from the community? 

Own department ; faculty generally ; commu- 
nity ; don't know [Sic] 

25. "Would you classify yourself politically as a Republican, Demo- 
crat, Independent, or what? 

Republican ; Democrat ; Independent ; 

other ; don't know 

26. "Would you mind telling me whom you voted for in 1952 for 

president ? 

Eisenhower ; Stevenson ; Other ; did not 

vote ; don't remember 

27. Do you mind telling me whom you voted for in 1948 for presi- 

dent? 

Dewey ; Truman ; Wallace ; Thurmond 

; other ; did not vote ; don't remem- 
ber 

What was accomplished by this survey? An examination of the key 
questions discloses its main objectives. It starts by inquiring about the 
increasing public concern over teaching political opinions, the sort 
of political matters being taught, and whether this concern has caused 
any damage to academic freedom. This general topic is pursued, ask- 
ing for more and more detail, until the respondent is asked if it ever 
occurred to him the university might be keeping "a political file or 
dossier on every faculty member, including yourself." (Questionnaire, 
page 4.) It would seem obvious that if such data were maintained on 
every faculty member, it would necessarily include the member being 
interviewed, and we wonder what is meant by "a political file or dos- 
sier." Does it mean that the administration wants to know how many 
Democrats and Republicans it employs? If so, the county recorder's 
office would provide this information to the Fund for the Republic 
without necessitating the repetition of the question to every person 
interviewed. And if it refers to some sort of subversive political organi- 
zation, and compendia of this type of information maintained by the 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 77 

administration, it would appear that the question should state this 
fact plainly and without quibbling. As it stands, this particular ques- 
tion is intriguingly ambiguous. 

Another inquiry in the general category asks whether, if the re- 
spondent had been given information by a student about "a political 
indiscretion in his youth," and thereafter the F. B. I., in the perform- 
ance of its duty to protect the government against subversion, asked 
the respondent about the student, would he frankly assist the F. B. I. 
by reporting the incident, or would he refuse to do so if, in his own 
opinion, the student was now loyal? (Questionnaire, page 5.) The word- 
ing of this question plainly indicates that the word "political" here 
refers to a subversive affiliation since it is related to the fact that the 
respondent may now be convinced of his student's loyalty. 

At this point it is perceived that the Fund for the Kepublic is itself 
keeping a rather elaborate "file or dossier" on every faculty member 
it questions. And this particular inquiry should provide a list of those 
who would refuse to disclose loyalty information about students when 
requested to do so by the F. B. I. It collects information about whether 
respondent believes he was fired or rejected from a government position 
for "political grounds," and solicitously adds, "or hasn't this hap- 
pened to you?" (Questionnaire, page 7.) 

The faculty members are then asked for a list of the periodicals they 
read dealing with politics or public affairs; the political organizations 
to which they belong or to which they contribute ; and, ' ' have you ever 
felt your point of view on a political subject was reported unfavorably 
to higher authorities ? " To which is once more appended the commiser- 
ating inquiry, "or hasn't this happened to you?" (Questionnaire, 
page 8) ; and then the respondent is asked if he ever felt he was being 
watched in the classroom, but this question doesn't specify who might 
be doing this teacher- watching : student spies, administration spies, or 
government spies. 

The first part of the questionnaire- — there are three parts — concludes 
with two questions that, for the first time, specifically mention Com- 
munism and ask whether the respondent is aware of any groups or 
publications "other than Communist," that might be attacked as be- 
ing subversive. (Questionnaire, page 9.) 

Section 2 commences with questions that are obviously designed 
to draw out the attitudes of faculty members who once belonged to "a 
political group that advocated a program or a cause which has been un- 
popular or controversial." The questioner wants to know whether the 
respondent has "been a member, never been a member, don't know." 
(It is difficult to imagine how anyone fit to teach could be a member of 
such an organization and not know it). Then the respondent is asked 
if he has been criticized because of this affiliation, if such membership 
has jeopardized his academic career, and even if nothing has happened 
yet — does he worry that this past association might one day injure his 
career; whether, if accused of "leftist leanings," most, some, only a 



78 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

few, or hardly any colleagues or the administration would rally to his 
support. 

After thus exploring the respondent's attitude toward the teaching 
of controversial subjects, the questions shift to a revelation of his 
attitude about civil liberties, seeking information about whether he is 
interested in these matters as much, more, or not as much as other 
news; whether he will describe "cases around here in this area" other 
than at the college; how often he discusses civil liberty issues with 
others; if students have become more unwilling to express unpopular 
political views in class during the past six or seven years, or to join 
groups advocating such ideas. 

In discussing faculty attitudes with the respondent he is asked 
whether social science teachers are less willing to express "unpopular 
political views" than they were six or seven years ago — in the class- 
room, in the community and among friends, and to act as faculty ad- 
visors to ' ' student political organizations advocating unpopular causes. ' ' 

Continuing to explore general faculty attitudes, the questions now 
move to a wider field, utilizing the respondent as a source of informa- 
tion about his colleagues. He is asked if they seem more worried about 
being assailed for their unorthodox political beliefs and activities than 
they were six or seven years ago, or "less worried, not much change, or 
have become bolder;" the respondent is asked about his colleagues' 
research, the books they write, the papers they publish — even the 
speeches they make and whether he believes any of this work has become 
restricted because of their dread of political repercussions; whether 
selection of reference material for use by students is likewise restricted 
for the same reason. He is asked to describe specific cases where the 
academic freedom of any of his colleagues has been threatened, and 
whether he knows of any person or group that has accused any faculty 
member of being subversive or engaging in un-American activities 
"in the past few years," and his opinion is solicited concerning how 
each case was handled by the university administration. The respondent 
is then asked whether he considers it most important to protect the 
reputation of the university or the faculty member. Nothing is ever 
mentioned about protecting the state, the students or the parents. The 
respondent is asked about persons who were not hired because of 
their "controversial political views," and is asked to describe all cases 
he knows of where persons were fired because of such views. Questions 
involving discrimination by the university administration are handled 
by inquiring whether a slightly inferior man might be promoted ahead 
of his more capable but "unconventional" colleague, and specific in- 
stances are requested. 

Outside influences are considered when the respondent is asked if, 
within the past six or seven years, the university administration has 
been subject to more pressure from the regents, the alumni, the local 
community, the Legislature, or "local politicians." 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 79 

The closing question in Part 2 inquires who is most influential in 
determining questions of academic freedom : the regents, the president, 
the deans, heads of departments, faculty, or students. 

Section 3 commences by putting questions about the admitted 
Communist, the respondent being asked whether such a person should 
be fired from a defense plant, a store, a university. The same questions 
are then asked concerning a man who swears to a congressional com- 
mittee that he has never been a Communist. Then comes a significant 
inquiry asking whether the respondent regards American Communists 
"a very great danger" to the country, "a great danger, some danger, 
hardly any, or no danger. ' ' Then whether any of these students organi- 
zations should be allowed on the campus: "Young Democratic Club, 
Young Republican Club, Students for Democratic Action, the Young 
Socialist League, Young Communist League." 

This is followed by narrowing the scope of a previous question about 
whether an open Communist should be fired from the university; this 
one asking if such an admitted party member should be permitted to 
teach any of the Social Sciences. There are also some subquestions to 
further explore the respondent's attitude in this field: he is asked 
whether he regards the admitted Communist as virtually the same as 
any other teacher with unorthodox ideas — (a member of a world-wide 
Fascist movement to subvert the United States, we presume, would be 
a teacher with "unorthodox" ideas) ; or only as a source of embarrass- 
ment to the university; that he is not fit to be a teacher; that he is a 
dangerous person to place in contact with the students. Then comes 
another peculiarly -worded inquiry: "Do you think there is a definite 
advantage in having a teacher with radical or nonconformist views on 
the social science faculty here, or do you think that is a luxury at best, 
which this faculty cannot afford?" We believe the wording of this 
question is so obvious in purport that it requires no further comment. 

The respondent is then requested to evaluate the degree of his own 
liberal attitude — whether he is more liberal or conservative than the 
regents, than most of the administration, most of the faculty, most of 
the alumni, most of the community where the university is located. 
And, unless he turns out to be on an even keel with all of these groups, 
he is asked if he hasn't felt some pressures nudging him toward con- 
formity with them. 

The rest of the questions in this third and last section of the ques- 
tionnaire deal mainly with factual data such as family status, employ- 
ment record, religion, race, social contacts, politics and voting record. 
But, sandwiched into these is this one: "How many times in the past 
year, if at all, has a representative from the F. B. I. talked with you — 
for any purpose?" 

We have isolated many of these questions because they seem to us 
very significant ; and we have discussed this project of the Fund for the 
Republic on the University of California campus because it emphasizes 
the point we made earlier. It is this: the ultra-liberal educators who 



80 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

profess to be so grimly determined to preserve academic integrity, have 
no compunction whatever about adopting one set of standards to apply 
to projects such as this launched by the Fund for the Republic, the 
American Civil Liberties Union, and other such groups, and an entirely 
different set of standards for the F. B. I., legislative committees, and 
other official groups that are endeavoring to carry out their duties to 
protect our institutions against destruction by the forces of subversion. 

When, as we have pointed out, the simple arrangement whereby this 
committee agreed to co-operate with the university in an attempt to 
protect it against infiltration was announced, we were met with a blast 
of outraged protest from these ultra-liberals, enthusiastically abetted 
by the American Civil Liberties Union of Northern California, and the 
tactics that were employed were so unethical that some of the directors 
of the latter organization wrote it letters of indignation. The attack 
came to nothing, really; but it does demonstrate most forcibly the 
lengths to which this highly active group will go to prevent any at- 
tempt, however restrained and objective, to investigate subversion by 
any official agency. If representatives of the State Legislature had pre- 
sumed to enter upon the campus of the state university with a 27-page 
questionnaire asking questions about the extent of subversive infiltra- 
tion and influence in the university, there would have been an immedi- 
ate expression of outrage and indignation and accusations that we 
were battering away at the institution's academic freedom. 

But when the Fund for the Eepublic appeared three years after our 
co-operative arrangement with the university was announced and 
launched its survey, there was no resentment. The project was quietly 
accepted, resulted in interviews conducted with many faculty members 
along the lines heretofore set forth, and provided the Fund for the 
Republic, (or anyone else who might have access to its records), with 
a wealth of information that we will analyze below. We are aware that 
many faculty members at the university refused to answer any of these 
questions, did not in any way co-operate with the project, and resented 
the intrusion into their affairs and the taking of their time by this 
wholly gratuitous and unofficial project. 

In the process of asking members of the faculty at the state university 
to give information about each other and about the administration, 
this questionnaire could provide the Fund for the Republic with in- 
formation resulting from a winnowing through the faculty, separating 
conservatives from liberals, and breaking down the most liberal groups 
into degrees. It would thus be possible to isolate all faculty members 
who — to take the most ' ' progressive ' ' respondents — believe that they are 
justified in determining whether they should co-operate with the F. B. I. 
when asked about students' loyalty, or wheather they should deliber- 
ately withhold such information about the students' subversive past, 
thereby arrogating to themselves the right to substitute their own 
judgment as laymen for that of security experts. Having thus lumped 
together all faculty members who would go this far, the Fund for the 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 81 

Republic could add all those who believe that American Communists 
are wholly innocuous; that Communist Party members should be al- 
lowed to teach young students and freely bombard them with Com- 
munist propaganda; that the university should avail itself of the 
"luxury" of hiring teachers with radical views and scattering them 
throughout the social science subjects; that the Young Communist 
League should be allowed to function on the campus with some liberal 
professors as its advisors. 

This questionnaire makes no bones about boring into the situation so 
far as curricula are concerned and delving into teaching methods, re- 
search projects and attitudes of faculty members towards all of the 
security precautions taken by the administration. It does not hesitate 
to question the respondents about each other, but infers very pointedly 
that similar scrutiny and questions by official agencies in the course of 
their duties is reprehensible, and that the administration should main- 
tain no files on the subversive background of its employees because this 
would worry the employees too much and possibly interfere with their 
academic freedom. 

Professors Refuse to Co-operate with F. 8. /. 

Three years after this questionnaire was circulated by the Fund for 
the Republic, and the questions about the Federal Bureau of Investi- 
gation were adroitly planted, the Northern Section of the Academic 
Senate of the University of California announced that thenceforth the 
university professors at Berkeley would flatly refuse to co-operate with 
the Federal Bureau of Investigation in all cases where inquiries were 
made about the loyalty of students who were being considered for 
federal jobs. According to an article which appeared in an East Bay 
newspaper 31 the Northern Section of the University of California 
Academic Senate expressed the idea that freedom of discussion in the 
classroom would suffer if students realized their beliefs might affect 
their future employment by government or in private business. The 
Northern Section of the Academic Senate, which has jurisdiction over 
all faculty members at the Berkeley, Davis and San Francisco cam- 
puses of the university, adopted this gag rule on October 28, 1958. A 
part of its resolution reads as follows : 

"This faculty asserts that freedom of discussion in the classroom 
and in academic consultation is fundamental to higher education. 
The essential freedom of the university can be seriously jeopard- 
ized if argument and expression of opinion are inhibited, par- 
ticularly in those subjects which are held controversial in some 
quarters and in some moments of history. 

Therefore, reports by a teacher concerning the beliefs, at- 
titudes, activities, and the associations of a student regarding 
religion, politics, and public affairs in general, are not permissible 

31 Oakland Tribune, Oct. 29, 1958. 



82 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

when the reports are based on information acquired by the teacher 
in the course of instruction or in the course of other student-teacher 
relations that involve the student's academic program." 

The article points out that this rule was originally proposed by a 
member of the Speech Department, Professor David Eynin, at a meet- 
ing of the Academic Senate on May 20, 1958, the matter thereafter 
being referred to its Committee on Academic Freedom. It is to be 
noted at this juncture that the authority to make such rulings had been 
delegated to the Academic Senate by the University's Board of Regents. 

Not all of the professors were happy with the adoption of this refusal 
to co-operate with the United States Government in its effort to protect 
itself against internal subversion, since some of the 50 voting members 
opposed the proposal strenuously. Professor Warren H. Giedt, Associ- 
ate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, declared that the measure 
would create a conflict of basic loyalties and that he would feel re- 
sponsible to inform the government about a student whose classroom 
comments and activities indicated that he was a security risk. 

"As a citizen," declared Professor Giedt, "I have a responsi- 
bility to the government. If we adopt this Resolution do we not 
go contrary to our fundamental responsibility?" 

Professor Andreas G. Papandreou, of the Department of Economics, 
declared that the enactment of such a measure would notify the govern- 
ment that if it wanted information about the loyalty of students it 
would have to seek it through other means. Professor Frank C. New- 
man, of the Law School, actually presented the resolution in his ca- 
pacity as Chairman of the Academic Senate Committee on Academic 
Freedom. There was a 90-minute discussion, and in extolling the merits 
of the resolution, Newman stated : 

"If it were generally known by students that their political 
and religious freedom to disclose beliefs, to express attitudes, to 
recount activities, and to refer to associations did not protect them 
from loyalty response to loyalty-security inquiries, many students, 
in the classroom and in academic consultation, would apply rules 
of caution differing markedly from the rule of free inquiry that 
we now tend to take for granted. 

Many loyalty-security inquiries — whether they related to gov- 
ernment employment, private employment, military service, or 
other affected occupations — call for evidence . . . that a university 
should not supply if it aspires to be a free university," the com- 
mittee 's report stated. 

"To preserve the essential freedom of the university, your com- 
mittee submits that freedom of communication both in the class- 
room and in academic consultation must not be violated by the 
teacher. ' ' 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 83 

Newman informed the Academic Senate that his committee will pre- 
sent proposals for administering the resolution, and declared that the 
situation would be eased if university officials would get the word to 
investigators that a new principle has been adopted at the University 
of California under which a faculty member could not say whether a 
student is or is not a security risk. He would have to state that uni- 
versity rides forbid him from answering. 

Some of the most articulate and emphatic opponents of this measure 
were Marine Colonel James Wilbur and Professor Denzel R. Carr, 
Chairman of the Department of Oriental Languages. Col. Wilbur de- 
clared that ' ' activities and associations of students that can be observed 
should be reported." Professor Carr pleaded with his associates to 
"have a little common sense to protect our society from Communism." 

Who Runs the State University? 

Thus we have the ultimate amplification of the Fund for the Republic 
questionnaire in an action by what we presume must be a somewhat 
liberal element in the faculty of the University of California at Berke- 
ley. The northern section of the Academic Senate has now undertaken 
to establish regulations for the conduct of the university business with 
the representatives of the state and federal governments, and has in- 
formed the university administration that it should get the word to 
investigators that is has adopted a new principle at the state university. 

What this situation actually amounts to is a defiant statement by 
employees of the State of California that they will flatly refuse to 
reveal their knowledge of subversive affiliations and activities on the 
part of their students to authorized official representatives of the federal 
and state governments who are specifically charged with the gathering 
of precisely that type of information. To suggest that this sort of 
defiant attitude on the part of a large segment of the faculty of the 
state university needs immediate attention on the part of the Legis- 
lature and the university administration seems to us the understate- 
ment of the year. The Board of Regents of the university has already 
adopted a token statement to the effect that it doesn't believe the 
university should be pro-Communist. This seems a peculiar way to 
implement this declaration of anti-Communism on the part of the 
university regents, in suffering its faculty to thwart the activities of 
the Federal Bureau of Investigation. 

If these state employees are permitted to thus defy the agents of our 
government, perhaps the practice could be spread to all of the other 
state employees. There is no reason why university teachers should 
have any particular monopoly on this sort of defiance. Then if the 
other states and territories would adopt a similar attitude on the part 
of all of their employees, the Federal Bureau of Investigation could 
devote all of its time to catching bank robbers, kidnappers, fugitives, 
and the other criminals, and leave the matter of determining loyalty to 
the Fund for the Republic, The American Civil Liberties Union and 



84 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

the northern section of the Academic Senate of the University of Cali- 
fornia. If it would be wrong for all universities and schools throughout 
the United States to adopt such a defiant attiude, then certainly the 
measure is equally wrong for the faculty of the northern campuses of 
the state university. 

Stalin once declared that it took many men to build a bridge but 
only one to blow it up. It also requires the combined efforts of many 
people to prepare a student for college and only one to ruin him after 
he gets there. As these young people are drawn deeper into the Com- 
munist movement they gradually but inevitably lose all their warm, 
precious human traits so carefully inculcated at home, and acquire 
in their place the typical hard, cynical, materialistic, atheistic qualities 
that characterize all indoctrinated party members. If the co-operative 
efforts of the educational institutions and this committee can prevent 
one student from being thus indoctrinated each year, then the effort is, 
in our view, more than justified for that reason alone. 

There has never been any mass infiltration by Communists of any 
of our educational institutions in California. There has been, and we 
anticipate there will continue to be, a persistent Communist effort to 
penetrate these institutions for the purpose of developing leadership 
and replacing the fall-out of party members that we have already 
described. 

During the period of the party's open activity in the United States 
its youth organization was simply known as the Young Communist 
League, but when there came a gradual awareness on the part of the 
public concerning the real nature of Communism this organization 
changed its name to the American Youth for Democracy, and in more 
recent years to the Labor Youth League. Dennis James, a former active 
member of this organization, described it in testimony before the House 
Committee on Un-American Activities and pointed out that since the 
entire party apparatus had gone underground the danger was much 
greater than it had been during the period of open activity. 

The Labor Youth League, according to Mr. James, was used by the 
Communist Party to obtain signatures for the Stockholm Peace Peti- 
tions to discontinue atomic tests, and petitions asking for an immediate 
ceasefire during the Korean war ; for the collection of food and clothing 
for strikers that were supported by the Communist Party, and for selec- 
tion to attend indoctrination classes in the Communist School in New 
York — the Jefferson School of Social Science. It will be remembered that 
it was Professor Walter Gelhorn who taught at this institution and who 
was the editor-in-chief of a series which included a book attacking this 
committee several years ago. Mr. James declared that "* * * I know 
in 1952, when I disassociated myself from the Labor Youth League, I 
felt that the danger was serious because the activities were now under- 
ground and could not be detected as easily as in the past. ' ' 32 

32 House Committee on Un-American Activities, Hearings, pp. 2828-2829. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 85 

It is very easy for educators and other laymen who have had no prac- 
tical experience in the actual techniques of the Communist Party to say 
it is a simple thing for a man to be a Communist and also teach objec- 
tively. Complete refutation of this naive attitude is found in experiences 
of people who have been both teachers and Communists. Louis Budenz, 
exmember of the National Committee of the Communist Party, and 
formerly editor of its New York publication, the Daily Worker, has 
written a book called "The Techniques of Communism," and in a 
chapter entitled, "Invading Education," he has this to say: 

"In the classroom, the Communist teacher or professor very 
rarely, if ever, teaches Marxism-Leninism openly. There are hun- 
dreds of indirect ways of reaching the same end. Books by Howard 
Fast, 33 the author who has refused to state whether or not he would 
fight against the Communists if drafted, are proposed as suggested 
or recommended readings. The works and statements of many 
other 'authorities' who invariably take a pro-Soviet position, 
such as Professor Frederick L. Schuman of Williams College, can 
be freely used. The Ked instructor has many other 'non-Com- 
munist' sources to draw on — those leading figures in public lif 3 
who always follow the Communist line and whom Stalin has 
designated as the 'reserves' the conspiracy should call upon. An 
entire syllabus which would inevitably lead a student to embrace 
Marxism-Leninism or to be sympathetic to the Communist line, 
can be drawn up without one notably or openly Stalinite reference 
in it. 

Building on that foundation, the Communist teacher or pro- 
fessor notes the pupil or student most susceptible to pro-Red ideas. 
This student is cultivated privately, with a view to drawing him 
toward the conspiracy. In like manner, colleagues on the faculty 
who indicate sympathy for pro-Communist ideas are influenced by 
personal association to join the Communist Party. The influence 
of the teacher who is committed to Marxism-Leninism goes far 
beyond these contacts — into Parent-Teachers Associations (often 
working behind the scenes with Communists in those groups), in 
the preparation of books, the presentation of lectures, the voicing 
of opinions, the raising of finances for the conspiracy. ' ' 34 
Elsewhere in the same work, Mr. Budenz states: 

' ' We must constantly remind ourselves, as Dr. Dodd and I agree, 
that two or three Communists on any faculty are normally enough 
to dominate the school or campus. They do not act alone, but have 
aid from the outside. They work under the directives of Communist 
functionaries who seek out ways to influence trustees of the college 
involved or members of the Board of Education. It is not unusual 
that certain men of wealth on a board of trustees gives protection 

88 Howard Fast, the author of Citizen Tom Paine and other party line publications, 
has recently broken from the Communist Party and has written a book, The Naked 
God, in which he exposes the stranglehold on writers who publish while members 
of the Communist Party. 

** "The Techniques of Communism," by Louis F. Budenz. Henry Regnery Co., Chicago, 
1954, p. 210. 



86 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

to the subversives on the faculty, to the detriment of those who are 
genuinely patriotic; these trustees being influenced by the cries 
of academic freedom, by a gross ignorance of the Communist 
methods, by personal considerations, or by partisan interests. 

Beyond all this, the Communists on the faculty have the loud 
support of specific organizations in the community which other 
concealed Communists infiltrate and control. Nor do the Reds 
hesitate to resort to whispering campaigns against the character of 
an opponent, which frequently terrorize non-Communist teachers 
or professors. This goes far beyond the outspoken cry of *Mc- 
Carthyite'; it extends into sly and organized gossip, reflecting on 
the work, the morals, and the integrity under attack because of his 
patriotic position. Here, again, the gangster character of the Com- 
munist philosophy, carried on by nongangsters, serves as a potent 
weapon. When to all of this we add the ease with which the sub- 
versives can persuade the champions of progressive education to 
come to their aid, the formidable character of even a small number 
of Communists can be properly mentioned. It is in this manner 
that the Reds, working through the Teachers' Union (which re- 
ceived high praise in the report of the Party's Cultural Commis- 
sion), were able to wield great influence in the elementary and high 
schools." * 

In concluding this section of the report, your committee again wishes 
to point out that while the Communist infiltration of the state's school 
system has abated since 1952, the problem is an ever-present one. The 
co-operation that this committee has received from most of the large 
school systems and universities has been most encouraging, and the re- 
sults of that co-operative effort have been met with even more success 
than we anticipated. Indeed, we may close this section on a note of 
pride by quoting two sources that have taken notice of the California 
system for preventing infiltration of educational institutions, one from 
the state of Ohio and the other from Washington, D. C. 

In a document entitled "Procedural Analysis and Plan for Correct- 
ing an Involved Situation in a State University," by Dr. William E. 
Warner, Chairman of the Ohio Coalition of Patriotic Societies, this 
statement appears : 

"Basic Plan of Correction. This will take time and while diffi- 
cult to accomplish, must be based on a continuing analysis like that 
outlined above. Several States in addition to the Congress, operate 
or have had Un-American Activities Commissions, as please see the 
list in Appendix II of the Maryland (Ober Law) Report of Jan- 
uary, 1949. California has the best State program." 

* The author is here referring to the infiltration of the Teachers' Union of New York, 
an organization which was party controlled, and in which Dr. Dodd was an in- 
fluential officer. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 87 

From an official Washington source we find the following: 

' ' The subcommittee makes the following recommendations : 

' ' That educational authorities give consideration to the establish- 
ment of criteria and the initiation of procedures whereby schools, 
colleges and the universities can eliminate teachers who have 
demonstrated their unsuitability to teach, because of their collabo- 
ration with the Communist conspiracy. 

That states and educational institutions give consideration to 
the program adopted oy the State of California, and the several 
colleges and universities therein, which, recognizing that subversion 
in the educational process is a matter of public concern, has put 
into operation a program that provides for a reservoir of security 
information, the free exchange of security information between 
colleges and legislative committees, and means whereby the facili- 
ties and powers of state agencies are made of service to educational 
institutions. 

That school authorities, colleges, and local Boards of educa- 
tion initiate positive programs under qualified experts in the field 
of combatting Communism, to teach both teachers and school 
pupils the nature of the Communist conspiracy that is attacking 
the whole structure of society. ' ' 35 

INFILTRATION OF LABOR 

As a prelude to the Russian Revolution the seeds of revolt were first 
sprinkled among the workers in the oil fields of Baku, in the Putilov 
locomotive works, in factories, in shops ; from one group to another the 
fervor of revolution ran like an electric current, gathering momentum 
as it went, galvanizing them into action. Dropping their tools, deserting 
their posts, they left their jobs by thousands and hundreds of thousands. 
From the factories and the fields poured the torrent of artists, farmers 
and peasants. Armed with crude weapons they manned the barricades, 
jammed the streets, and stormed the government buildings. 

All vital work ceased. The life of the country was paralyzed. This 
great mass of humanity, having been regimented by centuries of oppres- 
sion was now seething with a frenzy of relief and defiance as the heavy 
burden was finally lifted. Their contagion ultimately spread to seg- 
ments of the Czar 's armed forces that deserted and turned their weap- 
ons against their still-loyal superiors. By then the vital arteries of 
transportation and communication had been cut and the downfall of 
the government was inevitable. 

This revolution of October, 1917, was no carefully planned, shrewdly 
devised occurrence. On the contrary, it was the result of disturbances 
that had been pointing towards such a climax for many years. The 
Russian masses had been inured to oppression but they never lost their 
natural desire for freedom and personal dignity. There had been many 

86 Subversive Influence in the Educational Process, Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on 
Internal Security, op. cit., p. 29. 



88 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

other attempts at revolt, all quickly crushed by the swords and whips 
and guns of the Cossacks, and the even deadlier information gathered 
by the Czar's Ochrana, or secret police. Our most eminent authorities, 
Secretary Dulles and Dr. Julian Towster among them, have pointed 
out that man is governed not only by rules of his own devising, 
but by great immutable laws that he is powerless to rescind or amend, 
and that these basic natural laws cannot be violated with impunity. 
No group of people can be permanently ruled by terror, deprived of the 
attributes of human dignity, forced to toil like machines for the benefit 
of the State, and to exist in a melancholy atmosphere of ignorance and 
subjugation. These conditions may be imposed for a considerable time, 
but the longer they exist the stronger become their counter-forces, until 
eventually such a regime must either be relaxed or destroyed entirely. 
The masses of restive people approaching the revolutionary climax after 
years of oppression need only a tiny spark to set off the chain reaction. 
In 1917, the Bolshevik leaders provided that spark. But the masses of 
organized Russian workers, won the revolution. 

We cite this historical material to emphasize the importance world 
Communist leaders have always placed on the concentrated infiltration 
of organized labor as the first vital prerequisite to revolution. Lenin 
never lost sight of this cardinal principle, nor did Trotsky, nor Stalin, 
nor any of their successors including Khrushchev. In the European 
countries, in the Balkans, in China, in the Middle East and Latin 
America, in Africa, and certainly in our own country, this steady 
penetration of labor organizations has gone forward. The logic of the 
strategy is obvious, but will not apply as readily in a free and pros- 
perous country. Hence, the infiltration continues and undercover Com- 
munists are moved into strategic positions to patiently wait for the 
development of a ''revolutionary situation." A severe economic depres- 
sion is a " revolutionary situation " ; so is a widespread epidemic or any 
other misfortune that renders a nation particularly susceptible. Then 
the small, solidly entrenched party members, in their positions of 
authority, spring into action and the strikes are commenced ; transpor- 
tation, communication, food production, the utilities, all are paralyzed. 
And if the tiny sparks sets off the chain reaction, then the angry tide 
of revolution is unleashed. 

This precise technique has been successfully employed in a number 
of countries now under Communist control, and one after another we 
see this creeping menace expanding itself. If the revolutionary situa- 
tions do not come fast enough, then they are accelerated by Com- 
munist propaganda, by infiltration of government positions, by all of 
the complicated devices and techniques that the world Communist move- 
ment has brought to such a high degree of perfection and employed 
with such ingenuity. And while all of this activity is progressing, there 
is an equal if not greater degree of action in the murky realms of the 
underground where espionage and sabotage are taking place day by 
day; and despite the astounding apathy of the American people, the 
tragic documentation of this penetration of our most sensitive areas 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 89 

can be had for the asking by writing to the Government Printing Office 
in Washington, D. C, and requesting the reports of the House Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities and the Senate Judiciary Subcom- 
mittee on Internal Security dealing with these matters. It is not the 
business of this committee to investigate espionage, but occasionally in 
the performance of our specified duties we have run across such 
activities and have invariably submitted the information to the proper 
authorities for the appropriate action. 

The Profintern 

In March, 1919, the Communist International (Comintern) was 
established in Moscow. All foreign parties were affiliated to it as sub- 
ordinate sections, bound by the conditions to which they were obliged 
to agree at the time of their affiliation. Comintern representatives, such 
as Gerhardt Eisler who functioned for several years in this country, 
were sent to all parts of the world for the purpose of making sure that 
the international Communist party line was meticulously obeyed and 
that the work was progressing according to plan. When the Comintern 
was exposed as the high board of strategy for a world Communist revo- 
lution, it was ' ' dissolved, ' ' but like many Communist fronts and other 
party organizations, the change was one in name only and the opera- 
tions of the far-flung Communist apparatus were continued as before. 

No better example of the closely co-ordinated activity of infiltration, 
directed from the Soviet Union, can be found than that which occured 
in the Latin American countries. In Mexico the story is particularly 
fascinating, and once the Soviet base of operations had been established 
in Mexico City, it was only a matter of time before the tentacles were 
extended into South America and the trade union organizations of the 
South American countries were heavily infiltrated. 

The Comintern even had an entire division, which was called the 
"Profintern," devoted to nothing but the handling of this infiltration of 
trade unions in the various non-Communist countries throughout the 
world. It had its own organizational structure with the authority com- 
ing from the apex of the triangle down toward the base, as is the custom 
in all Communist organizations. We shall briefly trace its history in the 
United States as a prerequisite to obtaining the necessary perspective 
for understanding the present Communist infiltration of trade union 
organizations in our own state. 

The Profintern fared better in Europe and Latin America than in 
Great Britain and the United States, but efforts were redoubled in 
these latter countries. The Russians believed that the strategy used 
so successfully in their own country would be infallible elsewhere. But 
there were no Cossacks, no Czarists secret police, no rule by terror and 
no mass oppression of workers in England and America. So when the 
Communists in this country were bluntly ordered to take over the 
American Federation of Labor and actually tried to do so, the result 
was only to arouse the wrath of union leadership. There were very 



90 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

few American "peasants" to stir up, but Moscow ordered the party 
in this country to start stirring, nevertheless. These early failures would 
seem funny, but by 1935 the situation had been shrewdly analyzed. 
During the twenties the Russian revolutionary leaders were provincial 
and had little contact with — and virtually no understanding of — the 
outside world. This was quickly remedied, and when the delegates from 
the Communist Parties of the world assembled in Moscow to attend 
the Seventh World Congress of the Communist International, that 
organization was prepared to change its tactics to suit the situations in 
the various foreign countries. The Comintern Secretary, Georgi Di- 
mitroff, read a long speech which described the new strategy to be used 
in inaugurating the United Front movement throughout the world, 
and the Trojan Horse tactic of heavily infiltrating non-Communist or- 
ganizations, principally labor unions, with secret Communist Party 
members. 

This was the beginning of the United Front. It was, as we have said, 
signalized by almost feverish party activity in the United States. Hun- 
dreds of front organizations sprang into existence to spread the party 
line, to disseminate Marxian propaganda, to create a corps of fellow 
travelers and to provide a medium through which new recruits could 
be added to the party membership. William Z. Foster, now the chairman 
of the Communist Party of the United States, has always led the fight 
to infiltrate American trade unions. He was the head of the Trade Union 
Unity League through which an attempt was made to carry out Mos- 
cow's orders for the taking over of the American Federation of Labor. 
Foster had been a Socialist, a member of the International Workers 
of the World, a labor organizer, a fomentor of strikes and riots, and 
has been a member of the Communist Party since the twenties. His 
Trade Union League (then known as the Trade Union Educational 
League) issued a statement of its program and principles in February, 
1922, removing any lingering doubt about its political complexion, its 
adherence to the Profintern and its purposes so far as American labor 
was concerned. It read, in part, as follows : 

"The Trade Union Educational League proposes to develop the 
trade unions from their present antiquated and stagnant condition 
into modern, powerful labor organizations, capable of waging suc- 
cessful warfare against capital. To this end it is working to revamp 
and to remodel from top to bottom their theories, tactics, structure 
and leadership. * * * The league aggressively favors organization 
by industry instead of by craft. Although the craft form of union 
served a useful purpose in the early days of capitalism, it is now 
entirely out of date. In the face of the great consolidations of the 
employers the workers must also close their ranks or be crushed. 
The multitude of craft unions must be amalgamated into a series 
of industrial unions — one each for the metal trades, railroad trades, 
clothing trades, building trades, etc. — even as they have been in 
other countries. The league also aims to put the workers of America 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 91 

in contact with the fighting trade unionists of the rest of the 
world. It is flatly opposed to our present pitiful policy of isolation, 
and it advocates affiliation to the militant international trade union 
movement, known as the Red International of Labor Unions. The 
league is campaigning against the reactionaries, incompetents, and 
crooks who occupy strategic positions in many of our organizations. 
It is striking to replace them with militants, with men and women 
unionists who look upon the labor movement not as a means for 
making an easy living, but as an instrument for the achievement 
of working class emancipation. In other words, the league is work- 
ing in every direction necessary to put life and spirit and power 
into the trade union movement." (Committee's emphasis.) 30 

It was easy to see why Foster and his comrades were in favor of 
industrial organization. It was far easier to plant a small nucleus of 
concealed Communists in positions of control in a mass labor organiza- 
tion and thereby dominate its policies and conformance to the Commu- 
nist party line than it was to infiltrate dozens of small trade unions 
and accomplish the same purpose in each. The Communist Party has 
never had sufficient members to waste their talents, and it has there- 
fore invariably followed the strategy of patiently working its most 
talented members into positions of control where, in government, in 
education, in the entertainment world, in the creative arts, and in 
the trade unions, it can use a relatively tiny membership to control 
much larger non-Communist organizations. 

This same technique has been employed in the Soviet domination of 
every Iron Curtain country, first the infiltration and softening up pro- 
cess, then the propaganda and conditioning of the masses, and then the 
sudden eruption of the party into open activity with its own trusted 
members running the vital processes of the government : education, com- 
munications, transportation, production of food stuff, the armed forces 
and the secret police. In the United States, as we shall see, this pattern 
has been followed religiously by the American Communists with remark- 
able zest in their relentless effort to be in a position to exercise the nec- 
essary strength when the revolutionary situation develops. 

Revolutionary Situations 

There was such a revolutionary situation that developed in the 
thirties, when a widespread depression swept the country and forced 
hundreds of thousands of unemployed on the relief roles. Immediately 
there was a surge of increased Communist activity. In San Francisco we 
saw it in the bloody general strike of 1934, and we continued to experi- 
ence its influences with the operation of the State, County and Munici- 
pal Workers of America and the Workers Alliance collaborating with 
Labor's Non-partisan League to secure political control of the State in 
the general elections, and in the amazingly successful infiltration of 
many of our trade unions during the late thirties and early forties. 

89 American Trade Unionism, Principles and Organizations, Strategy and Tactics, by- 
William Z. Foster, International Publishers, New York, 1947, p. 80, 81. 



92 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

We need only cite, once again (but we believe this cannot be ham- 
mered home with sufficient emphasis), the complete proof of great 
trade unions being forced to obey the international party line when the 
situation required such a change for the benefit of the Soviet Union. 
The non-aggression pact between the Soviet Union and Hitler was con- 
summated in August of 1939. From that time until June 22, 1941, there 
was a spirit of friendliness and co-operation between the Germans and 
the Russians. Suddenly, with the signing of that pact, American labor 
unions that had been infiltrated by the Communists began to hamper the 
American defense effort. An epidemic of strikes spread across the 
country, and it is to be carefully noted that they were principally 
launched by the most strategic unions, those that had to do with the 
maritime industry, the production of critical ores and metals, the 
transportation of critical goods, the conduct of secret research projects 
along scientific lines, mass communications, and production of food 
stuffs. The party line was to keep America out of the war, to campaign 
against universal military service and draft, and to spread the Commu- 
nist party slogan, "The Yanks Are Not Coming!" 

Then on June 22, 1941, the German armies rolled across the borders 
of the Soviet Union. The nonaggression pact was violated, Russia was 
drawn into the conflict, and overnight the party line of the American 
Communists reversed itself. Now the slogan was for the immediate 
opening of a second front and an all-out effort on the part of the unions 
to produce the sinews of war in this country for the benefit of the 
Soviet Union. Immediately there was a significant serenity on the 
labor front. There were no more strikes such as the bloody affair at 
North American Aviation Company at Inglewood, which actually was 
being masterminded by the Communist Party from a strategic vantage 
point in Alameda County. 

Let those who now naively contend that there is no more danger from 
the Communists in this country consider carefully the enormous influ- 
ence the American Communists wielded in completely changing the atti- 
tude of these significant trade unions overnight when the exigencies of 
the Soviet Union demanded such a change. The power to summarily 
turn off a widespread epidemic of strikes that was beginning to paralyze 
the defense effort of the nation is certainly an indication that in the 
early forties the Communists of this country had made astounding 
progress in their infiltration of labor. 

According to Foster, the Communist Party, the Young Communist 
League, and the Trade Union Unity League collaborated with a great 
many other Communist-dominated organizations for the purpose of 
staging unemployment demonstrations, strikes, hunger marches and 
pressure groups during the depression of the 1930 's. Fifteen hundred 
delegates attended the national unemployed convention in Chicago dur • 
ing the summer of 1930 ; 400,000 demonstrated at the National Unem- 
ployment Insurance Day on February 25, 1931 ; 500,000 workers staged 
another demonstration in February, 1932, and in December, 1931, 1,800 
delegates participated in a national hunger march to Washington, D. C, 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 93 

which was followed by a second demonstration of the same character on 
December 6, 1932, with 3,000 delegates in Washington and an estimated 
one million participants in various cities. 37 

"The strikes of 1934 to 1936," declared Foster, "took on the 
most acute political character of any in the history of the United 
States. Against the violent opposition of the A.F. of L. leaders, the 
political mass strike, long a cardinal point in the Communist 
Party's agitation, became an established weapon of the American 
working class. The workers fought with splendid heroism and 
solidarity in the face of the Government, tricky union leaders, and 
an unprecedented use of troops, police, gunmen, and vigilantes 
among them. ' ' 38 

It is a peculiar coincidence, and one that played into the hands of 
Communist organizers, that at the same the Seventh Congress of the 
Comintern was convened in the Soviet Union in 1935, the C.I.O. was 
launched in the United States. Here was just the type of industrial 
organization that William Foster had longed for. John L. Lewis, long 
noted for his vitriolic and forthright attacks against all things Commu- 
nist, was now surrounded by concealed party members who flocked into 
the newly organized industrial movement by the hundreds. Fanning out 
through the top echelons of the organization shortly after its crea- 
tion, these undercover party members dug themselves in tightly at the 
command posts and within a few years managed to so concentrate their 
influence that they forced John Lewis out of the organization he had 
created and took it over, lock, stock and barrel. All of the A.F. of L. 
unions that had been successfully infiltrated left that organization and 
aligned themselves with the C.I.O. The American Newspaper Guild not 
only affiliated but was to provide a member who, after working for a 
time on a Los Angeles newspaper, was elevated to command the entire 
C.I.O. organization on the Pacific Coast. By July, 1941, the C.I.O. 
Union membership stood at 4,000,000, was solidly entrenched in ac- 
tivities closely linked with our national security, and was actually more 
important to the vital interest of this country than the A.F. of L. from 
which it was spawned. 

Following is a partial list of the unions that suffered particularly 
from Communist infection. We should note carefully how this handful 
of Communist organizers was able to get a stranglehold on segments of 
labor essential for the very preservation of our country through the 
techniques that were tried out in the Russian revolution of 1917, per- 
fected by trial and error in the United States, and brought to a high 
degree of perfection following the Seventh Congress of the Comintern 
in 1935, and the penetration of the C.I.O. They were: National Mari- 
time Union ; Transport Workers Union ; Aircraft and Machinists Divi- 
sion of the United Automobile Workers ; Die-Casters Association ; 
American Communications Association ; International Longshoremen 



"American Trade Unionism, op. cit., p. 192. 
88 American Trade Unionism, op. cit., p. 197. 



94 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

and Warehousemens Union; International Woodworkers Union; 
American Newspaper Guild; United Electrical, Radio and Machinists 
Union; Farm Equipment Organizing Committee; State, County and 
Municipal Workers Union; United Tannery Workers Union; Packing- 
house Workers Organizing Committee ; Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers 
Union; United Office and Professional Workers Union; Book and 
Magazine Guild; Quarry Workers Union; Fishermens Union; Furni- 
ture Workers Union; sections of the United Federal Workers of 
America; Fur Workers Union; sections of the Aluminum Workers; 
Federation of Architects, Chemists, Engineers and Technicians ; Artists 
Union; United Shoe Workers Union; Retail and Wholesale Workers, 
Local 65 ; Inland Boatmens Union ; Marine Cooks and Stewards Union ; 
United Cannery Agricultural, Packing and Allied Workers of America ; 
C.I.O. Industrial Councils of Greater New York, Queens, Chicago. 
Cleveland, Milwaukee, Seattle, Portland, San Francisco, Los Angeles, 
Bridgeport, Baltimore, etc.; also, State Industrial Councils (C.I.O.) of 
Connecticut, California, Wisconsin, Texas, Washington; Alabama 
Farmers Union; Local 5 of Teachers Union, A.F. of L. (expelled); 
Local 537 College Teachers Union, A.F. of L. (expelled) ; A.F. of L. 
Painters District Council No. 9, New York; Workers Alliance; Gas & 
Chemical Workers Union. 39 

World Federation of Trade Unions 

In February, 1945, representatives of 60,000,000 trade union mem- 
bers gathered in London and formed the World Federation of Trade 
Unions. During the latter part of the year an implementing meeting 
was held in Paris and an organization was set up comprising a presi- 
dent, a general secretary and three assistant general secretaries who 
presided over an elaborate hierarchy of subordinate organizations and 
departments. Permanent headquarters was established in Paris, and 
the movement got off to an enthusiastic start, supported mainly by 
the Soviet Union and its satellites. The C. I. O. was originally a mem- 
ber of the movement, but later withdraw and charged that the organi- 
zation was Communist dominated from its inception. This was not 
difficult to detect, and as time went on evidence of complete Communist 
domination was overwhelming. The American Federation of Labor 
denounced the organization from its inception and representatives of 
the C. I. O., after attending a few meetings, arrived at the same 
conclusion. 

The World Federation of Trade Unions operates through five 
bureaus. Bureau No. 1 comprises the countries of North and South 
America, Spain and Portugal; Bureau No. 2, the territories of Africa 
and the Mediterranean (Greece, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, 
Israel, Egypt and Cyprus) ; Bureau No. 3, the countries of Western 
Europe and the Scandinavian countries (including Iceland, Germany, 

39 The Red Decade; the Stalinist Penetration of America, by Eugene Lyons, the 
Bobbs-Merrill Co., New York, 1941, pp. 229, 230. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 95 

Austria, Switzerland and Italy) ; Bureau No. 4, the countries of the 
Middle East, Asia and Austro-Asian ; Bureau No. 5, the Soviet Union, 
Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Albania, Rumania and Bulgaria. 
This form of organization, together with the activities of the W. F. 
T. U., corresponds roughly with the organizational structure and ac- 
tivities of the Red International of Trade Unions that operated as a 
subdivision of the Comintern. Close organizational and disciplinary 
ties are maintained with all left-wing unions throughout the world, and 
the effect of W. F. T. U. influence is particularly powerful in Mexico 
and the Latin American countries. 

In earlier reports we have occasionally referred to Vicente Lombardo 
Toledano as the pro-Communist leader of the Mexican Federation of 
Workers. When Vice-President Nixon visited several South American 
countries a year ago he was insulted and harassed by organized dem- 
onstrations that reflected the assiduous infiltration and planning that 
was carried on in these countries through the joint efforts of the second 
Soviet Ambassador to the United States and Vicente Lombardo 
Toledano. Since 1945, the World Federation of Trade Unions has 
played a major part in this massive attempt to dominate the trade 
unions of the Latin American countries, and we believe that a descrip- 
tion of the parts played in this operation by the Soviet Union, Vicente 
Lombardo Toledano of Mexico, and the World Federation of Trade 
Unions will not be amiss here since it points up the carefully synchro- 
nized collaboration that is always evident between Communist domi- 
nated elements. 

Constantin Oumansky was the second Soviet Ambassador to the 
United States. He had been trained in the Red Army, was a specialist 
in intelligence operations, and had exhibited a peculiar flair for lan- 
guages — being conversant with several, including Spanish. When it was 
announced that he would be transferred from his position as Ambas- 
sador in Washington and take a position as Ambassador to Mexico, 
most laymen considered it a demotion. As a matter of fact, it was quite 
the opposite since Oumansky was being groomed for a far more impor- 
tant assignment. When he arrived at Mexico City with his inordinately 
large staff, he made his initial speech to the assembled representatives 
of the Latin American countries and the rest of the diplomatic corps, 
and apologized to the Mexican people for his inability to address them 
in their native tongue. He said that he had been studying Spanish, 
and that on the next occasion he would address them in their own 
language, although somewhat imperfectly. 

After the lapse of an appropriate period of time, Mr. Oumansky 
did deliver his second diplomatic address in somewhat halting Spanish, 
and received the undying admiration of the entire Latin American 
corps, not only because of his obvious ability in learning so much about 
their language in such a short space of time, but even more because 
he — unlike most of the other foreign diplomats — had taken the time 



96 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

and trouble to pay this gracious courtesy. From that time on Ouman- 
sky had very little difficulty in getting anything that he wanted within 
reason. Vicente Lombardo Toledano was a constant visitor to the Soviet 
Embassy, and he and Oumansky launched an organization known as 
the Confederation of Latin American Workers, patterned after the 
Federation of Mexican Workers. Units of this new organization were 
planted throughout the South American countries, and so successful 
was their penetration of mass trade union organizations throughout 
South America that both Toledano and Oumansky were called upon 
to make many trips for the purpose of addressing them and lending 
leadership and direction to their activities. One morning Oumansky 
was scheduled to leave the Mexico City Airport and fly to one of these 
conferences. As his plane circled to gain altitude above the city there 
was a violent explosion and it literally flew to pieces when it was about 
400 feet from the ground. Everyone in the plane was killed. The 
origin and nature of the explosion were never determined. 

Since the death of Oumansky the ostensible leader of the Confedera- 
tion of Latin American Workers has been Mr. Toledano, who is also 
a Vice-President of the World Federation of Trade Unions. His Con- 
federation of Mexican Workers sponsored the constitution of the Latin 
American organization in 1938 and has been the "determinate influ- 
ence in the development of the Latin American labor movement. ' ' 40 

When some of the Communist dominated C. I. 0. unions were investi- 
gated by the parent organization during the years extending from 
1948 through 1950, and were expelled after extensive proceedings, they 
immediately affiliated themselves with the World Federation of Trade 
Unions. Those union organizations that were dealing in maritime ac- 
tivities were particularly eager to make this affiliation, and chief among 
them was the Marine Cooks & Stewards Union, which recently went 
out of business and reopened its activities again under non-Communist 
leadership. We have already referred to its former President, Hugh 
Bryson, as having been the statewide director for the Independent 
Progressive Party 's political campaign in 1948, and who was thereafter 
convicted in a federal court for having sworn falsely concerning his 
collaboration with the Communist Party in this state. The Commission 
on Government Security, in its report issued in 1957, had this to say 
about the Marine Cooks & Stewards Union: 

"The Marine Cooks & Stewards Union in its own right today rep- 
resents between three thousand and four thousand seamen serving in 
the mess halls, galleys, and dining rooms aboard vessels plying be- 
tween the Pacific Coast and the Far East. The union, in addition to 
this source of strength and support, also has very close attachments 
and support from the International Longshoremen and Warehouse- 
men's Union headed by Harry Bridges. In a recent issue of the 
union newspaper, when the leadership felt that threats were being 



40 Report of Activity of the World Federation of Trade Unions, 15 October, 1945- 
30 April, 1949. Presented to the Second World Trade Union Congress at Milan, 29 
June-10 July, 1949, p. 91. 3 Rue des Cloys, Paris, XVIII. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 97 

made about the way it operated its hiring hall, President Bryson 
called upon the owners and the government to take heed of the 
fact that not only did they face the Marine Cooks & Stewards 
Union members, but also the possible strike sanction of the Long- 
shoremen of the West Coast, and, in addition, the possible strike 
sanction of Longshoremen in South Africa, Australia, and other 
countries where other Longshoremen 's Unions are closely associated 
with the World Federation of Trade Unions. ' ' 41 
Thus it will be seen that some of the unions formerly in the C. I. 0., 
and expelled from that organization because they were found to be 
Communist dominated, have since affiliated with the World Federation 
of Trade Unions; and instead of securing a strike influence within 
the relatively limited sphere of their former activity, they can now 
be instrumental in launching strike activities throughout the entire 
world. 

Four years after the London meeting that created the World Feder- 
ation of Trade Unions, another important international trade organ- 
ization was established at a meeting in that city. Delegates came from 
Africa, Asia, Europe, North and South America and the Carribean, 
the only stipulation being that the workers in the countries represented 
should be free to organize in unions of their own choice, and in some 
instances in countries where freedom had been ground almost to ex- 
tinction by the dictatorial nature of their governments. During the four 
years that elapsed since the formation of the World Federation of Trade 
Union and the 1949 meeting in London that we are now discussing 
a great many of the original members of the W. F. T. U. had become 
convinced that the organization was simply another creature of the 
world Communist movement and resigned in order to affiliate with the 
International Confederation of Free Trade Unions. The latter organ- 
ization is predominantly anti-Communist, is affiliated in a consultative 
capacity with the United Nations and various regional economic com- 
missions for Europe, Asia and Latin America, together with the Inter- 
national Labor Organization at UNESCO. Permanent representatives 
are maintained at- New York, Paris and Geneva, and the former Presi- 
dent of the World Federation of Trade Unions, Mr. A. Deakin, of Great 
Britain, is now serving as a vice-president of the International Confed- 
eration of Free Trade Unions. Those from North America who are 
listed as members of the executive board are : G. Meany, W. P. Reuther, 
D. MacDonald, C. Jodoin, J. L. Lewis, M. Woll, J. Potofsky, C. H. 
Millard, P. R. Bengough, P. Kennedy, I. Brown, M. Ross, F. W. Dow- 
ling, G. J. Gushing and J. Owens. 

Permanent headquarters is located in Brussels manned by a staff of 
about 70 persons, branch offices being maintained in Paris, Geneva, 
New York, Brussels, Mexico and Calcutta. Trade union organizations 
affiliated directly to the I. C. F. T. U. are to be found in: Austria, Bel- 
gium, the Basque Country (in exile), Cypress, Denmark, France, Ger- 

u Report of the Commission on Government Security. Public Law 304, Eighty-fourth 
Congress, as amended, June, 1957, p. 329. 



98 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

many, Great Britain, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxemburg, Malta, Nether- 
lands, Norway, Sarr, Spain (in exile), Sweden, Switzerland, Trieste, 
British Cameroons, Gambia, Gold Coast, Kenya, Libya, Madagascar, 
Mauripius, Sierra Leone, Tunisia, Ceylon, China (Formosa), Hong 
Kong, India, Japan, Korea, Malaya, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, 
Thailand, Israel, Lebanon, Persia, Canada, Mexico, United States, Brit- 
ish Honduras, Costa Rica, Panama, Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, Gra- 
nada, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, St. Kitts-Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vin- 
cent, Trinidad, Turks Islands, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, British 
Guiana, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Falkland Islands, Peru, Surinam, 
Uruguay, Venezuela, Australia and New Zealand. 

These two great worldwide organizations, one pro-Communist and the 
other anti-Communist, are pitted against each other in a struggle that 
has received very little publicity, but which reaches into our own coun- 
try and certainly into the pacific coast and California where its effects 
are felt almost daily. 

Philip M. Connelly 

Probably the most influential single person in the state of California 
insofar as the infiltration of trade unions was concerned is Philip M. 
Connelly. At least Mr. Connelly's influence was the result of his pub- 
licly known positions, first in the American Newspaper Guild, and sec- 
ondly in the C. I. 0. high command in this state. During the early part 
of his activities, especially in the Newspaper Guild, Connelly posed as a 
convivial, innocuous, non-Communist, dedicated liberal. As he espoused 
more and more partly line resolutions in Guild meetings, his fellow 
members became more and more suspicious of his subversive inclina- 
tions. As he participated actively in more and more Communist front 
organizations, these suspicions were intensified, but Connelly rose from 
mediocrity in the Newspaper Guild to one position of authority after 
another. He ultimately became state C. I. 0. president, and secretary 
of the C. I. 0. Council in Los Angeles. Connelly has been identified as 
a Communist Party member by many witnesses. He has appeared as a 
witness before this committee, and references to his activities and affil- 
iations may be found in our reports as follows: 1951 — pages 93, 255, 
264; 1953— pages 76, 102, 172, 208, 280; 1955— pages 417, 418, 419. 

No sooner had Connelly progressed to a position of authority in the 
C. I. 0., than he opened its doors throughout the state and admitted 
hosts of Communist Party members, fellow travelers and sympathizers. 
These, added to the numerous officials of the same political persuasion 
who had managed to oust John L. Lewis from his position of authority, 
so predominated the entire structure of the California C. I. 0. during 
the period immediately preceding, during and shortly after Connelly's 
tenure, that some of these unions became integral parts of the Commu- 
nist Party apparatus instead of orthodox trade union organizations. 

Connelly received dubious notoriety in connection with the part he 
played in the strike that paralyzed the production of military planes 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 99 

for the defense of this government when the C. I. 0. struck North 
American Aviation shortly before Hitler invaded the Soviet Union and 
the party line changed. He was excoriated by Los Angeles Municipal 
Judge Arthur Guerrin in March, 1946, and sentenced to serve 60 days 
after a jury had convicted him for inciting a riot, disturbing the peace, 
and violating a court order in conjunction with a strike at U. S. Motors 
in Los Angeles. He was represented by Leo Gallagher and John T. 
McTernan, whose names have been repeatedly mentioned in previous 
reports issued by this committee. 

Connelly became eligible for parole in February, 1947, and wires 
asking clemency in his behalf were sent by Jeff Kibre, William Elconin, 
and William Brody — all identified as members of the Communist Party. 
Connelly was released in March, 1947, after having serving 50 days of 
his 60-day sentence. Among those who greeted him on his release were 
Joseph O'Connor, of the Marine Cooks & Stewards Union, William 
Axelrod of the Newsvendor's Union, John Daugherty, of the United 
Electrical Workers Union, Andrew Barrigan of the Newspaper Guild, 
and Connelly's wife, Dorothy, who, under the name Dorothy Healey, 
was then and is still chairman of the Los Angeles Communist Party. 
Connelly was again convicted in 1947 of driving while intoxicated and 
served another term at the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Honor Farm. 
Since his release he has been the Los Angeles editor of the Communist 
newspaper, the Daily People's World. 

We cite all of this background material for the purpose of showing 
how the Communists managed to infiltrate a great trade union organiz- 
ation in this state a few years ago, and we hasten to emphasize that 
many of the unions then infiltrated and later expelled from the C.I.O. 
for that reason are still functioning under Communist domination and 
now constitute a serious threat to our national security and to the 
welfare of our state. These infiltrated unions that were expelled from 
their parent labor organizations are still operating under Communist 
control, and virtually all of them are dealing with industrial matters 
that are most essential to our continued defense. The International 
Longshoremens and Warehousemens Union ; the American Communica- 
tions Association; the United Public Workers of America; the United 
Mine, Mill & Smelter Workers ; educational unions such as the Los An- 
geles Federation of Teachers which was expelled from the American 
Federation of Teachers because it was found to be Communist domi- 
nated — these, and a host of other critical organizations, all heavily 
infiltrated by Communists who are solidly entrenched at the top in 
positions of control — pose a constant threat to our continued welfare. 

Public Utilities 

A few years ago we undertook to find out what measures had been 
taken by our public utilities in order to protect themselves against 
Communist or other subversive infiltration. We found that whereas a 
major part of the aircraft manufacturing industry of the nation is 



100 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

located in southern California, and all of the machinery that actuates 
these plants is operated by electric energy, and despite the fact that 
these manufacturing concerns are required by their government con- 
tracts to take the most elaborate precautions to screen their personnel 
for security and to take detailed measures to safeguard the physical 
attributes of the plant by maintaining a guard services, fences and a 
system of identification — nevertheless the electric generating plants 
that provide the vital power for the operation of these enterprises were 
required to have no security protection whatever. 

Each of these public utilities providing such vital necessities as tele- 
phonic and cable communications, gas, electrical energy and domestic 
water, had employed special agents for years, but they were not trained 
to handle the problem of subversive infiltration. To think that the Com- 
munist apparatus, with all of its elaborate machinery, would fail to 
take advantage of the opportunity to invade these wide open areas is 
ridiculous. A number of Communists and fellow-travellers were found 
employed in critical positions in many of these California public 
utilities. A series of conferences between representatives of this com- 
mittee and representatives of the utilities were held, and as a result of 
these discussions a series of hearings was held in San Francisco and 
Los Angeles, and a number of employees were discharged. 

Special agents were then employed who had been highly trained in 
this specialized field. Since that time the incidence of infiltration has 
sharply declined, although it is a constant problem and will continue 
to be so just as long as a Communist apparatus exists in the United 
States. 

Anyone who has seen a Communist dominated strike in action realizes 
that it is quite a different matter than the strikes by non- Communist 
unions. Lenin once said that every strike is a tiny revolution, and to 
the Communist leaders these occurrences are not only disputes over 
wages and working conditions, but embraced a far greater and more 
deep-seated struggle between the workers on the one hand and the 
capitalists on the other. The Communist Party of the United States 
has always called itself the vanguard of the working class, and is 
always eager to seize the opportunity during a strike situation to 
propagandize, to recruit, to provoke violence on both sides, and to 
gnaw away more deeply into the vitals of the American capitalist sys- 
tem which they are dedicated to destroy. In the San Francisco general 
strike of 1934, in the North American Aviation strike shortly before 
World War II, in the San Joaquin Valley cotton strikes that were 
accompanied by angry mobs of rioting workers led by Communist ex- 
horters, in the strike at Warner Bros, studio — and even at the lesser 
strikes which resulted in the jailing of Philip Connelly and which we 
have already discussed — undercurrents of viciousness, of hatred toward 
all non-Communists, and especially the employers, was most discernible. 
There is a little-known and an exceedingly rare document concerning 
the San Francisco strike which contains a statement by the Communist 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 101 

Party and discloses how it was actually fomented and directed by the 
party. The North American Aircraft strike was directed by Wyndham 
Mortimer, Philip Connelly, Paul Crouch, and other Communist Party 
members. Crouch has testified concerning his participation in this 
matter and has given abundant testimony to establish the Communist 
direction of this paralysis of one of the nation's most vital aircraft 
factories. The strikes in the San Joaquin Valley, accompanied by so 
much violence and bloodshed, were spearheaded by carefully selected 
Communist agitators and organizers sent from San Francisco and Los 
Angeles expressly for the purpose of creating class struggle and taking 
advantage of the depression by developing it into a "revolutionary 
situation." 

The committee has evidence of Communist propagandists smearing 
babies' faces with molasses in order to take photographs of the flies 
crawling over the infants' faces, then circulating these photographs for 
the purpose of arousing the resentment of members of the Workers 
Alliance and migratory agricultural workers who were living in federal 
migratory labor camps operated by the United States Department of 
Agriculture. At that time, as will be seen in a later section of this 
report, the department was loaded with Communists. The strike at War- 
ner Bros, studios was the subject of prolonged prosecution and litiga- 
tion during which the Communist nature of the strike leaders was estab- 
lished. Strikes by Communist-dominated unions are unique because 
they are weapons in the class struggle, and they achieve a special 
quantity of frenzied hatred and venom that is ominous to behold. 

At the writing of this report the Communist Party of the United 
States has pledged itself to redouble its efforts to infiltrate American 
labor. This is bound to have extreme repercussions in California, be- 
cause California and New York are running neck and neck so far as 
Communist activity is concerned. Until a few years ago the Party 
organization in New York was far stronger, California being second. 
Insofar as we can ascertain this is still the case, except that as the 
population of California has increased and as this state has achieved 
a more strategic importance insofar as its defense industry and geo- 
graphic location are concerned, more and more Communist Party mem- 
bers have been transferred from the East and from the mid- West to 
work among us and two prime goals being the infiltration of labor and 
education, in that order. In order to document this development, let us 
see what the Communist Party itself has to say. 

As recently as August, 1958, the National Committee of the Com- 
munist Party of the United States declared : 

"The Communists strive to win the trade unions to a more con- 
sistent program of class struggle and militant action in defense 
of the immediate interests of the working class. To achieve these 
objectives they join with other Left forces in the ranks of labor. 



102 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

* * * In the shops, a growing number of militant workers are 
shedding their anti- Communist prejudices, and are ready to unite 
with all forces, including the Left, to fight the company attacks. 

* * * Thousand of union stewards, shop chairmen and other 
leaders, received their training in the art of organization at the 
hands of Communists. Much of what was once considered part of 
the Communists' program has been taken over by the labor move- 
ment and thousands were at one time or another members of the 
Communist Party and contributed to the advance of the trade 
union movement as Communists. (Committee's emphasis.) 

Yet, while the past year has witnessed a significant reaffirma- 
tion of individual liberty by the federal courts and public opinion, 
trade union leadership still persists in its denial of the right of 
legal existence to Communists and Left-wingers. Paradoxically, 
though the trade unions have played an important part in rolling 
back the McCarthyite ties, they have in this respect succumbed 
to its vicious influence. 

Today, however, our strength and relative position in the trade 
unions are greatly reduced. It is a difficult matter again to play 
a role in the labor movement in the spirit of past traditions. 
The long period of persecution, compounded by our own errors, 
and the ravages of two years of bitter internal struggle, have had 
their effects." 42 

There had already been an article in the previous issue of this maga- 
zine which, it will be remembered, carries the authentic national Com- 
munist Party line month by month, entitled, "On the Communist 
Party 's Political Resolution, " by an author who simply signed himself 
"An American Professor." This anonymous pundit declared that he 
was not a Communist, and then he made an elaborate analysis of the 
main political resolution adopted at the national convention of the 
Communist Party of the United States held in February, 1957. He 
said, in part, " * * * The theme that dominates the report is the 
problem of the formation of an anti-monopoly people's party in which 
American labor would eventually assume a role of leadership. ' ' The 
writer urges development of a national front rather than a popular 
front; he said the convention should have openly supported Soviet 
intervention in Hungary, and praised the goal of widespread Marxian 
education in America. 43 

General Secretary Eugene Dennis of the Communist Party, declared 
in the August issue of Political Affairs that : 

"It is through struggle that the working class will come to 
recognize its true leaders, and repudiate those in labor's top offi- 
cialdom who helped pave the way for pro-Fascist reaction — for the 
Taft-Hartley Act and the wage freeze, as well as for the Smith 

"A Policy for American Labor, by the National Committee of the Communist Party 

of the United States. Political Affairs, Aug., 1958. p. 11. 
« Political Affairs, April, 1958, p. 42. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 103 

Act. Nor is it excluded that some reformist labor leaders will them- 
selves 'reform' as the struggle sharpens. We should draw some 
conclusions from the action taken by certain leaders of the Amal- 
gamated Clothing Workers, to rally the organization and members 
of that union behind the Sabath bill to repeal the McCarran Act. 
Trade-union struggle will go on, in spite of internal 'purges' 
and F. B. I. 'screening' of the workers in industry. It is going 
on right now in the maritime industry, and there will be other 
struggles, other strikes — no matter how many Communists go to 
jail."** 

In other reports we have described how Communists in the vital 
field of communications were found entrenched in the employ of Cali- 
fornia's public utilities, as well as in the employ of other concerns 
whose scopes of operation were equally vital. For example, a person 
under Communist discipline employed in the long distance toll depart- 
ment of a communications concern is obviously in an important position, 
as is an employee whose knowledge of the overall operation of the con- 
cern provides him with the facility to disrupt the entire network. Thus 
the American Communications Association, heretofore described as 
having been expelled from its parent organization because it was found 
to be Communist dominated, is the certified bargaining agent for more 
than 5,000 employees of the Western Union Telegraph Company 
in New York City alone, and also approximately 200 employees of 
the Western Union Cable Company in the same area, and for Radio 
Corporation of America communications on the West Coast, principally 
in California and Washington. 

The Western Union Telegraph Company maintains its chief office 
for the transaction of business in its building at 60 Hudson Street, 
New York City. To this communications network radiate circuits from 
all major cities in the United States, and a majority of its employees 
handle messages which flow from various government agencies by the 
telegraph circuit highlines which connect the main Western Union office 
with its agencies. This majority of employees is also under the control 
of the American Communications Association. Some of the more im- 
portant circuits serviced in this manner are: The United States De- 
fense Department's Signal Center of the First Army Headquarters, 
Fort Wadsworth; United States Naval Air Station at Floyd Bennett 
Field, Brooklyn, New York ; New York Port of Embarkation, Brooklyn, 
New York; United States Naval Shipyards, Brooklyn, New York; Sea 
Transport Station, Atlantic Division, Piers 1, 2, 3, and 4 ; United States 
Navy Communications Service, 90 Church Street, New York; Gov- 
ernor's Island and Fort Jay, Second Service Command. 45 

Since these are only a few of the more important government agen- 
cies on the east coast which are tied in with comparable agencies on 

** Political Affairs, op. cit., Aug. 1951, p. 9. 

48 Scope of Communist Activity in the United States, part 44, hearings of United 
States Senate Internal Subcommittee, 1951-1956. 



104 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

the west coast, it is a very simple matter to understand how a Com- 
munist-dominated union that has hundreds of its members employed 
in this communications system can pose a constant threat to internal 
security, and it also enables us to understand more clearly why it 
is important for all public utilities in the critical field to be on the con- 
stant alert to protect the public and the nation against subversive infil- 
ration of their facilities. Mr. E. I. Hageinan, national President of the 
Commercial Telegraphers Union, Western Union Division, A. F. L.- 
C. I. 0., Washington, D. C, told the Internal Security Subcommittee 
that the American Communications Association was still dominated by a 
group of Communists at the top who managed to perpetuate themselves 
in positions of control by a system of appointing shop stewards instead 
of electing them, of rigging a constitution that allows this sort of 
captivity to be accomplished, and an apathetic membership that suffers 
such conditions to continue. Hageman declared, " * * * If the Soviet 
espionage system had access to a hard-core Commie in a telegraph 
office, there is no question but that they could get information which 
might be valuable." 

This conclusion is, of course, crystal clear, and applies to every 
public utility that deals with any activity vital to public welfare and 
security. 

Within the past five years every major public utility in California 
has provided itself with a sound, adequate, efficient group of highly- 
trained experts in counter-subversion in security matters to take all 
necessary measures for the purpose of protecting the utility and the 
public against just this type of infiltration. In a later section of this 
report we will describe how even the most elaborate protective systems 
can never be infallible, and we will endeavor to set forth in detail the 
techniques by which the Communist Party is now sending its most 
trusted and highly disciplined members into our schools, our uni- 
versities, our trade union organizations, our public utilities, and many 
other phases of American life. 

Statement by George Meany 

We have already set forth a brief description of the two great inter- 
national labor organizations, the Soviet-dominated World Federation 
of Trade Unions on the one hand, and the International Confederation 
of Free Trade Union Organizations on the other. On the domestic scene 
it is comforting to know that Mr. George Meany, President of the 
A.F.L.-C.I.O. in the United States, has consistently been an implacable, 
emphatic and active opponent of Communism, both foreign and do- 
mestic, although he pointed out in a recent speech to the members 
of an F.B.I. Academy that an American Communist is simply a member 
of an international organization working in this country. Mr. Meany 's 
attitude toward Communism was so forthrightly expressed on such an 
appropriate occasion and has so much practical effect on labor organi- 
zations in this state, that we deem it appropriate to quote from the 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 105 

address mentioned above. Addressing the fifty-seventh graduating class 
of law enforcement officers at the F.B.I. National Academy in the 
United States Department of Justice Auditorium, Washington, D. C, 
Mr. Meany said, in part, that: 

' ' Since the close of World War I, human freedom and individual 
diginity — which are the very essence of the American way of life — • 
have made much progress in some countries. But human liberty 
and decency have also been increasingly menaced by a new 
enemy. This foe of freedom is a total enemy of all of our cherished 
values and individual dignity. His enmity to free institutions is 
organized on a total basis. His movements and activities, aspira- 
tions and actions are totalitarian in nature. The common aim of 
all totalitarian governments — whether they be Communist, Nazi, 
Fascist, Falangist, Peronist or Titoist — is to grab all power for 
the total destruction of all free institutions and freedom and 
for the setting up of a dictatorship. This dictatorship is to have 
total power over every human being in every phase of life — poli- 
tical, economic, cultural, spiritual and what-not. 

That such a dictatorship leads to the horrible debasement of 
society, to outraging every human value, to savage brutality in- 
stead of rule by law, was most painfully dramatized in the latest 
revelations by Khrushchev regarding some of the crimes committed 
under the instructions of his late mentor and master, Stalin. 

Of course, these various totalitarian enemies here and there — 
or now and then — in the degree of the total power they actually 
achieve and exercise. They never differ in the degree of total power 
they would like to wield over the people. 

In varying degrees, these sworn enemies of all our democratic 
institutions pose as militant radicals. They use high-sounding 
phrases to hide their objectives. But none of them is actually pro- 
gressive or really radical. One may be a reactionary without being 
totalitarian. But no one can be totalitarian without being reaction- 
ary. There is nothing as retrogressive, as ultra-reactionary, as the 
totalitarian party organization — or front — whether it be of the red, 
brown, black or yellow hue. 

The Communist brand of dictatorship is — in many respects — 
the most subtle, sinister and dangerous enemy of freedom. It dem- 
agoguely poses as a higher form of democracy. It poses as a poli- 
tical movement, though it is anything but a political party in the 
normal democratic sense as we know it and live it. Furthermore, it 
operates as a worldwide conspiracy, as a fifth column, in every 
free country — with its head and heart in Moscow. 

The only patriotism the Communist knows is loyalty to the 
clique or despot who happens to be at the helm of the Russian 
dictatorship at any particular moment. 

That is why we of American labor have always said: There 
are no American Communists — there are only Communists in 



106 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

America. These subversives are fanatical believers in the doctrine 
that their end — Soviet world domination — justifies any and every 
means. 

In view of the illusions some people who specialize in wishful 
thinking now have about the Soviet orbit moving towards democ- 
racy, it is most urgent that we take a sober and realistic look at 
the Communist 'new look' and 'big smile' tactics. You need no 
agitation or explanation from me on this score. The Communist 
criminals, like other dangerous criminals, are no less dangerous 
when they are well-masked. In fact, when they are well-masked 
they are even more dangerous. Political subversives who seek to 
rob the American people of their liberties, are not good citizens 
or gentlemen merely because they say they are for freedom, or 
merely because they wear kid gloves in the process of their criminal 
operations. "Well-masked, fully camouflaged Communists, do not 
make the face of Communism less ugly or its aim less sinister. 

Any system of government in which a party is the government 
— particularly when there is only one party with absolute power 
over every walk of life — cannot be government by law. And with- 
out government by law, there can be no freedom. 

No confessions in New York, no self-denunciation in Prague or 
Warsaw, no revelations in Moscow, no popular front or united 
front maneuver can alter this proof. Where the Party is the State 
and has all power, there tyranny is unbridled. Tyranny cannot 
be reformed. It must be abolished. 

Perhaps the most important reason why Communism is the 
most dangerous totalitarian enemy of human liberty and human 
decency is because the Communist conspiracy has chosen the ranks 
of labor for their principal field of activity. The Communists have 
made the capture of the trade unions their main purpose and the 
chief road to the seizure of power. 

In modern industrial society, in the days of large-scale produc- 
tion and automation— on the threshold of the atomic age — control 
of the trade unions by Communists would enable the agents of a 
hostile foreign power to subvert our economic life, impose indus- 
trial paralysis on the land and establish a firm foundation for 
overthrowing our democratic government and replacing it with a 
dictatorship over all our people — including the workers. This is 
exactly what happened in Czechoslovakia. 

In our own country and in every other land outside the Iron 
Curtain, the Communist Party and its network of front outfits are 
a dangerous military installation of a hostile foreign power. Here 
we have a subversive conspiracy, a fifth column, employing the 
camouflage of a national political party and masquerading as a 
movement of social reform. 

Can you imagine what chance democracy would have in present 
day Germany, if the trade unions of the Federal Republic had 
fallen into Communist hands? Imagine what could happen to 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 107 

human freedom in our own country if the Communists were in 
control of the A. F. L. - C. I. 0. Consider the frightening instabil- 
ity of democracy in France and you will find it is, in small meas- 
ure, due to the fact that the Communists have won commanding 
positions in the trade unions of that country. 

Here, I must add that thanks largely to the special activities 
of American labor in support of the democratic free trade union 
organizations in Italy and France, the Communist grip on labor 
has been shaken there. These Soviet agents can no longer call the 
paralyzing political general strikes they used to inflict on the 
people of France and Italy. 

We of American labor approach this Communist program and 
face the Communist menace as citizens and as trade unionists. We 
fight this enemy unrelentingly, without a letup. We don't fall for 
any of the Communists' maneuvers, because we do not believe in 
doing business with them — on a partnership or any other basis. 
We fight this enemy with the philosophy of democracy. We fight 
Communism with practical deeds as well as hard-hitting publica- 
tions in many tongues. We expose their fallacies and frauds and 
put Communism in its proper and ugly light by comparing its 
Soviet paradise with our human American institutions and achieve- 
ments. They are not always perfect — but they are always getting 
better. 

If you will take a look at the Communists in our country or 
in any other country, on either side of the Iron Curtain, you will 
see that we are under constant bitter attack. This obviously because 
our policies and activities really hurt the enemies of freedom 
everywhere. 

Our philosophy as American citizens is that democracy and 
dictatorship cannot mix. The one is the very opposite of the other. 
They have nothing in common. They negate each other. 

"Our philosophy as trade unionists is that without democracy 
there can be no free trade unions and without free trade unions 
there can be no democracy. 

To us of American labor, freedom is not only an ideal but a 
most vital and vested interest. That is why we do not go in for 
delegation exchanges with Moscow, Peiping, Warsaw or Bucharest. 
We have nothing to get from them and nothing to sell them. Not 
until there are free trade unions in these countries will there be 
freedom in these lands. As we see it, not until the Russians are 
free to visit each other and exchange opinions and have freedom 
of communication with each other will it be possible for Russians 
or Americans to correspond or communicate freely with each other 
and really get to know each other. That applies to cabinet mem- 
bers and military experts no less than to union officials." 



108 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

And in conclusion, Mr. Meany said : 

"As we see it, Communism is no longer 'a spectre' in the sense 
Karl Marx once spoke of it. Communism has become a deadly 
reality. Millions of Russians, Chinese, Poles, Germans, Baits and 
others whose unmarked graves have yet to be revealed — tell only a 
very small part of the gruesome story of the transformation of 
Communism from spectre to reality. The curse of Communism is 
not ' cult ' of the individual but Communism itself. It is the cult of 
Communism which is the enemy we face and must vanquish. I am 
confident American labor will adhere to its principles of devotion 
to freedom and our free institutions above all else. As long as 
Communism adheres to the doctrine of world subversion and domi- 
nation, the Communist powers will constitute a real threat to the 
way of life, to the progress and even to the very survival of our 
Country and every other free country. As long as any government 
is totalitarian, that is — as long as it denies to its own people 
the enjoyment of democratic liberties, no real and enduring 
peace — based on genuine mutual trust, can be achieved through 
agreements with that government. 

In our own midst, at home as well as abroad, the Communists 
have also redoubled their talk of coexistence with the rest of us. 
In the name of the 'Geneva spirit,' the Communists and their 
dupes are now calling for an end to every legal effort to curtail 
their subversive activities and their efforts to infiltrate our free 
institutions. The Communists like nothing better and want nothing 
as much as to be given a free hand to use our democratic liberties 
for the purpose of subverting and destroying our democratic 
society. 

In the interest of self-preservation, governments and societies 
founded on the principles of liberty must protect themselves by 
taking measures against subversive movements and their activities. 
He is no liberal who does not believe in safeguarding democracy 
and its liberal institutions. True liberalism is the very opposite of 
every brand of totalitarianism." 

The next section of this report will deal with the Communist infil- 
tration of the motion picture industry, and there we shall see how the 
Teamsters Union was infiltrated during the middle twenties for the 
purpose of gaining control of everything that moved on wheels within 
the studio. This powerful organization, the Teamsters Union, has been 
much in the press during the past several months due to the prosecution 
and conviction of former president Dave Beck and the congressional 
investigation of his successor, James Hoffa, because of his associations 
and activities with known criminals. It is then interesting to note that 
as recently as June 20, 1958, members of the Teamsters' Union and 
representatives of the Harry Bridges' International Longshoremens 
and Warehousemen Union met at the Hotel Statler in Los Angeles to 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 109 

discuss the possibility of co-operating for their mutual benefit. There 
have been rumors that these two great organizations intend to join 
forces. A representative of the Teamsters declared after the meeting 
that, "Our local unions have the necessary autonomy to enter agree- 
ments and organize common fronts with whomever they choose. ' ' 40 

A similar statement was issued in July, 1958, by representatives of 
the International Longshoremens and Warehousements Union. The 
Communist newspaper declared that it understood an organizing meet- 
ing of Canadian and American trade unions would soon be held at 
Windsor, Canada, to lay the ground for a gigantic drive to organize 
all transportation unions including the Teamsters, Dockers, Seamen, 
Clerks, members of the National Maritime Union and members of the 
International Longshoremens and Warehousemens Unions. 47 

The Statler Hotel meeting was under the direction of Louis Gold- 
blatt who represented the ILWU as its secretary-treasurer, and who 
has also been identified as a Communist Party member by several wit- 
nesses who appeared before this and other legislative committees. 48 

This move to amalgamate the Teamsters' Union under the leadership 
of James Hoffa and the International Longshoremens and Warehouse- 
mens Union under the leadership of Harry Bridges and Louis Gold- 
blatt is the most recent major development in California involving 
unions that are Communist infiltrated, and one that is actually Com- 
munist controlled. Since the Teamsters control everthing that moves on 
wheels, and the ILWU controls a large part of transportation by water, 
the implications of such an unholy wedlock to the security of the 
United States is too manifest to need further amplification. 

At the last meeting of the National Committee of the Communist 
Party of the United States all of the emphasis was on the infiltration of 
American trade unions and American educational institutions. It is 
now being implemented by direct action. For those who wish further 
documentation to fully corroborate this conclusion, we refer them to 
Political Affairs for August, 1958, page 11 ; National Revieiv, January 
31, 1959, page 491 ; Political Affairs, April, 1958, page 42. 

INFILTRATION OF THE MOTION PICTURE INDUSTRY 

In 1934 a considerable sum of money was sent by the Soviet Com- 
missar for Heavy Industry, who was then registered at the Claremont 
Hotel in Berkeley, to a Communist contact in Hollywood. This sum 
was to be used for the purpose of creating an entering wedge into the 
motion picture industry. No immediate effort was made at that time 
to recruit movie stars or technicians into the party, the entire atten- 
tion of the Communists being concentrated on capturing key trade 

48 Los Angeles Times, June 18, 1958. 

"Daily Worker, August 3, 1958. 

48 See The Alliance of Certain Racketeer and Communist Dominated Unions in the 
Field of Transportation as a Threat to National Security, report by the Subcom- 
mittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other 
Internal Security Laws to the Committee on Judiciary of the United State Senate, 
Eighty-fifth Congress, 2d Session, December 17, 1958. 



110 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

unions. This was the procedure laid down by the Comintern and later 
set forth in textbooks of the Communist Party. Strong Communist fac- 
tions were planted and maintained in almost every Hollywood trade 
union that had jurisdiction over anything in the motion picture studios. 
The Communist Party working in Hollywood wanted control over 
everything that moved on wheels — sound trucks, camera platforms, 
transportation of equipment and personnel to and from locations, and 
even the tray-dollies in the cafeterias. They soon moved Communist 
units into those unions having jurisdiction over carpenters, painters, 
musicians, grips, and electricians. To control these trade unions was to 
control the motion picture industry. 

Next in importance to the Hollywood trade unions working in the 
industry were the writers, script men and the other professionals hav- 
ing to do with the actual story writing and the production of motion 
picture plays. 

This infiltration, as we pointed out in our 1943 report, pages 93-94, 
was accompanied by a system of blacklisting for members who had 
openly opposed Communism or the Communist cliques, and many 
highly skilled individuals were unable to secure employment because, 
during these early days of the invasion, they presumed to oppose Com- 
munism. 

The Painters' Union was captured. So was the Screen Writers Guild, 
to some extent. The Screen Actors Guild fought so hard to keep out of 
the Communist clutches that it fell into the pudgy arms of the late 
Willie Bioff, the mobster from the east who muscled into a top position 
in the International Association of Theatrical and Stage Employees. 
After Bioff was convicted for trying to bribe certain studio executives, 
the Communists renewed their attack and for years the writers were 
heavily infiltrated. They would have succumbed long ago were it not 
for the stout resistance of a group of determined, capable, hardhitting 
patriots who are still very much aware of the never-ending menace. 49 

There was a nucleus of confirmed Marxists already on the Holly- 
wood scene when the Commissar sent the Soviet money to his contact — 
a Communist who is now working elsewhere but still in the trade union 
field. Some were writers like John Howard Lawson, who had become 
fired up with revolutionary fuel in the pro-Communist League of 
American Writers and has been hissing along under a full head of 
steam ever since ; some were actors like Morris Cornovsky who had been 
infected in the John Reed Clubs and the Group Theatre. 

In its dingy little rooms at 126 West Sixth Street, Los Angeles, the 
Communist Party issued directions and appointed activists to assist in 
the task of infiltration, indoctrination and recruiting. Late in July, 
1941, this committee questioned Jack Moore, then Secretary of the Los 
Angeles Communist Party. Since that time many legislative commit- 
tees — both state and federal — have inquired into the subversive pene- 
tration of the glamorous realm of motion pictures, but Jack Moore is 



See 1943 committee report: also The Red Decade, op. clt., pp. 284-2 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 111 

the first highly qualified, authoritative party official to discuss the mat- 
ter under oath. His testimony was not long or detailed in this regard, 
but it was crystal clear, solid and unequivocal. 

"Q- (by Mr- Combs) : Do you know whether or not, Mr. Moore, 
the Communist International has laid down a policy of capturing, 
since the May convention, industry; was a method laid down for 
propagandizing ? 

' ' A. No, I don 't recall that they ever laid down such a policy. 

"Q. I read from the same treatise, page 44, entitled: 'Means of 
Ideological Influences (a) The Nationalization of Plants; (b) the 
Monopoly of Book Publishing.' 

' ' The Witness : Pardon me, may I ask a question ? 

"Mr. Combs: Certainly. 

"The Witness: Isn't this the record of the organization of So- 
cialists as it was in Russia after the revolution ? 

"Mr. Combs: This is 'The Policy and Program of the Commu- 
nist International.' 

"The Witness: It isn't the record of the organization of So- 
cialists ? 

"Mr. Combs: No (continuing to read): '(c) The Nationaliza- 
tion of Big Cinema Enterprises, Theatres, etc. ; (d) The Utilization 
of the Nationalized Means of Intellectual Production for the Most 
Extensive Political and General Education of the Toilers and for 
the Building Up of a New Socialist Culture on a Prolitarian Class 
Basis. ' 

"Q. Mr. Moore, do you know whether any efforts have been 
made in Los Angeles County to get members into the motion pic- 
ture industry through the craft unions or the trade unions ? 

"A. In every other industry, too. 

' ' Q. Now, let 's limit it in this instance. 

"A. The Communist Party tries to recruit members — the motion 
picture industry as well as other industries. Naturally, we are in- 
terested in industrial workers wherever they may be. 

"Q. That effort has been made in this Country? 

"A. Of course. 

"Q. With the motion picture industry? 

"A. Yes." 

Now, of course, we are quite aware that there was a heavy attempt 
by the Communists to secure enough control in the industry to event- 
ually use pictures as vehicles for propaganda; to tie up studios by 
paralyzing strikes; to adorn front organizations with the names of 
naive stars as bait to attract others. But what else did Mr. Moore 
tell us? He declared that this program was in accord with a directive 
issued by the Comintern in Moscoav and implemented by obedient 
action on the part of the Communist Party in Los Angeles County. 



112 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

John Leech was one of the early functionaries who preceded Moore 
by several years. He broke with the party and gave a Los Angeles 
County Grand Jury a voluminous statement naming hundreds of 
motion picture luminaries from whom he had personally received Com- 
munist Party dues. Max Silver came several years after Moore, served |j 
as secretary of the party, also dropped out of Communist activities 
and has testified concerning the same matters. He didn't drop quite 
as far as Leech, however. Not yet, at least. The Leech document is 
monumental, has never been made public, and probably never should 
be. Many of the persons named completely broke with Communism 
years ago, while others are still active in the underground and unaware 
that their earlier connections have already been revealed. 

The John Reed Club, the Pen and Hammer, the American League 
for Peace and Democracy, the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee, 
the various Soviet Friendship Leagues, and the perennial committees 
to shore up civil liberties were the first Communist fronts in Holly- 
wood. Then came a host of cultural organizations, then a group for 
the support of Loyalists during the Spanish Revolution, then the 
anti-Nazi fronts that sprang up overnight when the Germans violated 
the non-aggression pact and invaded the USSR on June 22, 1941. 

During the era of the first united front, 1935-1945, these fronts 
multiplied with great rapidity into an intricate and confusing Red 
network. They had interlocking directorates, traded their mailing lists, 
exchanged their speakers, aided each other financially, faithfully fol- 
lowed the party line, and were carefully synchronized and manipulated 
by the local Communist officials from their drab offices on "West Sixth 
Street.* 

Some of these fronts were huge. The Hollywood Anti-Nazi League 
had 4,000 members; the motion picture Democratic Committee, 1,700. 
Sometimes two or more of the largest fronts joined forces to stage a 
public affair to exploit a new twist in the party line, raise funds and 
propagandize. Even by Hollywood standards these affairs were colossal. 
Usually held at the Embassy Auditorium at Ninth and Grand, these 
functions jammed the hall with several thousand people. There were 
impressive settings, klieg lights, a glittering array of stars and rabble- 
rousing speakers who scoffed and sneered at our American institutions, 
inflamed racial minority groups, painted ominous pictures of the im- 
pending collapse of civil liberties, damned the FBI and legislative com- 
mittees as Fascist, and sang the praises of the Soviet Union and the 
party line. 

Hundreds of thousands of dollars were collected at these colorful 
affairs. The agents who covered them were invariably struck by the 
general resemblance — as to technique — to the Gerald L. K. Smith meet- 
ings and newsreel pictures of similar mass meetings held abroad during 
the war by comparable movements. Throughout the period of the first 

* Los Angeles Communist Party Headquarters is now located at 524 South Spring 
Street. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 113 

united front these organizations flourished and multiplied, and were 
enthusiastically supported by prominent film personalities. 

During the war Russia muffled the American Communists. We were 
pouring lend-lease material into that country, taking the pressure off 
the Eastern front, and flexing our capitalist muscles on behalf of our 
Communist ally. So that ally deemed it best not to irritate us with the 
usual subversive actions of its agents in our midst. The Communist- 
dominated unions turned off the strikes, the fronts reoriented them- 
selves in support of our war effort, and party activity was slipped 
down into a lower gear. 

Then came the battle to oust Communists from their positions of 
control in the industry shortly after the war was over. A series of hear- 
ings was held by this committee, followed by others before congressional 
committees. The fronts were exposed, the names of the members were 
published, the Communist control was unmasked and the picture indus- 
try began to clean its own house. In 1943, the late James McGuinness, 
staunch foe of everything subversive and of Communism in particular, 
started the Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American 
Ideals. Head of the story department at M. G. M., and highly respected 
throughout the industry, McGuinness soon put together a hard-hitting 
and influential organization. Typical of the other members were Sam 
Wood, John Wayne, Borden Chase, Ward Bond, Adolphe Menjou, Roy 
Brewer, and scores of prominent writers, directors, actors and techni- 
cians. All were and are dedicated to the task of ridding their industry 
of insidious penetration by Communists. 

During the late thirties and early forties V. J. Jerome made several 
trips to California from New York in his capacity as chief of the 
party's Cultural Commission. Copies of telegrams that passed between 
Communist officials immediately before and after his visits show how 
each was followed by a rash of new activity in the process of subvert- 
ing Hollywood. As the writer, John Howard Lawson, was moved into 
position as Jerome's California representative, the boss made fewer 
trips. Lawson 's Communist record has been thoroughly covered in pre- 
vious reports following his appearance before us several years ago. He 
has spent much of his time in the east since being exposed, but as this 
portion of the report is being written he is back with us once more. 

By 1945 the infiltration had reached alarming proportions. Once se- 
cure in their positions of authority the Communists employed the old 
technique of promoting each other and smothering everyone else. Just 
as they had applied this ruthless tactic in the political arenas, the 
universities and the trade unions, and in the wartime agencies of gov- 
ernment, they now utilized it in their penetration of the motion picture 
industry. When they were exposed, forced to resort to the Fifth Amend- 
ment, and were unseated from their vantage places, these Communists 
pictured themselves as the innocent victims of a blacklist. The differ- 
ence, of course, was one so very simple that many people accustomed 
to thinking in more complicated terms failed to grasp it. 



114 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

The Red Blacklist 

The Communists themselves blacklisted all non-Communists because 
they were operating as agents in a world crusade directed by the inter- i 
national headquarters at Moscow, and this operation was one phase of 
that crusade. All Communists are imbued with the hate motive of the 
class struggle and they were carrying out their role in the plan by 
promoting each other in an attempt to control a vital propaganda 
medium. The loyal Americans who opposed and exposed them were j 
prompted by patriotism. Yet the latter were accused of blacklisting i 
the former. 

By this twisted thinking, every F. B. I. agent who does his duty in ! 
removing a Communist from a sensitive government position and 
thereby protecting his country against espionage, is accused of foster- j 
ing a blacklist because the subversive employee is flushed out of his j 
position. And every legislative committee that exposes subversive in- 
filtration participates in the blacklist because employers are reluctant 
to hire people who hate capitalism and are dedicated to the destruction 
of our government by every foul and unfair means at their command. 
But this sort of twisted thinking is typical of Communists, and they 
have used it to convince a great many confused liberals. 

Now the plain truth is that in the process of advancing each other 
and choking all non-Communists, the Party is operating the vilest 
blacklist of all time. Ask the active anti-Communist professor or trade 
unionist who has been smeared, undermined, stifled in his work and 
called a McCarthyite Fascist. 

But we are dealing here with motion pictures, so let us examine an- 
other actual case. In a major studio a picture was being made that was 
to achieve Academy Award stature. The producer, director and writer 
were party members. One of them has since dropped out of all Com- 
munist activity. The director was receiving $2,500 per week, and our 
reports mention him 34 times in connection with Communist affiliations 
and activities. He taught at the Communist school in Los Angeles — 
then known as the People's Educational Center. There he met two other 
party members who needed studio jobs. 

During his attendance at the young Communist organization, then 
known as American Youth for Democracy, this $10,000 per month di- 
rector met a third party member — also in need of work as a writer. 

At meetings of the Progressive Citizens of America, a Communist 
cultural front, the director discovered four more Communists. 

The two teachers from the Communist school went to work at the 
director's studio. One of them started at $500 a week and was quickly 
raised to $600 and then $750. The young Communist organization 
workers sold a 20-page story to the same studio for $25,000. And the 
front activists went to work at the studio at the insistence of the same 
director at salaries ranging from $500 to $1,400 per week. As we have 
said, all were Communists and, with a single exception, far less capable 
than the non-Communists who were rejected for the same positions. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 115 

At the same time, at the same studio, a well-known and thoroughly 
competent writer contemplated the high salaries being paid this squad- 
ron of Red invaders and asked for a $100 raise. He was an anti-Com- 
munist, and he was promptly undermined and fired. Thus another 
vacancy was created. His place was filled by another invader who was 
immediately given a $750 raise over his original $250 per week salary. 

There were many such cases. At RKO the head of the music depart- 
ment refused to use Hanns Eisler as the composer for a picture — ■ 
simply because he was musically inept. But, Hanns, a Communist, was 
the brother of Gerhardt Eisler — Comintern boss in the United States, 
and the producer of the picture was also a Communist. So Hanns Eisler 
got the job. 

By 1945 the infiltration had progressed to the point where propa- 
ganda was beginning to appear in pictures and the industry was liter- 
ally teeming with Communists. So secure was the control of key unions 
that the party bosses at the headquarters on West Sixth Street decided 
to make a bold move. They sanctioned a strike at Warner Bros, studio. 
The Conference of Studio Unions actually manned the picket lines and 
comprised the painters, set designers, sign writers, screen cartoonists 
and office employees. The left-wing control of the conference was openly 
headed by one Herb Sorrell, a large and muscular man with a most 
aggressive attitude. He has appeared before us and we have heretofore 
published his record of subversive connections. We have also taken the 
testimony of two prominent handwriting experts who have authenti- 
cated his signature on a Communist membership book. 

There was much violence at Warner Bros, during this strike; an 
average of 50 patients per day were treated at emergency first aid 
stations; public sidewalks and streets were blocked by 2,500 pickets 
in the face of a court order against any such mass demonstration. 
Police cars were upset when they approached the scene — uniformed 
officers trapped inside. It soon developed that the strikers were repre- 
sented by a battery of Communist lawyers, Frank Pestana, Ben Mar- 
golis, Charles Katz, and Leo Gallagher, all repeatedly identified by 
witnesses as Communist Party members. 

As sheriff's deputies moved in to enforce the court order and pre- 
vent the bloody incidents that were occurring with increasing frequency 
and viciousness; as the strike leaders and their counsel were identified 
as Communists, the strike lost impetus and sputtered out. 

In November, 1950, the National Executive Board of the AFL Paint- 
ers' Union announced the results of its searching investigation into 
the affair and declared that Sorrell had "willfully and knowingly 
associated with groups subservient to the Communist Party line ' ' 50 
and ordered him not to hold any union office for five years and not to 
attend any union meetings during that period. In February, 1952, 
Sorrell's local union was dissolved and he dropped out of all union 
activities. 51 



"Report of National Executive Board, AFL Painters' Union, Lafayette, Ind., Nov., 

1950. 
a Los Angeles Times, Feb. 15, 1962. 



116 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

As resistance to the Red invasion stiffened and as more legislative 
committees continued to flush out and expose hidden Communists, many 
courageous former party members scorned to invoke the Fifth Amend- 
ment and aided their industry, their state and their country in co- 
operating fully to combat the infiltration. Witnesses like Edward 
Dmytryk, Martin Berkeley, Charles Daggett, Leo Townsend, Elizabeth 
Wilson, Richard Collins, Frank Tuttle — these and many others readily 
admitted past membership and identified their former comrades. They 
were supported by the Motion Picture Alliance, thanked by the com- 
mittees and blasted by the Communists as stool pigeons and traitors. 

The effort to inject propaganda into pictures was not really put to 
much of a test. The strength of the invasion was broken too soon, but 
experts have explained to us that the approach was exceedingly 
subtle — and it required a long time to be effective. The Communists 
realized that blunt, open propaganda would easily be detected; the 
public would object, those responsible would be eliminated and the 
party would lose some valuable agents. So, as in the universities, the 
approach was indirect and slanted with great caution. Writers and 
directors were instructed to hammer away at the class struggle theme, 
glorifying the "toiling masses," damning the bloated capitalists. Thus 
the bank president, the chairman of the board, the department store 
owner, the wealthy aristocrat or the politician was portrayed as a 
selfish, venal parasite squeezing dry the underprivileged masses. And 
their employees or constituents were depicted as lean, underpaid, over- 
worked and most unhappy. This theme, repeated through endless vari- 
ations, was calculated to create contempt for the free-enterprise system, 
mistrust of public officials and lack of confidence in the government. 

The motion picture industry has demonstrated how determination, 
organized resistance and relentless exposure can invariably whip the 
Communists soundly. But it is also demonstrating the lamentable and 
tragic fact that the indifference of the average American, once he is 
given a brief respite from the Communist menace, is constantly opening 
the doors to infiltration once again. We must learn that Communists 
never give up. If only one were left he would devote the whole of his 
life to the subversion of our government. 

As soon as the industry relaxed, the invasion was resumed. New 
techniques were employed and there are danger signals once again. 
In September, 1954, Actors Equity voted down a resolution barring 
Communists from membership ; in February, 1959, motion picture pro- 
ducers admitted they had been buying scripts from some Communists 
who had been fired but who were peddling their wares under false 
names with the full knowledge of the purchasers. In March, the Acad- 
emy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences lifted its ban against making 
awards to those who had defied legislative committees when asked about 
their Communist backgrounds. Whenever vigilance is relaxed; when- 
ever executives in the motion picture industry, or regents of a great 
university, or heads of trade unions show weakness instead of strength 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 117 

and courage and plain patriotism in dealing with this ceaseless threat — ■ 
then they are becoming the unwitting accomplices in the world drive 
to soften us up for the eventual kill, and to substitute a Communist 
regime for the government we should be alert and eager to protect 
against subversion from within. 

INFILTRATION OF THE PROFESSIONS 

The Medical Profession 

The Communist Party has always been interested in recruiting 
professional people. Lawyers, engineers and doctors are particularly 
desired to operate as underground members of the party, not only for 
the purpose of lending their names to front organizations and thereby 
giving them a semblance of prestige and dignity, but because, as we 
shall see, they can perform invaluable services for the advancement of 
Communism in areas that would be inaccessible for the ordinary rank 
and file party member. 

Thus, when atomic research was commenced at Berkeley, California, 
in the latter part of 1941 and early 1942, and it was necessary to recruit 
a number of atomic physicists to work in the radiation laboratory of 
the University of California, the Communist Party had a nucleus of 
dedicated scientists all ready waiting for such an opportunity. This was 
the International Federation of Architects, Engineers, Chemists and 
Technicians, an organization that was started in the Soviet Union by 
an American scientist who graduated from the Lenin Academy, and 
which spread its tentacles throughout the United States and parts of 
Canada. All of these technical men were recruited into the party and 
originally placed in a professional unit from which they were detached 
to do this particular job of espionage. 

In order to illustrate the physical organization and activities of a 
professional section of the Communist Party, we can find no better 
example than that which was functioning in Los Angeles County in the 
late thirties. Headquarters for this section was established at 3224 
Beverly Blvd., and the section comprised two units of teachers, one of 
newspaper workers, one of doctors, one of lawyers, two of social work- 
ers, one of pharmacy workers, one of engineers and architects, one of 
theatrical people and musicians, one of writers and artists, and a unit 
of miscellaneous professions usually referred to in party circles as the 
hash unit. Unit 131 of this Professional Section, comprising writers 
who were employed by the Federal Writers Project, undertook to make 
a historical record survey. Since this project involved the probing into 
government archives on the state, county and municipal levels, the 
Communist Party was packing it with its members. Sven Skarr, the 
California supervisor, was a Communist, and with utter ruthlessness, 
he demoted and fired employees who were not members of the party 
in order to create jobs for his comrades. In Alaska, in Hawaii, and in 
the Philippine Islands, as well as throughout the other 47 states, Com- 



118 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

munists went burrowing into government records compiling enormous 
masses of data that were analyzed and correlated for Communist Party 
purposes, both here and abroad. 

The Communists realized shortly after the party was organized in 
the United States that one of the safest places for the arrangement of 
important meetings was in a doctor's office. Doctors are protected by 
law against revealing any communication that passes between them and 
their patients, the waiting room is an insulating protection against 
intrusion upon the doctor's privacy, people have a normal reason for 
coming to and from his office at all times of the night and day, and 
thus these offices provide a safe place for the transaction of important 
party business. 

In San Francisco, we found a dentist's office being used for such 
purposes only a few years ago. In Los Angeles, a dentist by the name 
of V. A. K. Tashjian used his office at 815 S. Hill St., Los Angeles, 
to masquerade his actual status as head of the Disciplinary Commis- 
sion of the Communist Party for the entire state. 

Another instance of the practical use to which Communist doctors 
can be put is found in the case of Dr. Samuel Marcus, who was a mem- 
ber of the Professional Section of the Communist Party of Los Angeles 
County, and at the same time a member of the Los Angeles County 
Board of Alienists and doing psychiatric work for the Los Angeles 
Superior Courts. On December 6, 1954, the committee held a hearing 
in Los Angeles concerning Communism in the Los Angeles County 
Medical Association, and examined 30 witnesses during a period of 
almost a week. This hearing was conducted at the request of the Medical 
Association, some of its officers having become alarmed at the increasing 
evidence of Communist penetration in its ranks. Some of the officers 
went to Communist front organization meetings and there saw members 
of their profession participating in the proceedings in positions of 
authority. The hearing was described at length on pages 70 to 395 of 
the committee's 1955 report, and we are happy to state that while a 
mild problem still exists and will undoubtedly continue to exist so long 
as medical men prove susceptible to Communist recruiting, the problem 
of infiltration in the Los Angeles County Medical Association is now 
comparatively slight. 

In the recruitment of doctors the Communist Party places special 
stress in getting as many psychiatrists and psychologists as possible 
under party control. This group of specialized professionals are of in- 
valuable benefit to the party in bringing those members who are giving 
evidences of weakness and straying from the path of Marxian rectitude 
back into the fold through the application of psychiatric treatment. It 
should be born in mind, of course, that party members are ordered to 
consult only Communists for their legal and medical problems, and 
whenever it is necessary to do a job of reindoctrination or to report 
back to the Communist officials concerning the true mental state of the 
patient, psychiatrists are most valuable. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 119 

Immediately after the invasion of the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, 
and the consequent overturning of the international Communist Party 
line, it became expedient to re-examine the political reliability of those 
party members who had been assigned to work in the delicate fields of 
either underground activities or espionage. One of these individuals was 
Paul Crouch, who had been a party member for 17 years, tried to or- 
ganize a Communist unit in military intelligence while he was a soldier 
at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii, was caught and sentenced to a term in 
Alcatraz Military Prison and later was sent to the Soviet Union for 
training. 

He attended the Frunze Military Academy, which is the equivalent 
to our "West Point, graduated with the rank of an honorary Colonel in 
the Red Army, reviewed the 40,000 troops which then comprised the 
Budeny Division, addressed the Balkan countries over the Comintern 
radio network, and was sent back to the United States to take charge 
of the infiltration of all of our armed forces with Communist Party 
members. Crouch served briefly as a member of the National Committee 
of the Communist Party of the United States, and held top positions 
throughout the entire country. He headed several state Communist 
organizations and was in almost constant contact with the highest rank- 
ing members of the party's leadership. He had been in California 
several times, but was assigned to this state permanently in 1939 and 
ultimately assigned to assume the enormously important command of 
the Special Section which comprised the engineers and technicians and 
nuclear physicists that we have heretofore described as belonging to the 
Alameda County Chapter of the International Federation of Architects, 
Engineers, Chemists and Technicians, which also included physicists 
then employed at the University of California's radiation laboratory 
on secret atomic research. 

Crouch reported regularly to his Communist Party superiors, par- 
ticularly William Schneidermann, the organizer for District 13 whose 
headquarters were in San Francisco, and was apparently performing 
his task with his usual efficiency and dispatch and with his usual 
amenability to Communist Party discipline. His wife, also a party 
member, carried on her duties at the same time, as did his children 
who were members of the Young Communist apparatus. Then came the 
revolution of the international party line in June, 1941, and the re- 
examination of the reliability of top members by the Communist Party 
psychiatrists. They evaluated Crouch negatively and made their report 
to the proper Communist authorities. Shortly thereafter — apparently 
in an effort to test the accuracy of this diagnosis — Crouch and his fam- 
ily were ordered to leave Alameda County and take up Communist 
work in southern California. Now for 17 years these orders had been 
accepted by the Crouch family without question. On Communist assign- 
ments they had moved from one job to another throughout the length 
and breadth of the United States, and had never wavered in their im- 
mediate acceptance of Communist Party discipline and assignments. On 
this occasion, however, first Mrs. Crouch and then her husband objected. 



120 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

The conflict between them and their party superiors mounted in in- 
tensity and finally they refused to obey the assignment, dropped out of 
all party activities, accepted work at Brownsville, Texas, went thence 
to Miami, Florida, and while there decided to atone as much as they 
could for their 17 years of attempting to subvert their country. Crouch 
went to the nearest F.B.I, office and made a clean breast of his 17 years 
of Communist activity. From that time forward until he died a few 
years ago, Crouch and his entire family devoted their whole time to 
assisting their government in every possible way to combat the menace 
of Communism. 

The point of this narrative lies in the accuracy of the psychiatric 
diagnosis and the illustration of the practical value that Communist 
psychiatrists can render to the Communist Party conspiracy. Crouch 
had not been suspected as weakening by any of his superiors, and only 
when a mass re-evaluation of personnel was conducted because of the 
changed world situation were these professional men able to probe deep 
enough and expertly enough to uncover Crouch's increasing weakness 
and his mounting disillusionment with the party. The point is, obvi- 
ously, that they were correct, that he did break, that he went all the 
way and devoted the rest of his life to exposing in the greatest detail 
everything he could think of about the persons he knew as Communists 
and the techniques and activities of the party. 

Thus we see that the effort to recruit doctors occupies a high place 
on the Communist agendum, and that here is yet another area that 
demands constant scrutiny and watchfulness in order to effectively 
resist the ceaseless program of infiltration and recruiting. 

The Legal Profession 

Lawyers have always been of enormous importance to the Commu- 
nist conspiracy because they are able to guide it through the labyrinth 
of its underground activities with a relatively slight degree of interfer- 
ence from the constituted authorities — at least in the United States. 
We have tolerated this type of activity since the middle twenties, and 
while we have been sending our counter-espionage agents deep into 
the heart of the Communist apparatus, neverthless the elaborate pre- 
caution with which the party has protected itself against such penetra- 
tion in recent years has met with considerable success,, also. As we 
shall see later in this section, the Subversive Activities Control Board 
has been taking evidence in an effort to determine whether or not the 
Communist Party of the United States is directed from abroad as a 
preliminary to proscribing its activities in this country, and the Su- 
preme Court has, as yet, refused to let the board know whether it is a 
constitutional body. Hence, in the event that some day the board 
may make a report that the Communist Party in this country should 
be made to register all of its members and conform to all of the provi- 
sions of the McCarran- Walter Act, then the Supreme Court could at 
one stroke destroy all of these years of work, together with the effect 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 121 

of the decision by declaring that the board was unconstitutional from 
its inception. 

This committee has been continuously examining members of the 
Communist Party and officers of its front organizations for almost 
20 years, and we have now become familiar with the same lawyers 
who represent the same type of clients at almost every hearing this 
committee has ever held. In an excellent report recently issued by 
the House Committee on Un-American Activities, dated February 16, 
1959, the role of the Communist lawyer is discussed at length, and 
we have taken some of the material for this portion of our report from 
that document, which can be obtained by writing to the United States 
Government Printing Office, Division of Documents, Washington, D. C. 

Before discussing in detail the individual lawyers in California who 
are not only members of the Communist Party but who have devoted 
their lives to furthering its subversive interests, let us once more place 
the subject in proper perspective by tracing the development of the 
legal arm of the Comintern as it stretched out from Moscow and 
manipulated its puppets in the Communist Parties of the world. 

Realizing that Communist subversion in foreign countries must neces- 
sarily be a clandestine semi-legal operation, and that the Communists 
in those countries would inevitably run afoul of the law, one of the 
most important early subdivisions of the Comintern was known as the 
International Class "War Prisoners Aid Society, designated by the Rus- 
sian initials for that title, MOPR, and commonly known among Amer- 
ican Party members as "MOPER." By 1925, this organization had its 
branches scattered throughout the world and in America it was known 
as the International Labor Defense, and had been functioning here 
since June, 1922. The first international head of this world Red aid 
organization was Klara Zetkin of Germany, a member of the Comintern 
Executive Committee. She was followed by Willi Muenzenberg, an un- 
usually facile and imaginative functionary who Avas the originator of 
the Communist front and who brought MOPR and its worldwide sub- 
ordinate organizations to a high state of perfection. 

The first director of the American section of MOPR, known as the 
International Labor Defense, was James P. Cannon, and in California 
the early ILD organization was headed by Leo Gallagher. The national 
organization in the United States was later directed by the late Vito 
Marcantonio, who enjoyed the distinction of being the only member of 
Congress to actually head a division of an international conspiracy 
openly dedicated to our destruction. 

Under Gallagher's direction, the ILD in California was constantly 
kept busy protecting domestic Communists and getting them out of 
jail, as well as representing them in legal proceedings; preventing and 
delaying the deportation of alien Communist agents and planning the 
strategy and legal ramifications for the operation of the solar system 
of Red fronts and propaganda units, as well as the run-of-the-mill 
every day Communist Party operations. Particularly in the field of 



122 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

political strategy were these legal specialists of great practical value 
to the party in California. 

Although the American Communists tried to operate the ILD like 
any other front and conceal the fact that it was purely a part of the 
Communists' far-flung structure, there were occasional slips. One ap- 
peared in a highly authoritative Communist publication which declared 
that the International Labor Defense was far too important an organi- 
zation to be operated by ordinary functionaries, but must "be guided 
by the higher committees of the Party. ' ' 52 

But only the incredibly naive could possibly have been fooled, any- 
way. The legal staff of the ILD were all Communists ; it only defended 
Communists and party fronts and foreign party agents ; it meticulously 
followed the party line and said so in its organ, Labor Defender. Its 
members and officers were Communists and it was operated with Com- 
munist funds. 

Zealous and vigorous in its defense of Communists, the ILD and its 
successor organizations invariably lose interest when its clients de- 
nounce the Communist Party and revert to the business of just being 
solid American citizens. Take the case of Fred Beal, for a good example. 
There are other instances, without end, but Beal's was a famous case 
and he lived in California and discussed the matter with representatives 
of our committee on several occasions. While he was a party member 
he participated in the textile strike at Gastonia, North Carolina. There 
was the usual Communist-inspired violence, during which Beal shot a 
police officer. The ILD sprang into action and eventually arranged for 
him to escape to the Soviet Union. Here Beal was hailed as a valiant 
fighter for the oppressed toiling masses. Particularly so because his vic- 
tim was a policeman in the bastion of capitalism at the height of a class 
struggle. So, living in comfort at the Metropole Hotel in Moscow, 
Beal was busily giving lectures and basking in the fatherland of world 
Communism. 

But soon his propaganda value ran dry, and he was left pretty much 
alone. He became intensely bored, and after months of such isolation 
and complaining one of his more influential and sympathetic Commu- 
nist friends promised to escort Beal through the Lubianka prison. 

Situated across the street from the Kremlin and connected with it by 
an underground passage, this grim structure once housed an insurance 
company, but after the revolution it became the headquarters of the 
Soviet Secret Police. Here the more important prisoners were tortured 
and subjected to interminable interrogation. During the bloody purge 
trials and executions that swept across the U.S.S.K. from 1935 to 1939, 
the endless procession of Soviet officials, generals, admirals, diplomats 
and old Bolsheviks were taken to the Lubianka dungeons and there 
"persuaded" to sign the most ridiculous and abject confessions of 
Marxian heresy and collaboration with enemies of the regime. Then 
they were shot. 

M The Party Organizer, Nov., 1945; see, also, The Red Decade, op. cit p. 95. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 123 

When Fred Beal was taken on a tour of this citadel of terror he was 
being accorded a distinct favor. His guide explained how the prisoners 
never knew whether they would be allowed to live from one day to the 
next. The latrines were located at the end of a long corridor, and were 
constructed of soundproof reinforced concrete. If a prisoner failed to 
return, this meant he had been shot in the base of the skull, and the 
body removed through an outside entrance. The psychological effect 
on the other prisoners was deemed most salutary, from the viewpoint 
of the Soviet Secret Police. 

Beal's doubts about the whole Communist movement had been 
steadily increasing. This experience filled him with loathing. Watching 
his chance, he managed to sneak out of the country, catch a boat for 
the United States, return to North Carolina and there he surrendered 
himself to the authorities and served a prison term for his offense. The 
ILD ignored him completely. 

This utter hypocrisy is characteristic of every Communist action. 
The entire movement is based on materialism and has no time to waste 
on such trivialities as religion or sympathy. The class struggle and 
hatred is all-important, and the individual is always sacrificed to the 
relentless advance of the world Communist revolution. The end always 
justifies the means, and these harsh and brutish concepts are ingrained 
in the embryonic Communist from the very moment he attends begin- 
ners' classes and the tempo is increased throughout his entire mem- 
bership in the Communist Party. 

Reef Legal Aid in California 

In California there was no difference. Operated from 127 South 
Broadway, Los Angeles, and staffed by Rose Chernin, Julia Walsh, 
Leo Gallagher, and other attorneys who will be identified later, the 
ILD handled strikes by Communist-controlled unions, deportation 
matters involving foreign couriers and agents, as well as all cases 
where party members were involved with the law. ILD documents in 
this committee's files leave no doubt about the invariable practice of 
utilizing every courtroom proceeding and every legislative hearing as 
opportunities to spread propaganda, undermine respect for consti- 
tuted authority, and encourage arrogant defiance of law and order. 
Courts, law, officers and legislative committees are regarded by all 
true Communists as part of the decadent capitalist system and weapons 
of the class enemy — and hence not binding on these soldiers in the 
Communist ranks who owe their allegiance only to the cause of world 
revolution. 

By 1937, according to the ILD's own records, it had 800 branches 
scattered through 47 states and claimed a total membership of 300,000. 
This membership included, of course, highly placed individuals who 
were considered too important to be formally affiliated with the party, 
and scores of fellow travelers and members of Communist fronts. 



124 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Throughout the period of the party's opeu activity, heretofore dis- 
cussed, and also during the period of the first United Front from 1935 
to 1945, membership in this organization increased and the branches 
multiplied because there was a corresponding increase of defiant Com- 
munist Party activity and a resurgence of activity among its fronts 
and propaganda media. 

Associated with Mr. Gallagher at the time he was representing the 
International Labor Defense were Abraham L. Wirin, now general 
counsel for the American Civil Liberties Union in Southern California, 
and Grover Johnson, both of whom have specialized in representing 
Communist Party members and Communist front organizations. There 
were comparable offices in San Francisco with branches scattered 
throughout other populous portions of California, but the brains of 
the ILD were centered in the American Bank Building offices of Leo 
Gallagher and his associates in the city of Los Angeles, and he traveled 
all over the pacific coast attending to the duties of his office. One of 
the principal officers of the organization informed a person who was 
a member of the Communist Party at the time, that the International 
Labor Defense was a branch of the Communist Party in the United 
States, and that all persons who worked in confidential capacities in 
or for that organization were required to be members of the Communist 
Party or completely subservient to its discipline. 53 

The principal law firm in San Francisco that handled the ILD mat- 
ters was headed by Richard Gladstein, and associated with him at 
various times were George Andersen, Aubrey Grossman, Doris Brin 
Walker, Harold Sawyer, Herbert Resner, Charles Garry, Francis Mc- 
Ternan, and Robert Treuhaft, although the latter has during recent 
years confined most of his Red aid activities to the east bay area 
comprising Alameda and Contra Costa Counties and the area immedi- 
ately adjacent thereto. 

At the conclusion of the first United Front era in 1945, the Inter- 
national Labor Defense had become so thoroughly exposed as a part 
of the international Communist movement functioning in the United 
States that it was decided to liquidate it and turn its duties over to 
other organizations. Accordingly, about the middle of 1946, it was 
merged with the National Federation for Constitutional Liberties, and 
then continued its activities under the name of Civil Rights Congress. 
Needless to say, the National Federation for Constitutional Liberties 
was also a well-known Communist front, and Rose Chernin, who had 
directed the ILD activities in Southern California under the super- 
vision of Leo Gallagher's office, headed the new organization, as well. 
The national director was Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, a charter member 
of the Communist Party of the United States, director of its Women's 
Commission, a member of its National Committee, and an expert in 
drumming up legal aid for party members and front organizations. 
We will see in a subsequent section of this report dealing with the 

E3 1943 Committee Report, p. 125. 






UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 125 

decisions of the United States Supreme Court affecting internal security 
how Elizabeth Gurley Flynn is still extremely active in undermining 
the public confidence in the Federal Bureau of Investigation, in legis- 
lative committees, and in taking credit for having brought about the 
astounding change in the legal precedents that had been established 
by the Supreme Court in cases involving the Communist Party and 
its manifold activities. In launching the Civil Rights Congress as a 
new Communist front to replace the ILD, Mrs. Flynn was aided by 
William L. Patterson and George Marshall. 

In California the newly-organized Civil Eights Congress got under 
a quick start. Rose Chernin was replaced by Marguerite Robinson, who 
established offices in room 709 at 326 West Third Street in Los Angeles, 
and so built the membership of the organization that by August 5, 1951, 
when a meeting was held in the Embassy Auditorium in Los Angeles, 
there was a crowd of at least 1,200 people present, including prominent 
Communist Party members who addressed the audience. They included 
John Howard Lawson, Ben Margolis, and Don Wheeldin who recently 
resigned from the Communist Party but is typical of the "fallout" 
mentioned earlier, and has not as yet broken so completely that he is 
willing to assist his government in frankly and publicly disavowing 
the Communist movement in its entirety. 

When this committee held its public hearings about the infiltration 
of the Los Angeles County Medical Association and questioned some 
of its members about their affiliations with the Civil Rights Congress, 
witnesses invariably invoked the protection of the Fifth Amendment. 
Such witnesses included Dr. Thomas L. Perry, Dr. Morris R. Feder, 
Martin Hall, Dr. Murray Korngold, Kenneth Hartford, Dr. Richard 
W. Lippman, Dr. Saul Matlin, Dr. P. Price Cobbs, Dr. Wilbur Z. Gordon 
and Dr. Marvin Sure. Dr. Mardin Allsberg who for many years has 
demonstrated his patriotic, courageous and forthright anti-Communist 
attitude as a member of the medical profession, testified that he had 
attended a Communist Party rally and was later astounded to see the 
same members of the medical association attending meetings of the 
Civil Rights Congress and other fronts. 

No sooner had the Civil Rights Congress commenced to function than 
legislative committees began to probe into its antecedents and its 
methods of operation. It soon became evident that it was staffed by the 
same Communist Party members, supported by the same enthusiastic 
fellow travelers who consistently affiliated with the various Communist 
front organizations, defended no one except Communist Party members 
and Communist organizations and was, indeed, nothing more than a con- 
tinuation of the International Labor Defor.se under another name. The 
same attorneys rendered the same type of service, and these facts were 
soon being made public on a wide front by state and congressional com- 
mittees on un-American activities. As the publicity began to have its 
effect on the public at large and the true nature of the Civil Rights Con- 
gress became known, it experienced trouble in raising funds and in re- 
cruiting. It was then listed by the Attorney General of the United States 



126 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

as a Communist dominated organization, following the usual exhaustive 
study by the F. B. I., and this exposure withered up its source of reve- 
nue, whittled down its membership, and reduced its effectiveness to the 
point where it eventually disbanded. Then the defense of the agents of 
internal Communist subversion was taken up by the National Lawyers 
Guild, while the Citizens Committee for the Protection of the Foreign 
Born redoubled its activities to protect alien Communists, under the 
direction of Rose Chernin who by now had gained considerable ex- 
perience in this type of work. 

We need say very little about this latter organization, since it was 
infiltrated by Marion Miller acting as an undercover agent for the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation, and her testimony and her appearance 
on a national television program left no vestige of doubt about the 
Communist nature of this front. 

In a previous report we have discussed the National Lawyers Guild 
at considerable length. By way of brief resume here it is only necessary 
to point out that the Communist nature of this organization was estab- 
lished by Earl Browder himself, who, while General Secretary of tne 
Communist Party of the United States, stated under oath that the 
National Lawyers Guild was nothing more than a Communist trans- 
mission belt. 54 And Louis Budenz, former editor of the Communist 
Daily Worker, declared that, "In the National Lawyers Guild there is 
a complete duplicate of the Communist Party's hope and aspirations in 
that field, although there are a number of non-Communists in the 
National Lawyers Guild. In fact some of their lawyers locally are no 
Communists, but they play the Communist game either wittingly or 
unwittingly. ' ' 55 

National Lawyers Guild 

The National Lawyers Guild is nothing more than an offshoot 
of the International Labor Defense, and while it likes to create the 
impression that it was started in order to counteract the " reactionary J ' 
nature of the American Bar Association with a freewheeling, liberal 
association of attorneys on a national basis, its complete subservience 
to the Communist Party line, its consistent activities in performing 
exactly the same sort of services for the Communist Party, its members, 
its front organizations and its propaganda media that were performed 
by the I. L. D. and the Civil Rights Congress, together with the fact 
that all of its officers with any importance or authority have either been 
party members, ardent fellow travelers, or under Communist discipline, 
establishes the organization than nothing more than another front, and 
a very potent one, indeed. 

Selma Mikels attended the University of California at Berkeley, 
graduated from its law school, passed the bar examination and started 
practicing her profession in Los Angeles. She was, at the time, affiliated 



Report on National Lawyers Guild, Sept. 17, 1950, p. 2, House Committee on Un- 
American Activities. 
The Techniques of Communism, op. cit., p. 180. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 127 

with the Communist Party. In 1940, the California State Relief Ad- 
ministration was investigated by an Assembly committee because of 
widespread allegations that it was heavily infiltrated by Communists. 
Among the many witnesses examined by this committee, which was the 
forerunner of the subsequent committee on un-American Activities, 
was one Bronislaus Joseph Zukas. He was at that time employed by 
the S. R. A. at Visalia, and was also the financial secretary of the 
local chapter of the State, County & Municipal Workers of America. 
A subpoena duces tecum was served on Mr. Zukas calling for him 
to produce the records of the local. This he refused to do, and was 
prosecuted for contempt. At his jury trial at Visalia, he was de- 
fended by Abraham L. Wirin, heretofore mentioned as having been 
associated with Leo Gallagher, and since leaving the Gallagher office 
having been general counsel for the Southern California American 
Civil Liberties Union, and Selma Mikels. Miss Mikels was, at the time, 
engaged to be married to the late Lee Bachelis. Mr. Bachelis, until the 
time of his death, was the most important cog in the Civil Rights 
Congress organization, since he was in charge of its bail fund. This 
accumulation of money was used to secure the freedom of Communist 
leaders who were arrested and prosecuted under the provisions of 
the Smith Act. Thus, since 1939, Selma Mikels Bachelis has been a 
member of the Communist Party, constantly devoted to furthering its 
interests and using the legal education she gained at the State Uni- 
versity for the purpose of aiding the agents of a foreign government to 
destroy us. 

Esther Shandler has also devoted her legal talents to the same pur- 
poses. She was admitted to the State Bar in December, 1945, started 
to practice her profession in April, 1946, and one of her first appear- 
ances in public on behalf of a Communist client was before this com- 
mittee in connection with the death of Everitt Hudson, the student who 
was recruited into the Communist Party while attending Stanford 
University and murdered while he was attending U. C. L. A. Represent- 
atives of the committee had contacted one of the persons who had 
information about the Communist activities of the decedent, had been 
with him at a Communist meeting the night preceding his death, and 
had expressed a willingness to testify fully concerning the circumstances 
surrounding this tragic case. A committee representative was en route 
to see the witness when he discovered she had been contacted by at- 
torneys for the Communist Party and terrorized to the point that she 
was afraid to testify. She was nevertheless compelled to appear before 
the committee as a witness, and sat next to her attorney, Esther 
Shandler, who would not permit her to do more than invoke the Fifth 
Amendment over and over again. Immediately after this episode the 
witness, Lola "Whang, married Joe Price, another U. C. L. A. student 
who had also attended the Communist meeting heretofore mentioned. 
Neither of them has ever revealed any facts concerning the Communist 
meeting, or the movements of young Hudson during the period im- 
mediately preceding his death. 



128 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Miss Shandler has appeared on behalf of the Committee for the Pro- 
tection of the Foreign Born, the Civil Rights Congress, and has been 
identified as a Communist Party member by several witnesses who 
were in the party with her. 

Pauline Epstein has been practicing the legal profession in Los An- 
geles since 1933, has also devoted her time to the representation of 
Communist Party members, is retained by the Committee for the Pro- 
tection of the Foreign Born, and was considered sufficiently eminent 
in aiding the cause of Communism that she was selected to speak at 
the American Russian Institute program celebrating the thirty-sixth 
anniversary of the Soviet Union in November of 1953. She was Treas- 
urer of the Los Angeles Chapter of the Lawyers Guild during 1951 
and 1952, and served on its national executive board in 1956 and 1957. 

J. Allen Frankel, during his 48 years as an attorney in Los Angeles, 
has consistently served the Communist cause. He, too, worked for the 
Committee for Protection of the Foreign Born, the International Labor 
Defense, Civil Rights Congress and Lawyers Guild. He has been a 
Communist Party member for many years. 

Charles Katz has practiced law in Los Angeles for more than 20 
years, and, in addition to his activities in the Lawyers Guild and the 
other familiar fronts, has acted as counsel for some of the more no- 
torious party functionaries. He has specialized as somewhat of a 
Marxist theoretician, and was a member of the executive board of the 
Arts, Sciences and Professions Council and the Jewish People's Fra- 
ternal Order. Mr. Katz has also been unmasked and his Communist 
affiliation disclosed. 

Ben Margolis has been exceedingly busy as a Communist and a mem- 
ber of the State Bar. He was treasurer of the San Francisco Lawyers 
Guild in 1937, has taught in Communist schools, belonged to all of the 
important fronts, was associated in the same law office with Leo 
Gallagher and Charles Katz, and has recruited many other lawyers 
into the party. 

John L. McTernan is a Communist lawyer in Los Angeles, has been 
active in the Lawyers Guild and the other fronts that proved so at- 
tractive to his legal comrades. 

John W. Porter was admitted to the bar in 1935, and has since fol- 
lowed the familiar pattern of activity: Lawyers Guild, Committee for 
Protection of the Foreign Born, and Civil Rights Congress. He also 
served in several federal agencies: Department of Labor, National 
Labor Relations Board, Department of Justice, Office of Price Admin- 
istration and "War Labor Board. He has been a member of the Com- 
munist Party for many years. 

Rose S. Rosenberg, another Los Angeles Communist, has devoted her 
legal talents to composing and submitting briefs to the United States 
Supreme Court in an effort to influence it in favor of Communist in- 
terests. She is a prolific circulator of open letters, petitions and resolu- 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 129 

tions, and was especially active in behalf of Julius and Ethel Rosen- 
berg, who were executed as atomic spies. 

Seymour Mandel, identified as a Communist lawyer in Los Angeles, 
served as executive secretary of the Lawyers Guild in that city and 
has acted as attorney for both of the Communist legal fronts — the 
Committee for Protection of the Foreign Born and the Civil Rights 
Congress. Mr. Mandel's specialty, however, seems to have been in rep- 
resenting aliens who have been charged with subversive affiliations or 
activities and who were being processed for deportation by the United 
State Immigration and Naturalization Service. 

Samuel Rosenwein served as general counsel for the Civil Rights 
Congress, has affiliated with many Communist front organizations, and 
in 1949 acted as chairman of the Civil Liberties Committee of the 
National Lawyers Guild. He has also been identified as a Communist 
Party member. 

Richard L. Rykoff practices law in Los Angeles. According to sworn 
testimony he affiliated with the special lawyers group in that city, 
which is the modern counterpart of the old lawyers unit of the Pro- 
fessional Section that we have earlier referred to, and which provides 
an organizational unit within the party structure that serves to bring 
together various professional groups in order that they can better 
correlate and execute their party assignments and activities. On sev- 
eral occasions Rykoff telephoned to Mrs. Anita Schneider in San Diego. 
He knew her as an active member of the party in that city and sent 
her directions from time to time. On one occasion he advised her to 
evade the law by making false representations to the State Department 
in applying for a passport to travel behind the Iron Curtain, and on 
another occasion he advised her concerning the exhibition of Commu- 
nist propaganda films to the members of a party-dominated front or- 
ganization in San Diego. Unfortunately for Mr. Rykoff, he was unaware 
that at the time he was having these transactions with Mrs. Schneider 
believing her to be a loyal member of the Communist conspiracy, that 
she was actually an undercover agent for the Federal Bureau of In- 
vestigation. Rykoff has represented the Los Angeles Committee for 
protection of the Foreign Born, has filed briefs before the United States 
Supreme Court in an effort to influence its decisions, has represented 
the Civil Rights Congress and has been affiliated with the National 
Lawyers Guild. 

In the northern part of the State, particularly in the San Francisco 
bay area, both in San Francisco and Alameda Counties, the Communist 
lawyers followed the same general pattern as their comrades in the 
south. Aubrey Grossman and Richard Gladstein were the legal kingpins 
in the Communist machinery for that region, and while we have already 
alluded to the latter, we have not yet given any details about the activi- 
ties of Mr. Grossman although we have mentioned him from time to 
time in various reports during the last 18 years. Grossman is a graduate 
of the University of California at Berkeley and attended its law school. 

6— L-4361 



130 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

He affiliated with the Young Communist League while still a student, 
and, according to the testimony of one of his law school faculty mem- 
bers, was so busy with Young Communist League activities while 
studying law that he had some difficulty in maintaining the necessary 
scholarship average prerequisite to his graduation. 56 

Grossman's record is both long and interesting. As we stated in our 
1943 report, he graduated from the University of California in the 
winter of 1932, and from the law school of that institution three years 
thereafter, being admitted to practice his profession in this state in 
May, 1936. In 1934, Grossman participated in a long series of Commu- 
nist line activities at the university. He appeared as a speaker at many 
protest meetings held at Sather Gate, and was active in the students' 
strike at the university which was sponsored by the Communist Party 
through one of its fronts known as the National Student League. On 
July 3, 1935, he participated in another Sather Gate meeting called by 
the Communist Party to incite students to proceed to San Francisco 
and take part in a "bloody Thursday" parade commemorating the 
Communist-directed general strike of 1934. He has been associated 
with the National Student League, the Student Eights Association, the 
Social Problem Club, the American Youth Congress, the Anti-War 
Committee, the Anti-ROTC Committee Youth Section — all while he 
was still a student, and with virtually every major front organization 
in the United States since that time. His application for admission to 
the State Bar of California was accompanied by a vigorous protest 
filed by the American Legion, and shortly after his admission the 
Western Worker, then the Communist newspaper in this State and 
lineal ancestor of the Daily People's World, announced that Grossman 
was the lawyer who would work in behalf of International Labor 
Defense. 

Minutes of the Communist Party state convention held in San Fran- 
cisco, May 14-15, 1937, in the committee's files, reflect that Grossman 
was elected a member of the State Committee of the Communist Party 
and pledged himself to recruit at least 10 new members. As early as 
1941, two former Communist Party members, one of them the head of 
the entire East Bay Communist organization, testified before this com- 
mittee that they had known Grossman as a member of the Young Com- 
munist League and the Communist Party during the time he was a 
student at the university. 57 

In 1936, Grossman associated himself with Richard Gladstein, Ben 
Margolis and Harold Sawyer — all Communists, and started his long 
career of devoting his education and his license to practice law for the 
benefit of the international Communist conspiracy. He and Gladstein 
acted as attorneys for some of the defendants in the notorious King- 



69 See testimony of the late Prof. Max Radin before the California Joint Fact-finding 

Committee on Un-American Activities, San Francisco, Dec. 3, 1941, Transcript Vol. 

VI, pp. 1768-1783. 
67 See testimony of Miles G. Humphrey, California Joint Fact-finding Committee on 

Un-American Activities, Transcript Vol. V, pp. 1616-1631 ; testimony of Donald 

Morton, Transcript Vol. VI, pp. 1793-1794. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 131 

Ramsay-Conner murder ease, which involved the slaying of George 
Alberts, engineer for a vessel known as the Point Looos. Since King, 
Ramsay and Conner were identified as Communists, and since one of 
the other defendants, George Wallace, turned state's evidence, the 
entire Communist apparatus in the Bay area was alerted to whip up 
propaganda in behalf of the defendants. That is, all of the defendants 
except Mr. Wallace, whom they ignored. Earl Warren, now Chief 
Justice of the United States Supreme Court, was then the District 
Attorney of Alameda County, and he personally prosecuted the case. 
This was Mr. Warren's first head-on clash with the Communist Party, 
and he said many unpleasant things about it and its methods. 

The murder occurred in 1937, and shortly thereafter Mr. Warren 
was elected Attorney General of California. We have already alluded 
to the fact that the Communists capitalized on the liberal administra- 
tion of Governor Culbert L. Olson and managed to infiltrate the state 
government to the extent that they literally surrounded him with un- 
dercover party members. When he exercised his high office to parole 
King, Ramsay and Conner but left George Wallace, the non-Communist 
who had turned state's evidence, to languish in the penitentiary, Earl 
Warren became greatly incensed. This committee, then known as the 
California Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities, 
held a long and detailed hearing in San Francisco. Earl Warren ap- 
peared as a witness before us, and the transcript of his testimony is 
most illuminating. He described the Communist propaganda machinery 
that was mobilized to protect King, Ramsay and Conner, described 
the role of George Wallace in aiding the prosecution but being ignored 
by both the Communists and the Governor, and said a great many 
heated and emphatic things against the Communist movement in gen- 
eral and its antics during the Point Looos trial in particular. We will 
allude to this episode later in this report when we discuss the recent 
decisions of the United States Supreme Court in the field of internal 
security. 

The first time Aubrey Grossman ever stepped on a witness stand 
before a legislative committee investigating subversive activities was 
before this committee about 18 years ago. On that occasion he denied 
that he had ever been affiliated with a Communist front organization, 
the Young Communist League or the Communist Party. In 1945 his 
efforts on behalf of the Communist movement were such that he was 
rewarded by being made Educational Director of the Communist Party 
of San Francisco, and the committee files contain letterheads of that 
organization with Mr. Grossman 's name prominently displayed thereon. 
He has attended both state and national Community Party conven- 
tions; he had represented many Communist-dominated unions, and he 
was appointed Director of the Civil Rights Congress for the entire 
Pacific coast region shortly after that organization was launched in 
1946. Under his direction this legal branch of international Red aid 
flourished so successfully that he was called to the east in order to 



132 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

assist in developing it in other parts of the country. In 1950, he became 
National Organizational Secretary of the Civil Rights Congress, and a 
year later was in sole charge of the entire structure nationally. 

During the late forties this committee held a series of hearings con- 
cerning the Civil Rights Congress, the American-Russian Institute and 
the California Labor School, the Communist educational institution in 
San Francisco. Immediately Grossman alerted his organization of Bay 
area lawyers for a series of lectures calculated to teach prospective wit- 
nesses before the committee how to conduct themselves when on the 
witness stand. Mr. Richard Gladstein participated in such a panel as 
its presiding officer at the California Labor School in 1951. In 1953, 
Grossman decided to resume his private law practice and associated 
himself with Bertram Edises and Robert Treuhaft in Oakland. Both 
of his new associates have been identified as Communists, and their 
firm also had an associate by the name of Robert L. Condon who had 
been a member of the California State Assembly, was elected to Con- 
gress, started to go to Nevada to view an atomic bomb test, but was 
prevented from doing so by the government because he was deemed a 
security risk. Condon is also a graduate of the University of California, 
and was formerly employed by the government as chief enforcement 
attorney for the Office of Price Administration of Northern California 
in 1942. One of the attorneys who worked under him was Mrs. Doris 
Brin Walker, who will be mentioned later in this section and who re- 
ceived considerable attention in our 1955 report. At the present writing, 
Mr. Grossman is still enthusiastically devoting virtually all of his time 
and talents to traveling about the country on behalf of the Communist 
Party and its front organizations. 

We have already alluded to Mr. Richard Gladstein at some length 
in this and preceding reports. He was admitted to the Bar in 1931, 
has acted as attorney for the Communist-infected Marine Cooks & 
Stewards Union before that organization was expelled from the CIO 
in 1950, has been counsel for the Committee for Protection of the 
Foreign Born, the Civil Rights Congress, and a wide variety of Com- 
munist fronts and Communist-dominated unions. Doris Brin Walker, 
while an attorney for the Office of Price Administration, lined up a job 
with the firm of Gladstein, Grossman, Sawyer and Edises to specialize 
in the handling of labor cases. All Communists, as we have said, will 
resort to every possible artifice, ruse, strategem, and even lies for the 
purpose of promoting each other. An example of this sort of practice is 
to be found in the action of Francis McTernan, who deliberately falsi- 
fied material facts on the application of Doris Brin Walker for a job 
with Cutter Laboratory. This matter was thoroughly covered in our 
1955 report, heretofore mentioned. 

George R. Anderson has also been repeatedly identified as a Commu- 
nist, and was one of the first lawyers in San Francisco to take a par- 
ticularly active part in the International Labor Defense. He also was 
prominent in helping to organize the International Juridical Associa- 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 133 

tion, which was a division of the ILD to which a great many Commu- 
nist lawyers throughout the United States were attracted. Anderson 
has also been identified with practically every major Communist front 
in the bay area, has acted as counsel for various Communist-dominated 
unions, and has been prominent in his legal work for the Committee for 
Protection of the Foreign Born, the National Lawyers Guild and the 
Civil Rights Congress. 

Anderson, during one phase of his career, devoted a great deal of 
time to the representation of Communist members of various water- 
front unions who had been arrested for resorting to violence against 
non-Communists in their organization. These cases would invariably 
arise from severe beatings and attacks by the Communist element 
against anti-Communist individuals, generally referred to along the 
waterfront as "dumpings." 

Anderson was quite successful in getting his clients off with either 
no punishment at all, or extremely mild fines and a few days in jail. 
He was a frequent spectator at many of our earlier hearings in the 
bay area, but invariably stated that he represented no client but was 
merely attending as an interested visitor. He would take a seat in the 
front of the room and when a witness gave the slightest indication of 
co-operating with the committee by revealing some of his experiences 
while a Party member, Anderson would glare at him — presumably in 
an effort at intimidation — and while the practice seemed to have little 
practical effect, nevertheless it was such a studied pattern of activity 
that it intrigued the interest of the committee members. 

Charles R. Garry, also identified as a member of the Communist 
Party, has been practicing law in San Francisco since about 1938. He 
has represented the Civil Rights Congress, the Committee for Protection 
of Foreign Born, has been affiliated with a wide variety of Communist 
fronts, has acted as counsel for a number of Communist-dominated 
unions, and has, in short, followed the general pattern of activity that 
runs like a common denominator through the careers of the other law- 
yers in this State who have been identified as party members. He, of 
course, belongs to the National Lawyers Guild, having joined it imme- 
diately upon being admitted to the Bar, has served as its executive 
board member in San Francisco, as President of the San Francisco 
Chapter, as a delegate to its national convention, and a member of its 
national executive board. 

In 1948, Mr. Garry was a candidate for election to the House of 
Representatives from the Fifth Congressional District on the Independ- 
ent Progressive Party ticket. It will be recalled that this organization 
was described in the first section of this report, and was headed state- 
wide by Mr. Hugh Bryson, former president of the Marine Cooks & 
Stewards Union. 

Mr. Garry has, like his comrades in the legal profession, sent numer- 
ous petitions to the United States Supreme Court in an effort to in- 
fluence its decisions. Obviously, all of these petitions sought to mold 



134 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

the court's opinions in consonance with the Communist Party line, and 
while some of the other Communist lawyers sent an occasional petition, 
Mr. Garry's have been especially numerous and vehement. He has 
taught in the Communist school in San Francisco, has also been quite 
active in the International Workers Order, a sort of Communist insur- 
ance concern operated on a nationwide basis which attracted a great 
many racial minority groups. This organization, though now defunct, 
was an extremely rich and potent organization. While it was being sus- 
pended from operating in California because of its subversive nature, 
and pending a revocation of its certificate of operation, its entire file 
was stolen from the office of the California Insurance Commission, and 
so far as we know it has never been recovered. 

In the 1955 report, we devoted a section to the case of Doris Brin 
Walker who, by misrepresentation on her employment questionnaire, 
obtained a position with the Cutter Laboratories in Berkeley, Califor- 
nia, and who was discharged after the employer discovered her Com- 
munist affiliation. Mrs. Walker brought a suit against the company for 
reinstatement, and the matter was taken up to the Supreme Court of 
the United States after which Mrs. Walker was compelled to seek em- 
ployment elsewhere. 

At the University of California in Berkeley she maintained such an 
excellent scholarship average that she was elected to Phi Beta Kappa, 
she was graduated from the law school of that institution, worked with 
the Office of Price Administration, as has been mentioned in connection 
with Aubrey Grossman and Richard Gladstein, she also was associated 
with their firm after she left government service, and despite her status 
as an attorney and her record as a brilliant student, she deliberately 
worked at jobs that were entirely incompatible with her background. 

Commencing in 1946, and continuing until 1950, Mrs. Walker worked 
for the H. J. Heintz Company, the Bercut-Richards Packing Corpora- 
tion and the Cutter Laboratories. She was also an active member and 
a minor officer of the Communist fraction in the Cannery Workers 
Union and the United Office and Professional Workers of America, 
which was almost as Communist-saturated as was the old Marine Cooks 
& Stewards Union. Commencing in the latter part of 1948, Mrs. Walker 
became interested in politics to the extent of lending her services to the 
Independent Progressive Party, as well as to the Civil Rights Congress, 
the Committee for Protection of the Foreign Born, the National Law- 
yers Guild, the Daily People's World, and the usual wide variety of 
Communist front organizations and activities that are characteristic of 
the other Party members whose records are outlined above. 

Mrs. Walker, who is also known as Doris Marasse, has been repeat- 
edly identified by sworn testimony as a member of the Communist 
Party — a fact which was thoroughly established during her legal con- 
troversy with the Cutter Laboratories — and is presently the wife of 
Mason Roberson, a reporter for the Daily People 's World. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 135 

It will be recalled that we have explained how, some 18 years ago, 
Abraham L. Wirin came to Visalia with a young woman graduate of 
the University of California Law School by the name of Selma Mikels, 
who assisted him in the defense of Bronislaus Joseph Zukas. In 1958 
Abraham L. Wirin went to San Francisco to defend John Powell, his 
wife and his associate, who were arrested by the United States Govern- 
ment and charged with printing false accusations against the armed 
forces of this country, charging them with the use of germ warfare 
during the war in Korea. He was also assisted by another woman grad- 
uate of the University of California Law School — Doris Brin Walker, 
also known as Doris Marasse, and also known as Mrs. Mason Roberson. 

These are only a few of the members of the California State Bar 
who have been positively identified as Communists. There are many 
others : men like Lawrence R. Sperber, Fred H. Steinmetz, and Jack 
Tenner — but there is little to be gained at this point by mentioning 
all of them, except to point out that they all belong to the National 
Lawyers Guild, which is a Communist-dominated organization, that 
they prostitute their profession by giving clandestine aid and sup- 
port to the Communist Party by teaching in its schools, recruiting 
lawyers as its members, using the representatives of its lawmaking 
bodies, both federal and state, and its courts for the purpose of emitting 
the most defiant and militant Communist propaganda; by aiding the 
international conspiracy on all fronts and in every possible manner 
during the whole of their time and in a manner wholly inconsistent 
with their solemn obligation to support and defend the state and 
nation where they are privileged to practice their profession. 

It is little wonder that the Communist Party has placed such enor- 
mous emphasis on the recruitment of lawyers to its ranks, and that it 
leans so heavily upon them for guidance, advice and protection. Since 
the International Labor Defense changed its name to the Civil Rights 
Congress, and since that organization was exposed and withered away, 
the Lawyers Guild, the Citizens Committee for Protection of the 
Foreign Born and, in some localities, the American Civil Liberties 
Union, are carrying forward the work. All of these lawyers are con- 
stantly bombarding the federal courts, and particularly the United 
States Supreme Court, with petitions and writs of all sorts and are 
seeking to intervene as friends of the court for the purpose of influenc- 
ing its decisions so the Communist conspiracy can proceed unhampered 
to whittle away at our governmental institutions and soften us up for 
the eventual kill. 58 

COMMUNIST FRONT ORGANIZATIONS 

The origin of the Communist front is credited to Willi Muenzenberg, 
who developed it as an efficient weapon of deceit. We have stated many 
times in many reports that no one should be accused of subversion or 

68 For a detailed discussion of the role of the Communist lawyer, see : Communist 
Legal Subversion, report by the Committee on Un-American Activities, House of 
Representatives, Eighty-sixth Congress, First Session. Feb. 16, 1959. 



136 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

should be called a fellow-traveler merely because lie unwittingly joined 
one or even two of these organizations. They are, by their very nature 
and operation, calculated to appeal to the unwary liberal who affiliates 
with no idea that the organization is in fact directed by the Communist 
Party, and serves as a recruiting medium and a means of expressing 
the current party line. There were innumerable fronts designed to 
appeal to the emotions of all types of American citizens. There were 
fronts for the trade unionists, the racial minority groups, the actors, 
the writers, the do-gooders, the too-poor, the too-rich, atomic scientists 
laboring in the rarified atmosphere of profound research, teachers, pro- 
fessional men, and even little children. 

Some of these organizations were so cleverly camouflaged that many 
joined and participated in the activities of the group for a considerable 
length of time before they realized it was being manipulated by Com- 
munists from concealed positions. Obviously, an individual who drifted 
into one or two of these organizations, discovered their true nature 
and got out should not be a target for criticism. But it is a relatively 
simple matter to follow the progression of the indoctrinated individual 
from one front organization to another on an ascending degree of 
virulency. First joining a relatively innocuous group, then falling for 
the sugar-coated recruiting propaganda, then being drawn into several 
more front organizations, then beginning to assume positions of au- 
thority as an executive secretary, a treasurer or an organizer, then 
speaking before groups of front organizations, then participating in 
a whole galaxy of fronts — it is not difficult to determine at what point 
in this career the individual has become indoctrinated. The party has 
of course, gone to the greatest lengths to protect its members against 
exposure. Consequently the counter-subversive agencies can get an 
excellent idea of whether a person is a Communist by the number of 
fronts in which he participates, the length of time he has been engaging 
in such activities, his persistent following of the inconsistencies of the 
Communist Party line, his long and persistent association with known 
members of the Communist Party, his subscription to Communist Party 
literature, his attendance at Communist functions, and his efforts to 
indoctrinate others and spread the Communist creed. So, membership 
in a procession of Communist front organizations, while not neces- 
sarily proof of membership in the party itself, nevertheless provides a 
reliable indication of a strong tendency in that direction. 

As early as 1922, one of the charter members of the Communist Party 
of the Soviet Union, an old Bolshevik later liquidated in the purges of 
1935-1939, had this to say about the methods of the United Front and 
its complicated array of organizations : "It is easier and pleasanter to 
smash things, but if we have not the power to do so, and if this 
method is necessary, we must make use of it ... in the firm trust that 
this method will do harm to social democracy, not to us . . . and in the 
conviction that we shall crush them in our embrace. 59 



89 The Red Decade, the Stalinist Penetration of America, by Eugene Lyons, op. cit., 
p. 47. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 137 

Among the earliest Communist fronts was the John Reed Club, 
named after the American journalist who visited Russia immediately 
before, during and after the revolution of 1917. Always an earnest 
liberal, Reed waxed enthusiastic about the implications of the revolu- 
tion, and wrote a book that was widely published throughout the world, 
particularly in this country, called "Ten Days That Shook the World." 
John Reed Clubs sprang up like mushrooms all over the United States, 
and the ultra-liberals flocked to them in droves. Then came the Friends 
of Soviet Russia, then Friends of the Soviet Union, then the various sub- 
divisions of the Comintern, including the International Labor Defense, 
already described, then the Anti-Imperialist League ; the League Against 
War and Fascism ; the League for Peace and Democracy ; the American 
Peace Mobilization, a host of fronts through which propaganda and aid 
was channeled to the Spanish Loyalists who were fighting in the revolu- 
tion, then the Friends of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade ; Joint Anti- 
Fascist Refugee Committee ; National Council of the Arts, Sciences and 
Professions ; Mobilization for Democracy ; the Anti-Nazi League ; the 
League of American Writers; International Workers Order; The 
Workers Ex-Servicemens League; the National Student League; the 
Labor Research Association ; the National Committee for the Defense of 
Political Prisoners ; the Workers School ; the Workers Book Shops ; the 
International Publishers ; the Workers Library Publishers ; the Pen and 
Hammer Club ; the Film and Photo League ; the National Youth Con- 
gress ; American Youth for Democracy ; the Labor Youth League ; the 
Civil Rights Congress; the League for Women Shoppers; the Tom 
Mooney Labor School ; the California Labor School ; the Peoples Educa- 
tional Center ; the Twentieth Century Book Shop ; the Progressive Book 
Shop ; the International Book Shop ; the American Writers Union ; Com- 
mittee for Defense of Mexican-American Youth; Labor's Nonpartisan 
League; United Organizations for Progressive Political Action; Inde- 
pendent Progressive Party ; the Actors Laboratory Theatre ; the Holly- 
wood Writers Mobilization; Northern California Committee for Aca- 
demic Freedom ; the American-Russian Institute ; the National Lawyers 
Guild — all of these and many times this number of Communist con- 
trolled organizations were flourishing in California at one time or 
another. 

In addition, there were the sporadic and temporary fronts whipped 
up to plug for a temporary switch in the party line, such as the clamor 
for the opening of a second front during the early stages of World War 
II, the fronts that proclaimed ' ' the Yanks are Not Coming, ' ' that were 
active just before the Soviet Union was invaded and went out of ex- 
istence the day afterwards, and other fronts to bring the troops home 
from Korea immediately, to get out of Formosa, to recognize Com- 
munist China, to scrap all of our atomic weapons, and for the defense 
of numerous Communist functionaries and notables like the func- 
tionaries who were convicted under the Smith Act, indeed, every im- 



138 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

portant Communist who became embroiled with the law had a ' ' defense 
committee" that sprang into action to provide funds and stir up senti- 
ment in his behalf. 

The Attorney General's List 

So far as we know there has never been published a reliable explana- 
tion of how the government uses membership in front organizations 
for the purpose of evaluating the loyalty of its prospective employees 
in sensitive positions. In June, 1957, the Commission on Government 
Security published its 807-page report at the conclusion of two years 
of intensive analysis of the entire security posture of the United States. 
This survey included the civilian loyalty program, the military per- 
sonnel program, the document classification program, the atomic energy 
program, the industrial security program, port security, international 
organizations (including the United Nations), passport security, civil 
air transport security, immigration and nationality program, the Attor- 
ney General's list of front organizations, the right of persons accused 
of disloyalty to be confronted with witnesses against them, the subpena 
power of the government in loyalty cases, and the privilege against 
self-incrimination. 

The Attorney General of the United States, acting on field investiga- 
tions by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, compiled a list of Com- 
munist front organizations and disseminated it throughout all of the 
government offices where it would be of practical value in insuring 
the loyalty of employees. Since the Commission on Government Secu- 
rity made an intensive study of this entire matter, and since it has 
never before been presented, and because it has a decidedly practical 
application in California, we quote from the report herewith. 

In June, 1941, Congress appropriated $100,000 for the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation to "investigate the employees of every depart- 
ment, agency, and independent establishment of the Federal Govern- 
ment who are members of subversive organizations or advocate the 
overthrow of the Federal Government," and directed the bureau to 
report its findings to the agencies and to Congress. (Public Law 135, 
Seventy-seventh Congress.) In 1941 also, Congress began the practice of 
attaching riders to the regular appropriations acts — a practice which 
continued during World War II and for a number of years thereafter — 
barring compensation to "any person who advocates, or who is a mem- 
ber of an organization that advocates the overthrow of the Government 
of the United States by force or violence ; provided, that for the purpose 
hereof an affidavit shall be considered prima facie evidence that the 
person making the affidavit does not advocate, and is not a member of 
an organization that advocates, the overthrow of the Government of 
the United States by force or violence; provided, further, that any 
person who advocates or who is a member of an organization that advo- 
cates the overthrow of the Government of the United States by force or 
violence and accepts employment, the salary or wages for which are 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 139 

paid from any appropriation contained in this act, shall be guilty of a 
felony, and, upon conviction, shall be fined not more than $1,000 or 
imprisoned for not more than one year, or both." 

The appropriation for the Federal Bureau of Investigation pointed 
up the questions raised by this series of acts : What organizations were 
"subversive" and who was to determine that fact? It will be noted 
that Congress included no organizations by name in the acts, except 
in the Selective Service and the Emergency Relief Appropriation Acts ; 
nor did it set up machinery for a definition of "subversive" which 
would be binding* on all departments ; nor did it name or empower any 
specific agency to make a determination. 

In order that the Federal Bureau of Investigation might carry out 
its mandate to investigate despite the omissions in its appropriations 
act, the then Attorney General, Francis Biddle, in June 1941, advised 
the Federal Bureau of Investigation that the Communist Party and the 
German- American Bund, named in the acts mentioned above, and seven 
other organizations came within the congressional intent. 60 This in- 
tent appears to have been made out from the language in the act 
dealing with advocacy of overthrow of the Federal Government, to- 
gether with the legislative history of the act. 

On March 16, 1942, the Civil Service Commission, pursuant to Execu- 
tive Orders 9063 (7 f. r. 1075) and 9067 (7 f. r. 1407), adopted War 
Service Regulation II, Section 3 (7 f. r. 7723), providing that an appli- 
cant might be denied appointment if there is "a reasonable doubt as 
to his loyalty to the Government of the United States," and stating 
this matter might be considered in determining whether removal of 
an incumbent employee will "promote the efficiency of the service." 
These regulations were rescinded in 1946, with the cessation of armed 
hostility. 

The Attorney General's list, as it came to be called, made its first 
public appearance on Sept. 24, 1942. On that date Congressman Martin 
Dies of Texas, in reply to statements made as to the usefulness of the 
investigation carried on by the House Committee on Un-American Ac- 
tivities, read on the floor of the House of Representatives excerpts from 
what he termed a ' ' photostatic copy ' ' of the confidential memorandum 
which was distributed to the heads of the respective departments, in 
which the Attorney General branded 12 organizations as Communist 
controlled. Each of the excerpts, headed "strictly confidential," began 
with the following caveat: 

"Note. — The following statement does not purport to be a com- 
plete report on the organization named. It is intended only to ac- 
quaint you, without undue burden of details, with the nature of 
the evidence which has appeared to warrant an investigaiton of 
charges of participation. 

*> Memorandum, the Federal Loyalty-Security Programs, submitted to Commission on 
Government Security by Attorney General Brownell under covering letter dated 
Dec. 11, 1956. 



140 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

It is assumed that each employee's case will be decided upon 
all the facts presented in the report of the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation and elicited, where a hearing is ordered, by the 
Board or Committee before which the employee is given an oppor- 
tunity to appear. 

Please note that the statement is marked 'strictly confidential' 
and is available only for use in administration of mandate Public 
Law 135." 

It then went on to describe at some length the organization, mem- 
bership requirements, history, leadership, and program of the named 
organization, and to discuss the extent of Communist control over it. 
The organizations mentioned were : American League Against "War and 
Fascism, the American League for Peace and Democracy, the American 
Peace Mobilization, the League of American Writers, the National 
Committee for Defense for Political Prisoners, National Committee for 
People's Rights, the National Federation for Constitutional Liberties, 
National Negro Congress, Washington Cooperative Book Shop and 
Washington Committee for Democratic Action. 

On February 5, 1943, President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 
9300, citing as his authority therefor Title 1 of the First War Powers 
Act, 1941, and his powers as President. This order established within 
the Department of Justice a new interdepartmental committee on em- 
ployee investigation, composed of five members appointed by the Presi- 
dent from among the officers or employees of the "departments, inde- 
pendent establishments, and agencies of the Federal Government. ' ' 

Executive Order 9300 remained in effect until March 21, 1947, when 
President Truman revoked it and issued Executive Order 9835, which 
instituted the so-called loyalty program. Citing as authority the Con- 
stitution and Statutes of the United States, including the Civil Service 
Act of 1883 (22 Stat. 403), as amended, and Section 9-A of the Act 
approved August 2, 1939 (18 U.S.C. 61 (i)), and his powers as Presi- 
dent and Chief Executive of the United States, the order set up a 
loyalty review board and, in Part III, Section III, directed : 

' ' The Loyalty Review Board shall currently be furnished by the 
Department of Justice the name of each foreign or domestic organ- 
ization, association, movement, group or combination * * * 
which the Attorney General, after appropriate investigation and 
determination designates as totalitarian, Fascist, Communist, or 
subversive, or as having adopted a policy of advocating or approv- 
ing the commission of acts of force or violence to deny others their 
rights under the Constitution of the United States, or as seeking 
to alter the form of Government of the United States by unconsti- 
tutional means. 

" (a) The Loyalty Review Board shall disseminate such informa- 
tion to all departments and agencies. ' ' 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 141 

The list was forwarded by the board in December, 1947, and made 
public by printing in the Federal Register on March 20, 1948. (13 F. R. 
1471) ; at that time it comprised 82 organizations, 35 of which were 
named for the first time. 

The list as disseminated after October 21, 1948, did, in a sense, 
characterize the organizations, for they were listed under the six head- 
ings set up by the order. Those names ranged from the Ku Klux Klan 
and Silver Shirt Legion of America, to the Communist Party, U. S. A. ; 
and the Jefferson School of Social Science. The practice of using de- 
scriptive headings was abandoned when Executive Order 9835 was 
revoked by Executive Order 10450 in April, 1953. 

The first, and thus far the only, real Supreme Court review of the 
list came in 1951 in Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee vs. McGrath. 
(341 U. S. 123, 1951). In this case the Refugee Committee, the National 
Council of American-Soviet Friendship and its affiliates, and the Inter- 
national Workers Order sued in Federal District Court for injunctive 
relief. They recited irreparable damage from being listed without hear- 
ing, both in terms of public support and harrassment by administrative 
agencies of state and federal governments with which they dealt. The 
District Court granted the Attorney General's motion to dismiss on the 
grounds that no claims were stated on which relief could be granted. 
The Court of Appeals affirmed. 

Justice Burton announced the judgment of the Supreme Court, but 
no opinion, in itself, commanded a majority. Five justices held that the 
plaintiffs had standing to sue, although there was disagreement whether 
this arose from injury to the organizations or from a standpoint of 
vindicating the rights of their members. Four justices agreed that list- 
ing without notice at the hearing was improper, either on constitutional 
grounds or as a violation of Executive Order 9835. Justice Burton held 
that the government's motion to dismiss admitted, for purposes of the 
decision, that the Attorney General had acted arbitrarily, and took no 
position on the broader issue. Three dissenting Justices (Reed, Vinson 
and Minton) would have upheld the judgments of the courts below. 
Justice Clark did not participate in the case. 

On remand to the District Court, cross-motions of both the plaintiffs 
and the Attorney General for summary judgment were denied, as was 
the plaintiffs' petition for a temporary injunction. In this action, the 
Attorney General filed long affidavits giving reasons for listing each 
of the organizations; these are summarized in the opinion. He also 
argued that security regulations would not permit disclosure of many 
confidential reports and sources of information on which his determina- 
tions were based. The District Court did not resolve this issue in its 
opinion. Certiorari directly to the Supreme Court to review the denial 
of the temporary injunction was denied; appeal to the Courts of Ap- 
peals resulted in affirmation of the denial. In the same opinion, the 
Appellate Court reversed a subsequent dismissal of the suit because of 
mootness; the Attorney General, in the meanwhile, had set up the 
hearing procedure outlined below, and had argued that the court case 



142 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

was moot pending the plantiffs availing themselves of this administra- 
tive procedure. The Appellate Court ordered the District Court to rein- 
state the case and give the plaintiffs time to ask for a hearing under a 
new procedure. They did not file for such a hearing within the 10 days 
allowed, however, and the District Court held that their failure to act 
constituted acquiescence in the designation. This decision was affirmed 
by the Circuit Court of Appeals on February 28, 1957. The Interna- 
tional Workers Order forwarded a letter of protest to the Attorney 
General on June 12. 1953, indicating that the organization neither 
acquiesced in the designation nor wished to participate in a hearing. 
It appears that as a result of the opinions expressed by members of 
the Supreme Court in the McGrath ease, Attorney General Brownell 
published on May 6, 1953, Attorney General's Order No. 11-53, which 
provided, in part : 

" (b) Whenever the Attorney General after appropriate investi- 
gation proposes to designate an organization pursuant to Executive 
Order 9835 or Executive Order 10450, or both, notice of such pro- 
posed designations shall be sent by registered mail to such organiza- 
tion at its last known address. If the registered notice is delivered, 
the organization, within 10 days following its receipt or 10 days 
following the effective date of Executive Order 10450, whichever 
shall be later, may file with the Attorney General * * * a written 
notice that it desires to contest such designation. If the notice of 
proposed designation is not delivered and is returned by the Post 
Office Department, the Attorney General shall cause such notice to 
be published in the Federal Register, supplemented by such addi- 
tional notice as the Attorney General may deem appropriate. 
Within 30 days following such publication in the Federal Register, 
such organization may file with the Attorney General * * * a 
written notice that it desires to contest such designation. Failure 
to file a notice of contest within such period shall be deemed an 
acquiescence in such proposed action, and the Attorney General 
may thereupon after appropriate determination designate such 
organization and publish such designation in the Federal 
Register." 

The Commission on Government Security pointed out that wide- 
spread public knowledge of the list's contents may have served a use- 
ful purpose in putting citizens on notice of possible loss of employment 
from too active membership in one of the named organizations. The 
activities of the Subversive Activities Control Board, which is designed 
to make judicial determination, with attendant safeguards, and require 
public registration of organizations and their members, may eventually 
replace this function of the Attorney General's list. The tremendous 
time and effort required for hearings before this board, together with 
possible necessity of disclosing confidential information or informants, 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 143 

should be borne in mind, however, in view of the fact that some 20,000 
new employees are hired each month. 61 

The commission recommended that the Attorney General's list be 
continued, but a statutory basis for its maintenance and the listing of 
organizations should be authorized only after a full F. B. I. investiga- 
tion and an opportunity for the organization to be heard by examiners 
of a central office which the commission urges be established, with right 
of appeal to a central review board. Decisions of examiners in the field 
and the central review board would be advisory only so far as the 
Attorney General's office is concerned. 

This recommendation, if adopted, will correct misuse of the Attorney 
General's list of subversive organizations by laymen. There has been 
a tendency on the part of some employing concerns to assume that 
anyone who has been affiliated with any of these organizations on 
the list must have subversive tendencies. Actually, unless one has the 
necessary experience and information to realize that these organizations 
vary from the relatively innocent to the extremely dangerous, he is 
not in a position to evaluate the record of any of his employees. Liter- 
ally thousands of sincere and loyal persons were attracted to various 
front organizations during the period of open party activity, and 
particularly during the era of the United Front from 1935 to 1945. 
Since the entire Communist Party line is carefully groomed and 
tailored to exert the widest possible appeal, it exerts a powerful attrac- 
tion to opponents of racial and religious discrimination, proponents 
of better housing and working conditions, supporters of an idealistic 
world government, pacifists, those who wish to immediately discontinue 
all atomic weapons tests and who yearn for peace at any price, and a 
widely assorted group of ultra-liberals. 

These non-Communists made up the bulwark of membership in all of 
the front organizations during the period of open party activity, since 
there were not enough party members to keep the organization financed 
and active. The effect of these highly articulate Communist fronts on 
American public opinion is simply incalculable. By exchanging their 
membership lists, it was possible for petitions, telegrams and letters 
bearing thousands of names to be mustered almost over night and 
channeled into the offices of state and federal legislators to influence 
their votes in subtle conformity with the existing party line. 

A recent example of the effectiveness of this type of propaganda is 
seen in the actions of an extremely liberal minority of the World 
Order Study Conference, which met under the sponsorship of the 
National Council of Churches of Christ in November, 1958. This minor- 
ity persuaded the conference to adopt a resolution urging the United 
States to immediately recognize Communist China and to admit it to 
membership in the United Nations with full privileges. Then a cleverly 
worded statement was released to the press, pointedly inferring that 

91 See report of the Commission on Government Security, issued pursuant to Public 
Law 304, Eighty-fourth Congress, as amended, June, 1957, Washington, D. C, 
pp. 645-655. 



144 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

these matters were passed, not only by the conference, but by the 
national council, which represented a majority of American Protestants. 
Rev. Daniel A. Poling, and the Rev. Norman Vincent Peale, having 
taken the trouble to learn something about the Communist techniques 
of propaganda and front organization activities, became suspicious and 
began a poll of 45,000 Protestant preachers. Of the 8,572 answers 
already received, 87 percent voted against the resolution, 11 percent 
in favor of it and 2 percent expressed no opinion. 

Most of the largest and active front organizations that nourished 
during the period of the party's open activity have been quietly liqui- 
dated. This was caused by persistent and constant exposure of their 
concealed control by the many hearings conducted by committees on 
un-American Activities, by hearings before the Subversive Activities 
Control Board and publication of the Attorney General's list of sub- 
versive organizations. This sort of exposure, as we have pointed out, 
hoisted the warning signals for all to see and took away much of the 
camouflage that had been concealing the Communist character of the 
organizations from public scrutiny. This stripping aside of the pro- 
tective coloration also took away much of the excuse from even the most 
naive liberals for affiliating with these movements innocently. And 
after the Khrushchev speech at the Twentieth Congress of the Com- 
munist Party of the Soviet Union in February, 1956, the signal was 
given for the launching of the Second United Front period and the 
Communists throughout the world began to function through existing 
non-Communist organizations of a liberal character, rather than 
through its own galaxy of front organizations. 

At the present time we still have a few of the more potent front 
organizations doing business on a rather active scale. The Citizens Com- 
mittee for Protection of the Foreign Born is especially active in Los 
Angeles and San Francisco ; the Citizens Committee to Preserve Ameri- 
can Freedoms is also active in both cities, but especially in Los Angeles ; 
the American-Russian Institute, which seeks to foster trust and con- 
fidence in all things Soviet, is still active, as is the Emergency Civil 
Liberties Committees which was created in 1951, after the American 
Communists began to retreat to underground positions. We have 
already described the National Lawyers Guild, and we should not 
conclude this section without referring to the Los Angeles Chapter of 
the American Civil Liberties Union. 

In previous reports we have traced the origin and development of 
the American Civil Liberties Union as a national organization. We have 
also, from time to time, discussed the activities of its branches in San 
Francisco and Los Angeles. During the middle thirties and for a short 
period in 1946 and 1947, we received evidence that we believed justified 
the statements appearing in our 1943 and 1948 reports to the effect 
that the American Civil Liberties Union in California had become a 
transmission belt for the dissemination of Communist propaganda. We 
do not believe that the American Civil Liberties Union nationally is in 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 145 

any sense subversive; a part of its function is the protection of civil 
liberties of all people, regardless of the fact that some of them may 
be members of the Communist Party or other subversive organizations. 
The American Civil Liberties Union has also defended the right of 
Gerald L. K. Smith to make public addresses, and during the last 
war it performed similar services in defending the rights of members 
of the German-American Bund, especially on the Pacific coast and 
particularly in California. The Southern California chapter of this 
organization has, however, devoted an unusually large part of its time 
and energies to the protection and defense of Communist Party mem- 
bers, and to the support of Communist organizations and fronts. 

It is difficult to make a firm and permanent evaluation of an organ- 
ization like the Southern California Chapter of the American Civil 
Liberties Union. As its personnel fluctuates, so does the ideological 
character of the institution itself. The national organization has a pol- 
icy that no member of the Communist Party can hold an office. This 
move, obviously motivated because of a realization that the Communist 
Party is a subversive organization and that it poses a constant and 
deadly menace to the preservation of all of our cherished institutions, 
has not been reflected by the activities of its Southern California branch 
in recent years. We make no criticism, of course, because the Los An- 
geles Chapter, like the other chapters of the American Civil Liberties 
Union, protects the civil rights of Communists as well as other people. 
It is a fact, however, that in addition to carrying out the regular func- 
tions of the organization, some of its representatives and some of its 
officers have persistently attended Communist front meetings, have 
joined many Communist fronts, and have participated at banquets and 
receptions honoring some of the leading Communists of the United 
States. Such activities are hardly in conformity with the anti-Commu- 
nist policy of the national organization and most of its chapters through- 
out the United States. 

Several years ago a schoolteacher in the northern part of the state 
was accused of being subversive by a radio commentator whose broad- 
cast alleged that she was a member of the United World Federalists, 
which he described as a Communist dominated organization. As a 
result of these broadcasts and criticisms the teacher was discharged. 
She brought a suit for reinstatement and for damages against the com- 
mentator and the radio station that employed him, and a representative 
of this committee went to San Francisco as an expert witness. He testi- 
fied that we had never listed the United World Federalists as a sub- 
versive organization, had no evidence that it was Communist controlled, 
and that we did have evidence that it was not a Communist front. 
Such an organization is an obvious target for Communist infiltration, 
but by the same token so is the American Civil Liberties Union, be- 
cause it espouses the defense of unpopular causes and members of un- 
popular organizations ; and so is every trade union because through 
control of industry a country can be paralyzed ; and so is every edu- 
cational institution because they are lush fields for indoctrination and 



146 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

recruiting and provide future intellectual leadership for the Communist 
Party. Some chapters of a national organization may be penetrated 
at one time or another to such an extent that they become transmission 
belts for the Communist Party line; at the same time, other chapters 
of the same organization may be militantly anti-Communist. One of the 
most militantly anti-Communist chapters of the American Civil Lib- 
erties Union, indeed, is situated in Washington, D. C, and the National 
Director of the ACLU, Mr. Patrick Murphy Malin, is certainly no 
friend of Communism. The Los Angeles Chapter of the American Civil 
Liberties Union, by permitting its officers and official representatives to 
participate in Communist front meetings and propaganda activities, is 
hardly being objective, and if it resents charges of partiality towards 
the extreme Left, these criticisms are generated by its own activities 
and it has no one to blame but itself. 

The Communist Book Stores 

Before concluding this section on Communist front organizations, we 
should say a word about the two major propaganda outlets in this 
state : The International Book Store in San Francisco, and the Progres- 
sive Book Store in Los Angeles. The former is located at 1408 Market 
Street near the Fox Theater, and the latter is located at 1806 "West 
Seventh Street. Such stores are nothing more than Communist fronts, 
since they carry and disseminate party literature and propaganda ma- 
terial from all over the world. In these stores one can purchase propa- 
ganda material from Red China, from all of the Iron Curtain countries, 
from North Korea and North Viet Nam, from Indonesia, from the 
Middle East countries, from Africa, from England, Italy, France, 
Germany, Mexico, South American countries, and inordinately large 
amounts from India. In addition, one may purchase current editions of 
the weekly Communist newspaper printed in California, the People's 
World, also copies of the Daily Worker from New York, copies of 
Political Affairs, the ideological publication of the National Committee 
of the Communist Party of the United States from which we have 
already quoted extensively, Masses & Mainstream, a cultural publica- 
tion under Communist auspices ; and the theoretical organ on Marxism 
called Science and Society, which is published in New York. In addi- 
tion, there are publications of the National Council of American-Soviet 
Friendship, the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, Facts for 
Farmers, and the publications of a great many Communist dominated 
trade union organizations. We have also received considerable testimony 
of indisputable accuracy showing that from these two main outlets for 
Communist literature the various units of the Communist Party organ- 
ization throughout the pacific coast are kept supplied with material 
for study and research. 

The person who is usually in charge of the Progressive Book Store in 
Los Angeles is Frank Spector, a Russian Communist who has been 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 147 

defying efforts to deport him for a good many years, and who has 
appeared before this committee as a witness. Until the "secret" 
Khrushchev speech in February, 1956, the contents of this book store 
were uniformly and militantly Communist. Thereafter a few books 
began to appear on the shelves that in the old days would have been 
considered completely heretical. For example, before the publication of 
Dr. Zhivago by Boris Pasternak, there was a book called Not by Bread 
Alone. Dudintsev, the author, held a prominent place in the literary 
fraternity of the Soviet Union. During the Stalin regime and until the 
Khrushchev speech heretofore mentioned, the clamps of rigid censor- 
ship had been tightened to such an extent that no Soviet writer dared 
to produce anything that was not in strict conformity with the Com- 
munist line, and certainly he would never dare publish a single word 
that was even inferentially critical of the Soviet regime. But in the 
Khrushchev speech there was a promise that these old rules should be 
relaxed, that criticism should be invited, that Bolshevik self-criticism 
was an excellent thing, and that writers should be free to publish their 
true feelings. This book, Not by Bread Alone, was certainly critical of 
the Soviet regime and it rocked the intellectual foundations of the 
country. Yet it was being sold in the Progressive Book Store in Los 
Angeles by Frank Spector. In addition, even after he had been im- 
prisoned in Yugoslavia for such rash heresy, Milovan Djilas' book, 
The New Class, was also sold in the Progressive Book Store, as were 
copies of the Pasternak book, Dr. Zhivago. No such attitude was taken 
in the San Francisco outlet, the books in the International Book Store 
clinging steadfastly to the Communist cause, and carrying no item that 
was critical of the Soviet regime or the party line. We almost neglected 
to say that in addition to the three books already mentioned that 
were sold in Los Angeles, there was another, even more indicative, 
called The Naked God, by Howard Fast. This book, which is a garbled 
but nevertheless angry and vehement criticism of the Communist Party 
of the United States published shortly after Fast left the organization, 
was roundly lambasted in Political Affairs by a reviewer under the 
title, "The Nakedness of Howard Fast." Yet this book was sold with 
the three companion volumes heretofore mentioned under the direction 
of Frank Spector in the Progressive Book Store in Los Angeles. 

Why this sudden deviation from the old and rigid Party line? Ob- 
viously, the cause is attributable either to the fact that the Progressive 
Book Store wants to divert suspicion from itself or because it has made 
a sincere and pronounced deviation from the path of Communist 
rectitude. We believe it has done the latter, that it has received great 
criticism because of this deviation, and we will set forth our reasons 
in detail in that section of the report which is entitled, ' ' Current Com- 
munist Techniques." 



148 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

THE PARTY GOES UNDERGROUND 

During the second World War, Russia received such staggering 
quantities of material from the United States, and was so anxious for 
the Allies to open a second front and relieve the pressure of the German 
attack against the Soviet Union that it was expedient to soft-pedal the 
activities of the Communist Party and the hordes of Soviet agents 
that had successfully infiltrated some of the most sensitive positions 
in our government. Consequently Earl Browder, then the head of the 
Communist Party of the United States, was allowed to change the 
policy of the party, toning down its brash and defiant activities and 
urging Communist collaboration with capitalist powers; changing the 
name of the Communist Party to the more innocuous Communist Po- 
litical Association, and in general to adopt a soft policy of collabora- 
tion. This continued until some months after the war was over, when it 
became desirable — from the International Communist standpoint — of 
getting affairs back to normal; that is, back to an old anti-capitalist, 
militant Communist line. Browder was considered expendable for the 
achievement of this purpose. He was criticized by the French theoriti- 
cian, Jacques Duclos, when the latter returned from a Moscow confer- 
ence, and shortly thereafter was expelled from the Communist Party 
of the United States. That organization immediately resumed its old 
militant tactics on an even more ambitious scale, and thus invited coun- 
ter-measures on the part of our own government officials. 

Smith Act prosecutions were commenced after painstaking and 
characteristically thorough investigations by the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation. It is a well-known fact that the leaders of the American 
Communist Party have occupied their positions of authority for many 
years, perpetuating themselves in office over and over again. Conse- 
quently when these leaders were convicted and taken out of circula- 
tion, the party was temporarily demoralized. At the same time there 
was a marked acceleration on the part of legislative committees in ex- 
posing the front organizations and propaganda media throughout the 
country, and these organizations and party organs began to suffer 
from a lack of membership and a lack of funds. 

It is obvious, of course, that the Communist Party had prepared 
itself to some extent for these exigencies. Second- and third-string 
squads of leaders had been selected, and the party had also followed 
the Kremlin's order to the letter in preparing a parallel underground 
party organization that could be activated at a moment's notice. The 
federal judiciary was uniformly upholding convictions for contempt by 
legislative committees when witnesses arrogantly shouted epithets at 
members of federal and state legislatures, and stubbornly refused to 
answer the most fundamental questions about places of birth, places 
of residence, occupations, and marital status. A long string of un- 
broken judicial precedent resulted in fines and jail terms for these 
recalcitrant witnesses; the front organizations were running shy of 
members and funds, the leaders of the Communist Party were serv- 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 149 

ing terms in federal penitentiaries after having been convicted in a 
series of Smith Act prosecutions — and the federal judiciary had 
established solid legal precedent upholding these actions against the 
leaders of the Communist conspiracy that was seeking to destroy us 
and had been openly proclaiming that purpose for 30 years. 

So effective were these counter-measures on the part of our own gov- 
ernment that the Communist leaders issued defiant statements. Eugene 
Dennis, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the United 
States, made an angry declaration after being released from a federal 
prison. He had prepared the address for delivery at a meeting of a 
Communist front, the Committee to Reverse the Smith Act, sponsored 
by the Civil Rights Congress, attended by 3,500 people and held at the 
Rockland Palace in Harlem. He was unable to deliver the speech at 
the meeting on June 26, 1951, because of illness, and on July 2, of 
that year he and six other members of the National Committee of the 
Communist Party of the United States began serving their five-year 
sentences after having been convicted for violating the Smith Act by 
a federal jury. Since some of the remarks contained in this speech not 
only established the fact that when Communist leaders print this sort 
of material in their official ideological publication it is not to be taken 
lightly, and because some of the statements reflected the party 's retreat 
to underground positions and its war to bring about a change in the 
judicial precedent that was hamstringing its activities, we quote it 
liberally. Dennis said: 

"Friend and foe alike know that this is an important turning 
point in the life of the Communist Party. Never before in the 
30 stormy years of our Party's history have 11 of its national 
leaders faced long prison terms. Never before have lawyers been 
jailed for courageously defending Communists in court. Never be- 
fore has the organizing of the vanguard Party of the American 
working class been unconstitutionally declared an act of 'criminal 
conspiracy.' Never before has our Party — or any other American 
political party — been deprived by judicial edict of its legal rights 
and constitutional liberties. 

These facts are well known. Nobody has any doubts that we 
Communists find ourselves in a new situation. And there is much 
speculation about what we are going to do now. 

But not everybody has grasped the cardinal truth that the 
American people are in a new situation. Many who are far from 
happy about the Vinson decision [a decision by the U. S. Supreme 
Court upholding the validity of the Smith Act prosecutions] have 
not yet awakened to the fact that this turning point in the life of 
the Communist Party is also a critical turning point in the life 
of the Nation. 

Many who have been alarmed at the step-at-a-time advances of 
Fascist-like reaction over the postwar years are still not aware 



150 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

that the process of Fascization and advanced war preparation in I 
the U. S. A., are now undergoing a qualitative change. 

The Vinson decision nullifies the First Amendment and its | 
guarantees of freedom of speech, press, and assembly. This is a 
drastic, pro-Fascist encroachment upon the democratic gains and 
traditions of the people. 

But the Vinson decision does more. 

It signalizes the blotting out of constitutional guarantees and 
threatens the breakdown of all institutions of bourgeois democracy. 

The Wall Street Journal felt obliged to chide Felix Frank- 
furter for letting the cat out of the bag. The rule of expediency, 
Justice Frankfurter declared in his concurring opinion, is to 
become the supreme law; it is no longer necessary to conform to 
the Constitution. Six judges have changed the rules to meet the 
needs of the Sixty Families of Big Capital. Now Wall Street's 
government needs no longer to worry about constitutionality. It 
is free from all restraint, except that imposed on it by the people 
themselves. 

The Vinson decision affects all Americans, because it is a 
major victory for pro-Fascist reaction. It gives warning that the 
war-mad monopolists mean to lose no time in stepping up the 
tempo, expanding the scope, increasing the ferocity of repression. 

This victory for the pro-Fascist forces immeasurably increases 
the dangers of Fascism and world war. 

* * * if the Vinson decision is not effectively challenged, we 
are going to have even more rigid thought control than that al- 
ready plaguing Americans in every walk of life. But we are 
also going to have far more rigid controls over wages, and over 
the economic and political activity of the trade unions. Hand in 
hand with this will go still greater license for the war profiteers, big 
business, exploiters and big-time crime syndicates. 

If the Justice Department is permitted to carry out its threat 
of mass frameup arrests and prosecutions, many who are far from 
being Communist sympathizers will be taken as 'prisoners of war' 
— along with the Eleven, the Seventeen, and other Communist 
leaders. But those who retain their liberty will not escape new 
hardships. The frameup will become a device for imposing ever 
more brutal speedup, ever-rising living costs, and ever-declining 
of real wages. Those responsible for mounting inflation will not 
be among those arrested, nor will the war profiteers. The tax bur- 
den will grow and grow. 

Every casualty we Communists may suffer will be duplicated 
many times over by the people as Wall Street wreaks its vengeance 
on the working class and the camp of peace. 

Our Party is the vanguard of the Negro people's struggle for 
equality and national liberation. If the Communist Party is driven 
underground, every lynch-minded white supremacist will come out 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 151 

in the open. If Henry Winston and Ben Davis, as well as Eugene 
Dennis and Gus Hall, go to jail, police brutality against Negroes 
and legal lynchings will mount. If judicial edict can outlaw the 
party of Negro-white unity, this same edict can be used to outlaw 
all united struggle against discrimination. * * * 

Under conditions of legality, we Communists have been work- 
ing with some success to win millions to our immediate aims and 
programs. That aim is the establishment of a broad peace front, 
opposed alike to the war policies of the war-partisan Truman ad- 
ministration, MacArthur's 'loyal opposition' and the so-called 
'isolationists' like Hoover and Taft. " 

Then, after repeating his previous criticism of the Supreme Court 
decision upholding the Smith Act conviction, reiterating his propa- 
ganda against the capitalist enemy, and quoting from a book written 
by William Z. Foster, Chairman of the American Communist Party, 
Dennis continued : 

"The economic royalists have succeeded in depriving our Party 
of its constitutional rights, and now they are determined to im- 
prison its leadership and drive the Communist Party underground. 

We are going to fight for the liberty of our leaders. We are 
going to resist being driven underground. But wherever we are we 

are going to be with and among the masses." (Committee's italics.) 

####### 

"But no matter what happens, our Communist Party is not 
doomed to burrow in the dark like a blind mole. To the extent that 
we may be driven underground, we carry the beacon light of 
Marxist Science with us. Its study and mastery will guide us 
under all conditions and constantly replenish our leadership. 

Every Communist worthy of the name will be able to lead 
broad masses — under any and all circumstances. The more difficult 
the conditions imposed on us become, the more essential it is for 
every member of our Party to become a better Marxist, in order 
to guarantee- that the working class and people may have their 
path of struggle illuminated by its light. 

Marxism imbues us with working-class principles which are 
universal, general, and beyond compromise under any circum- 
stances. Marxism enables us to have a clear perspective at all 
times, and to care for the future of our class while championing its 
present and immediate interest and those of all the people." 

"Trade-union struggle will go on in spite of internal 'purges,' 
and F.B.I, 'screening' of the workers in industry. It is going o.n 
right now in the maritime industry, and there will be other strug- 
gles, other strikes — no matter how many Communists go to jail." 

"Certainly, the struggle for peace cannot be brought to a close 
by any court edict. Recognition of the Chinese People's Republic, 



152 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

peaceful negotiation to end the war in Korea, a halt to Anglo- 
American moves to complete the rearming of Western Germany 
and Japan, a five-power pact of peace — these are slogans of action 
aronnd which increasing millions of Americans are going to rally 
and organize — Smith Act or no Smith Act ! 

We Communists are going to fight to the last ditch for our 
constitutional and inalienable right to participate openly in these 
struggles. 

But if we are driven underground — our enemies will not he 
able to prevent us from moving ever deeper into the thick of the 
people's mass movement. 

The forms of struggle may change, to accord with new and 
more difficult conditions. But as Marxists we know that the struggle 
will go on. And now, even more than "before, the struggle will 
decide everything. (Committee's italics.) 

Our Party was born in struggle, steeled and educated in 
struggle. "We thrive and grow in struggle which brings to our 
leadership and ranks the best men and women the working class, the 
negro people, and all other sections of the population can produce. 

But, as we face up to the manifold problems and difficulties of 
this new situation, we recognize the struggle will now bring new 
hardships to all of us — and our families. 

Under these circumstances, courage of course is indispensable. 
And I am confident that, individually and collectively, we Com- 
munists have plenty of courage. But personal courage in itself is 
not enough. We need the kind of courage that flows from steadfast 
conviction and fidelity to principle. We need the courage that is 
not to be confused with recklessness, that shows concern for people 
and care for the integrity and welfare of the Party as a whole. 
We need courage that is accompanied by flexibility and tactics, by 
skill in fighting the enemy* (Committee's italics.) 

I am confident that our Party, its leadership and its member- 
ship, will rise to meet this new challenge and give a good account 
of itself before the American working class to which it is 
responsible. 

But I would remaind you that our Marxist Science warns us at 
all times to be on guard against those Right and Left dangers, to 
wage the struggle for our correct line and policy always on two 
fronts. Now more than even [sic] we must struggle against both 
panic and complacency, against sectarianism and adventurism, and 
against capitulation and liquidationism. 

I think I have already made it clear that there is no ground 
now for complacency. And all thoughtful Americans, recalling the 



By "The Enemy" Communists express the class struggle which is a basic and in- 
dispensable part of Communist ideology, and the enemy refers to every person and 
institution that is not pro-Communist, and in particular the judiciary which upheld 
the convictions of the Marxian leaders, and the "repression" by the FBI, the legis- 
lative committees, and all other governmental agencies engaged in an effort to pro- 
tect our country from internal subversion. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 153 

catastrophe ushered in by Hitler's Nuremberg decrees, found the 
warning of the grave dangers which the Vinson decision holds for 
our working class and people. ' ' 62 

The F. B. I. had for years been sending its undercover agents deep 
into the heart of the American Communist Party. Even as the Russian 
espionage apparatus had managed to place its agents, largely recruited 
from the ranks of the American party, in many sensitive government 
positions, so was the Federal Bureau of Investigation able to place many 
of its undercover agents in extremely high and responsible positions in 
the Communist movement. Consequently, when the time came to launch 
the Smith Act prosecutions, case followed case until the first, second and 
third string groups of Communist officials were behind bars and the 
party was — for a time — greatly demoralized. This resulted in a retreat 
to underground positions accompanied by a grim resolve to bring about 
a change in the law which permitted this disruption of the party pro- 
gram by locking up the leadership, and also an equally deadly resolu- 
tion to fight to the death both the Federal Bureau of Investigation and 
legislative committees on un-American Activities. These were no idle 
gestures. The party was desperate and it was engaged in a fight for its 
very life. The intention to wage warfare on these three fronts, viz., 
against the legal situation that permitted repressive measures against 
the party, against the F. B. I., and against the legislative committees, 
was, as we shall see, expressed in such angry, vehement and unmistak- 
able terms that even the most gullible manic-progressive could not have 
the slightest doubt about what the party intended to do. 

The phenomenal growth of California since the end of the last war, 
the rapid multiplication of its defense industries, its importance as a 
communication and transportation center, and its enormous strategic 
importance by reason of its physical situation have combined to make it 
especially attractive for Communist activity. Consequently, Commu- 
nists from all over the United States, and particularly from the Middle 
West, have been coming to this state in great numbers. In addition, the 
fact that California is contiguous to Mexico gives it an espionage sig- 
nificance that we cannot afford to overlook. Intelligence officers who 
have had practical experience in the counter-subversive field have 
known for years that the espionage activities of the Communist move- 
ment in America have been directed both from Canada and from 
Mexico, but during the past several years Mexico has achieved a much 
greater significance. It was not illogical, then, for the Communist Party 
of the United States to plant the nerve center of its underground ap- 
paratus in this state. 



"Our Cause Is Invincible," by Eugene Dennis. Political Affairs, August, 1951, p. 1-11. 



154 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Underground, But Not Deep Enough 

From the state capitol at Sacramento a motorist can proceed in a 
general northerly direction through magnificent mountain scenery 
along State Highway 40 to a little community called Twain Harte. 
This part of the state is sparsely settled, and in the summer time 
caters to fishermen, hunters and tourists. In a small and isolated 
cabin in the vicinity of Twain Harte the Communist Party concealed 
the center of its nation-wide underground apparatus. The location had 
been picked with great care, both because of its isolated position, be- 
cause a party of four or five men and three or four women going in and 
out of the area would create no suspicion, and because it would be 
relatively simple for them to pose as a party of tourists. Communica- 
tion with the other segments of the underground organization was 
maintained by courier, as was contact with the two segments of the 
California Communist Party, both that which functioned in a relatively 
open manner, and that which was a part of the underground. Supplies 
of food and other necessities were regularly brought to the cabin, there 
were very few visitors, and those responsible for Communist security 
felt that they had not only followed all of the basic directions estab- 
lished by such Soviet experts as B. Vassiliev, and his Soviet disciple in 
the United States, J. Peters, but had also obtained the benefit of the 
best specialists the party could produce for the purpose of implement- 
ing these basic precepts and taking every possible precaution to insure 
the continued secrecy of this very vital center. 

But the Federal Bureau of Investigation, now being subjected to a 
vicious and widespread attack by the American Communists and their 
stooges, was alert to the situation. A number of agents were sent from 
the San Francisco field office to northern California, and while posing 
as fishermen and tourists maintained a close surveillance on the estab- 
lishment and even closer surveillance on every one who entered or left 
the premises. There was a good deal of communication between the 
F. B. I. field office and "Washington headquarters for the purpose of 
perfecting devices whereby our government could obtain information 
about the conversations that were occurring between these underground 
leaders, about their plans for implementing the secret organization, 
concerning strategy and tactics to be placed in operation, and concern- 
ing the nature of the rest of the underground structure. A detailed 
discussion of these precautions and of the devices employed by the 
F. B. I. in this particular instance have no place in this report. They 
would, however, make fascinating reading, and if they can ever be dis- 
closed they would provide further prestige to an enormously successful 
and magnificent organization that has stood like a tower of strength 
between the Communist agents in this country and their persistent and 
ever-continuing efforts to subvert us. The F. B. I. is not prone to defend 
itself from attack or to sing its own praises, but most assuredly the 
unmasking of this nerve-center of the Communist underground was 
one of its most distinguished contributions. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 155 

When the proper time came the agents descended upon the Twain 
Harte cabin and arrested the occupants. These security experts of the 
Communist underground were ignominiously taken to San Francisco, 
fingerprinted and booked, then, in due course of time, prosecuted in 
the United States District Court in San Francisco. They were repre- 
sented by Richard Gladstein, together with several of the other Com- 
munist lawyers who have been discussed earlier in this report. Since 
the defendants preferred not to testify, and steadfastly refused to even 
admit their true identities, it became necessary for the United States 
Attorney to establish their identity for the benefit of the court and the 
jury. 

At this stage of the proceedings an elderly man was called to the 
witness stand, identified as an F. B. I. fingerprint expert who had been 
flown here from Washington, and he proceeded to qualify himself as a 
fingerprint and identification specialist of more than 20 years practical 
experience. He then introduced a sackful of empty beer cans that were 
taken from the Twain Harte cabin at the time the defendants were 
placed under arrest, and produced large sheets of transparent plastic 
material on which had been superimposed the fingerprints taken from- 
the beer cans and enlarged to the size of an average office desk top. 
These fingerprints and the enlargements were made under the super- 
vision of the expert witness, who then produced the actual fingerprints 
of the defendants themselves that were taken at the time they were 
booked. These had also been enlarged to the exact and precise dimen- 
sions of the latent fingerprints that had been taken from the beer cans. 
These actual prints were also on transparent plastic material of the 
same dimensions as the latent prints taken from the cans. After having 
identified each one of the defendants together with his actual finger- 
prints, the sheet containing those prints was placed over a sheet of 
latent prints, and every irregularity, every minute loop and whorl cor- 
responded perfectly. This procedure was followed with each one of 
the defendants whose prints were taken at the time of the booking, 
and in each instance the fingerprints taken from the beer cans not only 
matched perfectly; but the presentation was so graphic and so unas- 
sailable that there could be no possible doubt about the establishment 
of identity. 

This was, of course, one of the basic elements of the case, and the 
trial terminated in the conviction of the principal Communist func- 
tionaries, and in addition produced what was probably a far more 
important result ; it indicated to the Communist Party and to its Soviet 
bosses the efficiency of the Federal Bureau of Investigation and its 
ability to penetrate into even the murkiest depths of the American Com- 
munist underground despite every precaution to insure against such 
discovery and exposure. 

We cannot refrain from stating parenthetically that even one of the 
present Justices of the United States Supreme Court, while traveling 
through the Middle East during this period of the Communist retreat to 



156 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

underground positions, found a parallel situation in many of the coun- 
tries he was visiting and also discovered that the party organization ! 
there had been broken up into small units of not more than five people 
and usually only three, for purposes of security. This indicates that the 
Communist Parties of the world were following the same basic prin- 
ciples of security organization in maintaining their underground ap- 
paratus, that retreat to such positions was carefully being co-ordinated 
and directed by a central agency, and that this agency could only be 
the Soviet Union which devised the basic strategy for the maintenance 
of underground organizations and expressed those principles in a docu- 
ment from which we shall shortly quote. The Supreme Court Justice 
who made this trip was Justice William 0. Douglas, and he described 
his impressions as follows : 

"* * * Today they are mostly underground. They meet se- 
cretly ; there are three at a meeting and a meeting lasts perhaps ten 
minutes — just long enough to exchange confidences, bolster up 
courage, and decide on the party line. ' ' 63 

The Communist Party of the United States was, at the time Justice 
'Douglas' book was published, ever since has been and still is broken up 
into units of not more than five and usually three individuals for 
security purposes, and meetings are held at card tables in private 
homes, in restaurants and other public places, and only one individual 
in each of these triangles knows who to contact in the triangle above 
and the triangle below. Since we have discussed this organizational 
structure in previous reports, there is no necessity to elaborate further 
on it here. 

The Vassiliev Document 

In 1948 this committee participated in a seminar on counter-subver- 
sive activities and techniques at the Presidio of San Francisco. Approxi- 
mately 800 people attended the series of lectures for two days, and they 
included intelligence personnel from both the Army and the Navy, 
representatives of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, members of the 
California Peace Officers Association, representatives of various Dis- 
trict Attorneys, together with agents of the Office of Special Investiga- 
tions, the Civil Service Commission, the Immigration Service, and all 
other official agencies that were legitimately interested in counter- 
subversive problems. Former members of the Communist Party ad- 
dressed the gathering, as did other lecturers, including Senator Burns, 
the chairman of this committee, and R. E. Combs, its counsel. 

On that occasion both Senator Burns and Mr. Combs quoted from a 
document that had long been in the committee's possession, and which, 
so far as we know, had not previously been released. It was known as 
the Vassiliev Document. Part of it had appeared in the Communist 



03 Strange Lands and Friendly People, by William O. Douglas. Harper & Bros., New 
York. 1951, p. 3. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 157 

press in 1931, and ever since that time it had been used and is still 
being used as a basis for underground organization by the Communist 
Parties of the world. The author, B. Vassiliev, was an instructor in 
these matters at the Lenin School in Moscow, which we have previously- 
described as a training center for carefully selected Communists from 
the various parties throughout the world who went to the Red academy 
and prepared themselves for espionage work for three or four years 
during which they listened to lectures by experts such as Vassiliev, 
witnessed techniques that were most effective in blowing up steel sup- 
ports for high voltage electric transmission lines, tunnels, bridges, rail- 
road tracks, and other bourgeois targets. There were also classes in the 
effective sabotaging of food stuffs, radio stations, steamships, reservoirs 
of domestic water supply, coupled with courses in high-level political 
activity designed to accomplish the most effective infiltration of large 
masses of people, especially in the backward countries of the world. 

We realize that these matters are completely outside the orbit of the 
average American's activities. But they have been established by the 
unshakeable testimony of individuals who attended these courses and 
since defected from the party; the Vassiliev document has been thor- 
oughly authenticated and is in the archives of the committee. Frag- 
ments of it have been, since 1948, published by various other agencies — 
but since there is an active Communist underground in California, and 
since it is slavishly following the directions established by the Vassiliev 
document, and since the nerve center for the entire Communist under- 
ground was located in this state, and because we believe the members 
of the California Legislature and people of this state should have an 
adequate understanding of the techniques being employed by the Com- 
munist agents in our midst, we believe it highly desirable and prac- 
tical to reproduce portions of the Vassiliev document herewith. 

As was pointed out by Ralph de Toledano, the author of Seeds of 
Treason, the definitive work on the Alger Hiss case, and an authority 
in the counter-subversive field : 

"The underground Party is organized on Bakuninist lines, con- 
cretized by one B. Vassiliev in 1931, under the title: Organiza- 
tional Problems and Underground Revolutionary Work. This Com- 
munist outline runs to five pages. It merits serious study. Vassiliev 
directed : 

' In proportion as the legal apparatus of the Party is liquidated, 
the directing functions will inevitably require a regrouping of 
Party forces. This reconstruction of the work will pass more and 
more to the illegal apparatus. ' 

This has been going on, carefully and methodically, since the 
inception of the cold war." 64 

M This We Pace, by Ralph de Toledano. American Mercury, April, 1959, p. 38-41. 



158 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

The pertinent parts of the Vassiliev lecture to students of the gradu- 
ating class at the Lenin School in Moscow is as follows : 

"In * * * conditions of growing economic crisis and heightened 
threat of war against the U.S.S.R. all measures will be taken by 
the ruling classes of the capitalist countries to guarantee their rear 
before declaring war; that is, everything will be done by them to 
weaken, disorganize and, as far as possible, liquidate completely 
all revolutionary proletarian organizations, and in the first place 
the Communist Parties. 

If until recently it was necessary to talk of the campaign of 
the ruling classes against the Communist Parties, and of the Parties 
having to prepare for transferring to underground work, now all 
parties are facing an extermination in the preparation which has 
been carried out. In the first place the Communist Parties of the 
advanced capitalist countries must now have a concrete plan of 
what to do if the country should be declared under martial law 
and a beginning made dealing with Communists according to mili- 
tary law. At the same time the U.S.S.R. enlarged plenum of the 
ECCI, [Executive Committee of the Communist International], 
demands from the Communist Parties that they should undertake 
such forms and such a pace of Party work as to allow them in spite 
of all repression, in spite of mass arrests of leading workers and 
rank and file members of the Communist Parties, in spite of the 
suppression of the legal Party press, to strengthen to the maximum 
degree their mass work, so as to draw the broadest proletarian 
masses into the revolutionary struggle. ' ' * 

a * * # with regard to the meetings of the Party Committees 
it is still essential to have in view the following rule, which is 
absolutely binding for illegal Communist Parties. At the meeting 
of the Party Committee, or in any case at the plenary meeting at 
which representatives of the rank and file Party activists take part, 
those members must not be present in whose hands are the con- 
nections with Party organizations, addresses, etc., because if the 
police arrest such a meeting, then the whole Party Committee will 
be arrested, and to reorganize the Party organization after all the 
addresses, connections and so on, have been lost, is naturally very 
difficult. It is necessary that at least one comrade who keeps the 
addresses, connections, etc., should not come to the meetings of 
the Party Committee and that at the moment of the meeting of 
the Party Committee he should take special measures of precaution 
to avoid the arrests, which usually follow on the rounding up of a 
Party Committee by the means of those addresses and connections 
which the police get hold of in the course of the same. 



Compare with the statements contained in the address by Eugene Dennis, quoted 
above. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 159 

Before big revolutionary demonstrations and mass proletarian 
actions, which are being prepared by illegal Communist Parties, 
this rule must also apply to all illegal Communist Parties. 

What should be the distribution of work within the Party 
Committee ? The following are the most important functions. First, 
the Secretary of the Party Committee. Not only is it not necessary 
for the Secretary of the Committee of a Communist Bolshevik 
Party to be the political leader of the committee, but as a rule he 
should not be a political leader * * * In the Russian Party the 
Secretary of the Committee is at the same time the leader of the 
Party Committee. But in the underground party the position was 
quite different. Then the Secretary was never the leader of the 
Party Committee. He was a comrade who was responsible for con- 
nections with the Party organizations above and below ; for con- 
versations with comrades who were in need of this or that advice 
or information from the Party Committee, and so on. 

Why is such a rule essential ? It is important because the Secre- 
tary of the Party Committee in illegal and semilegal conditions 
is the person on whom, above all, the blow of action will fall. If 
that person is the political leader of the Party Committee then 
naturally his arrest will affect very harmfully all the work of the 
Party Committee. The political leader of the Party Committee 
should not perform secretarial work and in general, as a rule, 
should not be connected with the technical functions of the Party 
apparatus. I think this rule of Bolshevik underground work should 
now be transferred completely into the practice of all our Com- 
munist Parties. 

The responsibility for the publication and the distribution of 
illegal literature should be placed upon one member of the Party 
Committee. This function should now be absolutely obligatory 
for all Communist Parties, including legal Communist Parties, be- 
ginning with the Central Committee and ending with the District 
Committees. We now have it as a general rule that on the eve of 
big revolutionary actions legal Communist literature is forbidden, 
confiscated or in the best case censured in such a way that all 
the Communism is washed out of it. As, for example, in Czecho- 
slovakia. Therefore, if the Party does not have an illegal printing 
press for the preparation of a political campaign and does not at 
the same time prepare the publication of illegal literature, then at 
the most critical moment the Party remains without literature, as 
happened, for instance, with the Czechoslovakian Communist Party. 

* * * All Communist Parties must without fail have an exten- 
sive apparatus for the publication of illegal Party literature : print- 
ing plants, various kinds of rotary machines, copying machines, 
mimeographs, and simple hectographs in order to publish illegal 
literature, newspapers, leaflets, etc. In particular it is absolutely 



160 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

essential that the local Party Committees should guarantee the 
publication of the factory papers for the factory cells of the big 
enterprises, especially in connection with the carrying out of the 
campaigns. * * * With regard to illegal literature it is also neces- 
sary to have ready arrangements for its distribution. For that it is 
essential to have a special apparatus for distribution which must 
not, as a rule, coincide with the general apparatus of the Party 
Committee. (Committee's italics.) * Special comrades must be 
brought into this end, there must be special addresses for the safe- 
keeping and conveyance of literature from the printing press to the 
district and from the districts and localities to the factories for 
distribution among the workers. * * * 

One of the members of the committee should undertake the 
duty of the organization of proletarian self-defense. This is now 
beyond all doubt essential. There is a great deal of talk about 
proletarian self-defense, and if all these conversations were 
brought together they might annihilate the bourgeois by their 
sheer weight; but the practical results are not worth a halfpenny. 
There is a certain amount of work on proletarian self-defense in 
Germany, the Chinese comrades work well, too, they having quite 
different conditions of work, but about the other Parties it is un- 
fortunately impossible to say anything good. Resolutions are 
passed, but all the same there is no proletarian self-defense. So, 
it must become a rule that every Party Committee appoint a special 
comrade to take charge of this work. This comrade must, by the 
way, definitely arrange a special training for members of the 
organization of proletarian self-defense, in order that these organ- 
izations may be real self-defense organizations — not the present 
meetings of comrades which call themselves self-defense organiza- 
tions. The practice of the proletarian self-defense detachments 
during recent demonstrations shows that the comrades from the 
sections of self-defense do not have the slightest conception of any 
kind of self-defense. When the police attacked them they did not 
know how to resist. They didn't understand the tactics of street 
fighting; didn't even know how to box, and as a result in certain 
cases one policeman broke up dozens of sections of proletarian 
self-defense, because our comrades waved their arms about aim- 
lessly while the policemen were quite confident and used all the 
skill of well-framed boxers. 

***** 

"At present the question of proper arrangement for learning 
about the work of our opponent the Social-Fascist, the Fascist, 
discovering the plans of police with regard to breaking up demon- 
strations, etc., assumes very great importance. Every Party Com- 



We have previously referred to the Aesopian language commonly used in party 
literature. This language has a peculiar meaning for Communists, and is usually 
quite unintelligible and confusing to the layman. In Communist parlance the world 
over, the word "special" refers to underground or espionage activity. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 161 

mittee should clearly look at this side of every day Party work; 
should place on one of its members the special duty of organizing 
work in this direction and should systematically check how this 
work is being carried out and what are the pressing concrete tasks. 

How can Party Committees be elected in illegal Parties? 
Naturally, in an illegal Party elections cannot take place as they 
do in legal Parties, but nevertheless they are possible. That is to 
say, that the forms of electing Party committees in illegal Parties 
should be different from those used in legal parties. For example, 
the election of Party committees at aggregate meetings, at wide 
conferences, cannot in any case be allowed in illegal parties. There 
the elections must take place in narrower conferences. The measure 
of representation at these conferences in illegal Parties must of 
necessity be very compressed. Moreover, the elections themselves in 
illegal Parties must come as a rule, take place in such a way that 
even the members of the conference do not know who is elected 
on the Party Committee. At the present time two methods of elect- 
ing leading organs in illegal parties are practiced. The first 
method : the Party conference elects a special commission for count- 
ing the votes cast for candidates for members of the Party Com- 
mittee. Then the candidates are named and the election of the 
Party Committee proceeds by secret vote. The commission checks 
the result of the voting, while it does not report to the conference 
as to the personnel elected. Another method of election : the con- 
ference elects a narrow commission in which a representative of 
the higher Party Committee takes part, and this narrow com- 
mittee elects the new Party Committee. In strictly illegal Parties, 
as for example the Italian Communist Party, the latter method of 
election is the only one which guarantees more or less strict con- 
spiratorial conditions. 

The most important element of successful working of the Party 
Committee — the one on which during the checking of its work the 
most serious attention must be concentrated — is the question of 
connections of the Party Committee with the higher and lower 
Party organizations, especially with factory cells and the fractions 
in the mass non-Party organizations. This question now has a 
decisive importance, especially in the legal and semilegal Commu- 
nist Parties. The illegal Communist Parties have already worked 
out a whole number of measures and methods in order to keep their 
communications with the lower organizations and with separate 
members of the Party, in spite of the severest police repression. 
But with the legal and the semilegal parties there is bad work all 
the time along this line. 

What are the most important methods of communication that 
is essential to foresee? It is essentially important to have a well- 
laid-out method of live communication. Live communication is kept 



162 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

going by the help of the system of so-called appearing or report- 
ing places. What is a reporting point? A reporting point is this: 
The Party Committee establishes special addresses or flats or other 
places where on certain days at a certain time representatives of 
the cells and fractions of the mass organizations must appear. 
There, also, representatives of the Party Committees appear. Rep- 
resentatives of the cells and fractions make reports on what has 
happened in the factory, what the cell has done, what it proposes 
to do, and so on, and representatives of the Party Committee, 
having received the report, advise the cell how it should act, passes 
on to it the directions of the higher Party organ, and so on. This 
system of appearing places must without fail be established in all 
Parties without exception, legal and illegal (committee's italics), 
while the legal Parties a double system of reporting places must 
without fail be established — a system of legal and illegal appear- 
ing points. 

• •••.« 

"If the Party has already more or less seriously and funda- 
mentally gone over to underground conditions, and the shadowing 
of leading active Party members has begun, and the Party mem- 
bers are being arrested in the streets, then it is very important 
that special signals should be established for the appearing flat, 
showing in the first place the safety of the flat; second, showing 
that exactly those people have come who were expected, and that 
these comrades who have come are talking with exactly those com- 
rades whom the observer is coming to see. In order to show that 
the reporting places are in working order — for example, a flower, 
a flower pot was placed in the window, the comrade came, saw 
that the flowers were there, knew that it was safe, and entered. 

For verifying those who come to the reporting places, a system 
of passwords is established. The comrade comes to the reporting 
point and he says some agreed-upon sentence. They answer to that 
agreed-upon sentence with another agreed-upon sentence. So both 
comrades check each other. In Russian underground conditions 
very complicated passwords were sometimes used in the central 
appearing places. This was called for by the circumstances that 
different workers passed through different reporting places; rank 
and file workers from the cells, district and central Party workers. 
Accordingly, one password was picked for the rank and file work- 
ers, and more complicated ones for the district workers and a still 
more complicated one for the central workers. Why was this nec- 
essary? It was necessary for conspirative reasons, since only cer- 
tain things could be said to the rank and file worker while perhaps 
other things could be said to the district worker while you could 
speak with full frankness about the whole work of the illegal or- 
ganization to the representative of the central committee. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 163 

Besides flats for reporting points, connecting link flats are also 
needed for communication by letter, and these flats must in no 
case coincide. And finally there must be flats for the sheltering of 
illegal comrades, comrades whom the police are looking for, com- 
rades who have escaped from prison, etc. For all our legal Com- 
munist Parties the question of addresses and flats now play the 
role of first importance. * * * It is essential for all Parties to 
occupy themselves now in the most serious way with the solution 
of the 'housing' problem. 

It is also necessary to give the most serious attention to the 
problem of the organization of letter communication. In checking 
the work of the Party Committee it is necessary to consider this 
question especially. Does the Party Committee have addresses for 
communicating by letter with the higher and lower Party organ- 
izations, and how are these communications put into practice? 
Now, even for the legal Parties, the firmest rule must be estab- 
lished that all correspondence concerning the functioning of the 
Party apparatus must without fail go by special routes guaran- 
teeing letters from being copied in the post. All kinds of special 
circulars, general information reports on the condition of the Party 
in legal Parties can go through the ordinary post to legal Party 
addresses, but everything concerning the functioning of the Party 
Committee, even in legal parties, must without fail go by special 
route. In the first place, the use of special courier must be fore- 
seen, who will personally carry letters, not trusting these letters 
to the state post. Here the Parties must make use of connections 
which they have with post and telegraph and railway servants, 
connections with all kinds of commercial travelers for traveling 
firms, and so on. All these connections must be used in order that 
without extra expense responsible Party documents can be trans- 
ported. Further, every Party should take care that every letter, 
apart from whether it goes through the state post or by courier, 
should be written in such a way that in case it falls into the hands 
of the police it should not give the police a basis for any kind of 
arrest or repression against the Party organization. 

This makes the following three requisites. First requisite: the 
letter must be in code, i.e., all aspects of illegal work are referred 
to by some special phrase or other. For example, the illegal printing 
press is called 'auntie;' type is called 'sugar,' and so on. A comrade 
writes: 'Auntie asks you without fail to send her 20 pounds of 
sugar.' This will mean that the press is in need of 20 pounds of 
type. Or a comrade writes: 'We are experiencing great difficulty 
in finding a suitable flat for our aunt. ' That means it is a question 
of finding a location for the illegal printing press. 

Second requisite: besides the code, as above, ciphers are used; 
illegal parts of letters being put not only into code but also into 
ciphers. There are many different systems of ciphers. The simplest 



164 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

and at the same time the most reliable is the system of cipher by the 
help of a book. Some book or other is agreed upon beforehand then 
the cipher is made in this way: simple fractions or decimals are 
ciphers. The first figure of the first fraction shows the page of the 
book. Then further comes the actual cipher. For the numerator of 
the fraction we must take a line counting from above or below; 
for the denominator that counting from either the left or right 
which it is necessary to put into the cipher. For example, we need 
to put into the cipher the letter 'A.' "We look in the book and see 
that this letter is in the third line from the top, the fourth letter 
from the left towards the right, then we cipher three over four 
(3/4), that is, the third line from the top, fourth letter from left 
to right, Also on this method : for example, counting the line not 
from above but from below, then the three will not be the third 
line from above but the third line from below. You can agree to 
count the letter in the line not from left to right but from right 
to left. Finally, for greater complexity in order to keep the sense 
from the police, you can also add to the fraction some number 
or other. Let us say the numerator is increased by three and the 
denominator by four. In this case, in order to decipher, it will 
be necessary first to subtract in the numerator and denominator of 
every fraction. A whole number of similar variations can be worked 
out to complicate the ciphers. The advantage of such a cipher is 
that it is not only very simple but also each letter can be designated 
by a great number of different signs and in such a way that the 
cipher designation of letters are not repeated. The book cipher 
can be used without a book. In place of a book, some poem or other 
can be chosen, learned by heart and the deciphering done according 
to it. When it is necessary to cipher or decipher, the poem must 
be written out in verses and then the ciphering or deciphering 
done and the poem destroyed. 

The third requisite which is also recommended should be used 
in correspondence, is writing with chemical inks — that is, with 
such inks that are impossible to read without special adaptation. 
If a secret Party letter falls into the hands of the police written 
in invisible ink, the open text of such letters must be made to 
appear perfectly blameless, for example, a son is writing to his 
mother that he is alive and well and of the good things he wishes 
her. Not a word about revolution. The police must guess first of 
all that under this apparently innocent text there is a hidden text. 
Having discovered this secret, the police tumble against a cipher. 
If they succeed in deciphering the cipher, they stumble up against 
a code and they still have to decipher that code. But all this takes 
time in the course of which the police can do nothing. If the police 
succeed in reading it in the course of two or three weeks, then by 
that time the Party organization has been able to cover up all 
the consequences of the subject which was written about in the 
letter. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 165 

What kind of invisible ink should be used? Invisible inks exist 
in very great number. They can be bought in any chemists shop. 
Finally, comrades must use the latest inventions in chemistry in 
this direction. The simplest invisible ink which can be recommended 
and which can be found everywhere, is, for example, onion juice 
and pure water. 

If we consider legal parties which are being driven under- 
ground, the question can be put in this way : the Party should 
fight to the very last to retain all existing forms of the legal 
working class movement ; for the legal existence of the Communist 
Party ; for legal Communist literature ; for legal trade unions ; for 
other legal unions of mass organization. In the process of this 
struggle the Communist Parties of these countries, however great 
the democratic freedom is at the given moment, however easy at 
any given moment it may be for them to get permission to publish 
legal Communist papers, or organize demonstrations, etc., must at 
the same time construct and strengthen their illegal apparatus 
from top to bottom. All legal parties are now under the greatest 
responsibility in respect to the creation and strengthening of an 
legal party apparatus. All of them must immediately undertake 
measures to have within the legally-existing Party Committees 
an illegal directing corps. The illegal part of the Party apparatus 
must be separated from the legal apparatus of the Party Commit- 
tee, and a part of the members of the Party Committee must al- 
ready now be made illegal. Such comrades as Comrade Thaleman 
[German Communist functionary] cannot go underground. It 
would be completely stupid for him to be underground at the 
present moment. Comrade Thaleman and other prominent leaders 
of the Communist Party must have the possibility of quickly pass- 
ing underground at the necessary moment ; must have the neces- 
sary living accomodations for this ; must have facilities for quickly 
changing their names, and all other means of swiftly avoiding the 
pursuits of the police, so that the police should look for them in 
quite a different direction to the one in which they have gone. 

Besides leaders like Comrade Thaleman who are well known 
to the whole working class, there are a number of leaders in all 
Communist Parties who are less well-known or completely un- 
known to the broad mass of the working class and in wide police 
circles, but who are well tried in practical Party work. It is very 
important to bring to leading work those who are unknown to the 
wide masses and to the police, but who have been tried in the pro- 
cess of every day Party work as good organizers, good conspirators, 
and completely devoted to the cause of Communism. 

Cells of illegal directing organs must be created from among 
these activists and along with the increasing repression those sec- 
tions of the Party apparatus which are most susceptible to repres- 
sion should be handed over to their charge, as well as the more 
important Party documents, etc. At the same time the legal exist- 



166 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

ence of the Party Committee and the legal use of the names of 
members of the Central Committee and other Party units who 
can still legally speak in the name of the Party Committee, etc., 
must be preserved until the last. If this work is properly arranged, 
then the police on arriving and securing members of the Central 
Committee, district and other Party committees who are known 
to it, and seizing the premises of the Party Committee, will seize 
only the premises in which there are no Party documents and only 
those comrades who do not longer hold in their hands the most 
important threats of the Party apparatus. The Party apparatus 
carried underground in such cases, at once begins to function, 
guaranteeing uninterrupted direction of Party work * * * 

Most important and fundamental legal or semi-legal cover for 
an illegal Communist Party is the trade union. Therefore, illegal 
Communist Parties must give the utmost serious attention to the 
trade unions, and must fight with all their strength and by all 
means possible for their open existence. Practice has shown that, 
for example, in Rumania and even in Yugoslavia, with its violent 
Fascist terror, the open existence of Red trade unions under a 
strong Communist influence is possible. 

* * * The most important question of all Party work is the 
question of the active core of the Party. Putting every Party mem- 
ber, every Party worker, in his most suitable place — that is the 
kernel of the question, as Lenin liked to put it; and the Party 
organizer in order to hit the nail on the head must learn to put 
every Party member in his right place, while remembering that 
Party members cannot be shuffled around like pawns or children's 
bricks, which can be placed in any direction. One Party member 
is suitable for the organization of an illegal printing press — he 
must be used for this, but he may not be suitable as a propagandist, 
and if he is sent to carry on propaganda this will prove of such a 
kind that two other propagandists will have to be sent to put his 
work right. Another comrade, a fine propagandist and educator, 
who knows how to explain in the most popular way the most 
difficult political problem, or the most complicated political slogan, 
is a bad conspirator if he is on conspirative work and will bring 
harm to the Party. Therefore, the Party organizer must in the 
most careful way study the human material with which he has to 
deal, in order to know for what concrete task that human material 
can best be made use of * * * We must be very bold in making 
use of the creative experience of the revolutionary proletarian 
masses; this experience has been and will always be the most de- 
cisive in the work of the Communist Parties and the whole of the 
Communist International." (Committee's italics.) 

The last sentence quoted above, which we have italicized for em- 
phasis, points up the slavish devotion by all foreign Communist Parties 
to the Soviet prototype. The names of the party officials and the duties 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 167 

imposed on each, the physical organization of the party and its fronts, 
the security measures of the underground apparatus, even the peculiar 
Aesopian language employed in communicating between party mem- 
bers — all of these are patterned on the Soviet model. And so inflexible 
and absolute is Communist Party discipline, that orders issued from 
above must be carried out without the slightest hesitation or question, 
and this is particularly true when the orders come from a Soviet Com- 
munist rather than down through the chain of command that exists 
in a foreign Communist organization. 

In a previous report we have explained how a school for under- 
ground organization and activity was maintained in Alameda County 
at Orinda, and we quoted from the experiences of students who, while 
devout Communists, attended these classes. They were instructed how 
to carry on illegal communications, and how to make and operate an 
illegal printing apparatus from materials found in most kitchens. The 
use of meeting places and appearing points, the exchange of passwords, 
the arrangements of flowers as a signal to visitors that they could 
safely enter may all seem somewhat cloak-and-daggerish to the average 
reader of this report. We assure you in all sincerity that this is not 
the case. We have interviewed dozens of former Communist Party 
members who have actually participated in this sort of activity, and 
if our readers wish to pursue the matter any further and completely 
corroborate the fact that the underground in California is today 
slavishly following the instructions laid down by such experts as B. 
Vassiliev, we refer them to the books that are cited in the footnote.* 

There are many other books, all reliable, dealing with experiences of 
the authors in the Communist underground in the United States. The 
cumulative effect of these treatises completely corroborates the fact that 
the Vassiliev document is being followed by the Communist Party 
underground in the United States at the present time. 

Attention may also be directed to an address made by Dr. J. B. 
Matthews on the occasion of the thirty-second annual meeting of the 
American Legion, Department of Connecticut, Hartford, Connecticut, 
on August 19, 1950. The title of Dr. Matthews' address was, "The 
Communist Underground," and he made specific reference to the Vas- 
siliev lecture. Dr. Matthews said: "There is no doubt about the com- 
plete authenticity of this document. The details of the order amounted 
to a blueprint of the Communist undergrounds in all countries outside 
the Soviet Union, the United States of America included. The order 
embodying these details is a veritable primer for Americans who want 
to understand the true nature of the Communist Party. ' ' As Matthews 
points out, the Communist Party of the United States has quit issuing 
membership books or cards and has entrusted knowledge as to the 
membership of the party to individuals who are not only highly trusted 
but who pass the information on cards from one place to another 

• (My Ten Years as a Counter-Spy, bv Boris Morros ; Witness, by Whittaker Cham- 
bers ; This Masquerade, by Angela Colamiris ; Out of Bondage, by Elizabeth Bent- 
ley ; Empire of Fear, by Vladimir and Evdokia Petrov.) 



168 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

for security reasons, and the offices in Los Angeles and San Francisco 
are completely devoid of party records and documents of any kind. 
This is in strict accordance with the directions issued by Vassiliev. 
Complete files of Communist Party membership in the United States 
have been taken out of the country and kept, at one time or another, 
in both Mexico and Cuba. Vassiliev 's order that places be prepared for 
the housing of illegal printing plants is reflected in the school estab 
lished at Orinda where precise instructions in the greatest detail for 
the maintenance and operation of undercover printing facilities were 
taught and discussed. The lecture also pointed out the necessity for 
reserve leadership of the party, and we saw that leadership take over 
when Smith Act prosecutions placed the regular party officials behind 
bars. 

Vassiliev also urged that the party remain above ground and legal 
until the last possible minute — and this is reflected by the defiant state- 
ments of the party's General Secretary, Eugene Dennis, which we 
quoted earlier in this section of the report. The material in the Vas- 
siliev lecture concerning letter drops, meeting places, passwords, and 
clandestine communications, is all amply verified by an examination of 
the reading sources that we have already mentioned. Any readers who 
may wish to pursue the subject further will be provided with a re- 
liable list of supplementary sources if they will make the request in 
writing to this committee in care of Senator Burns. 

The reader will recall that toward the end of the Vassiliev document 
there is an injunction to the leaders of the underground to mobilize the 
services of the ''less well-known or completely unknown" Communist 
activists "who are well tried in practical Party work * * * unknown 
to the wide masses and to the police, but who have been tried in the 
process of everyday work as good organizers, good conspirators, and 
completely to the cause of Communism. ' ' This is the type of hard-core, 
highly indoctrinated party member who has survived the downgrading 
of Stalin, the revolts in Hungary and Poland, and who is unshaken in 
his determination to further the cause of world revolution at all costs. 
Throughout the United States and in California the party has mobilized 
its relatively unknown membership. It is making use of the lethal fall- 
out of party members we referred to earlier ; it is alerting its ' ■ sleeper 
apparatus" composed of individuals who have been secret party mem- 
bers for many years but who have never paid dues, never attended a 
meeting, never associated with Communists, but who have wormed 
their ways into positions of trust and confidence and influence and are 
now secretly working in behalf of the Communists' objectives. Then, 
too, there are the captives who once made the mistake of affiliating with 
the Communist Party, dropped out, climbed to positions of power, 
prestige and high position over the intervening years, and are now 
subject to blackmail by their old party contacts who threaten to ex- 
pose them and ruin them unless they agree to perform little favors 
upon request. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 169 

The fight against Communism in this state is far more challenging, 
far more difficult and far more necessary than ever. The party is now 
beginning to pick up additional membership. The deviationists are be- 
ing forced out of the organization, new leadership is being prepared, 
new funds are becoming available, and meanwhile the party is still 
concentrating on the penetration of trade union organizations and edu- 
cational institutions. It is implementing the Khrushchev directive to 
create a second and wide United Front by sending its members into 
mass liberal organizations and seeking to warp them to the Communist 
way of thinking. 

We must constantly bear in mind that we are charged with the duty 
of protecting the innocent liberal against unjust accusations of subver- 
sive activity and affiliation, we must observe the rules of the game, 
scrupulously protect the civil rights of all who appear before the com- 
mittee and at the same time endeavor to report to the legislature and 
to the people concerning the true nature of subversive activities and 
propaganda within our borders. On the other hand, the Communist 
Party is bound by no rules of morality, law, decency, or ethics. To the 
Communist the end justifies the means in all cases, he is disciplined to 
instantly carry out his assignments, as a witness he is recalcitrant, 
stubborn, abusive, and does little more than repeatedly invoke the pro- 
tection of the Fifth Amendment. The challenge is a great one indeed. 
It is so great that every educator, every trade union official, should take 
the time to thoroughly inform himself about Communist tactics, and 
then join the ranks in a broad co-operative effort to stem the infiltrators. 

President Eisenhower recently visited the hospital to see Secretary of 
State John Foster Dulles, who was then recuperating from X-ray treat- 
ment for cancer. By the side of Mr. Dulles' bed was a copy of the book 
by Harry and Bonaro Overstreet, entitled What We Must Know 
About Communism, W. W. Norton & Co., New York, 1958. The Secre- 
tary of State recommended that the President read this volume, and it 
is now being serialized in the Los Angeles Times and other newspapers 
of wide circulation. While certainly not the best book that has been 
written about Communism, it is a popular one, and contains much 
excellent material. Mr. Overstreet and his wife are capable writers, and 
he learned something about Communist front organizations at first 
hand, having been lured into a number of them from time to time. Mr. 
Overstreet is an example of a non-Communist liberal who was attracted 
to a few of these front organizations, found out what they were all 
about, and had the courage to do something about the problem instead 
of shrinking away from the experience and remaining silent. Many 
people who have had similar experiences — in fact the overwhelming 
majority of them — are content to remain silent, when by speaking 
boldly they could strike an effective blow against the menace that 



170 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

attracted them to its periphery. Writing about the Communist under- 
ground, the Overstreet book had this to say : 

"It is in the theory of the state once more, that we find the 
rationale of one of Lenin's basic edicts: namely, that Communists 
in non-Communist countries must maintain both a legal and illegal 
apparatus. They must be able to work in the open — through a legal 
Party, where this is allowed and through as many fronts as possible 
- — in order to give 'vanguard' leadership to the masses and to 
politicalize their struggles. But also they must be able to work in 
the underground, carrying on activities that are patently outside 
the law of the land but are called for by the long-range purpose 
and 'monolithic unity' of the world Communist movement. Such 
double organization, Lenin specified, is necessary in any 'bour- 
geoise' country — which is to say, any 'enemy' country — just as it 
was necessary for the Bolsheviks in Tsarist Russia. 

The C. P. U. S. A. has always — or, at least, since it first affili- 
ated with the Comintern — maintained the requisite double ap- 
paratus. Between 1920 and 1935, it scarcely bothered to conceal its 
double character ; or, during those years, it was always seeing the 
revolution just ahead. Thus, we have only to turn to early issues 
of The Communist — forerunner of Political Affairs — to read the 
record of legal and illegal organization. The October, 1921, issue, 
for example, states without equivocation, 'The center of gravity of 
our activities is not fixed. It is constantly shifting; sometimes in 
the direction of the legal organization, sometimes in the direction 
of the underground organization. This center of gravity is at all 
times determined by the ever-changing realities of the actual class 
struggle. ' 

An equally frank statement appears in the July, 1922 issue: 
'A truly revolutionary (i.e. Communist) party can never be 
"legal" in the sense of having its purpose harmonize with the 
purpose of the laws made by the capitalist state. * * * Hence, to 
call a Communist Party "legal" means that its existence is toler- 
ated by the capitalist state.' The article then goes on to say that 
since the 'legal' political party thus exists by 'enemy' tolerance, 
the revolutionary cause can never be entrusted to it alone. 

As late as 1934, the manifesto of the eighth convention of the 
C. P. U. S. A. said that, in view of the ' growing danger of illegal- 
ity,' the Party must tighten its discipline, combat spies, and 'in- 
sure the secret functioning of the factory nuclei.' " 

* # # * • 

' ' The United States is by no means alone in having to cope with 
the problems attendant upon the legal-illegal operations of the 
Party. Every non-Communist country in the world faces this same 
problem — and deals with them as it thinks best. But no country 
has solved them. ' ' 65 

65 What We Must Know About Communism, op. cit, pp. 23-35. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 171 

Infiltration of Federal Government 

Several years ago the committee issued a report in which we earnestly 
endeavored to describe the international Communist movement, tracing 
the history of the Russian revolution, the foundation of the Comintern, 
the establishment of the Communist Parties of the world, history of the 
Communist Party of the United States, and a history of its activities 
in California. "We did this because we wished to indicate that the move- 
ment is international by its very nature, and that a resident of Michi- 
gan who was active in Communist activities there on Monday can well 
be active in California two days later. This elastic, international, ever- 
shifting and changing aspect of Communism cannot be viewed by 
focusing a microscope on the activities in California alone. The Com- 
munist Party of this state, both above and underground, acts according 
to the dictates of the Soviet Union. It has always been thus and it 
ever will be. The party line is carefully timed and correlated like 
a finely syncronized mechanism, and operates on a global scale. To act 
provincial about a problem of Communism is to demonstrate a hope- 
less lack of knowledge concerning its true nature and an equally hope- 
less ineptitude in analyzing its activities in California with any degree 
of accuracy. Nevertheless, we were lambasted soundly by some of the 
more ' ' progressive ' ' members of the press for straying so far afield. 

It will be interesting if we receive the same sort of critical treatment 
from the same sources because we undertake in this report to mention 
a document like the Vassiliev lecture, to link the second United Front 
with the Khrushchev speech of February, 1956, and trace the develop- 
ment of the international Communist front organization to Willi Muen- 
zenburg. 

The Communist underground in California today is extremely active 
and it could not possibly be understood unless one is not only familiar 
with the establishment of the underground headquarters near Twain 
Harte, but also with the international nature of the Communist move- 
ment, and with a document as vital as the Vassiliev lecture. It is the 
underground organization, for example, that would handle political 
infiltration and endeavor to control elected officials by placing under- 
cover Communist secretaries in their offices to read their mail, make 
their appointments and arrange their engagements and speaking dates. 
It is the underground organization that would contact the unknown 
party members or "sleepers" in lofty positions and urge them to use 
their prestige and influence for the benefit of the party. It is the under- 
ground apparatus that gives a nudge here, a shove there, applies a deft 
touch of propaganda at the precise moment when it will be of the 
greatest effect, that flatters liberals into conformity with the party 
line, and manipulates the naive do-gooders into positions of unwittingly 
performing the party's work. 

In many situations, indeed, the underground organization of the 
Communist Party of the United States and its espionage operations are 
virtually identical. To those of us who may have become complacent, 



172 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

weary of hearing about Communism so frequently, and who have be- 
come apathetic and little concerned with this problem, we direct atten- 
tion to a thoroughly reliable and accurate partial list of employees in 
high places who were either members of the Communist Party, espio- 
nage agents, who invoked the Fifth Amendment when questioned under 
oath about their Communist activities and affiliations, or were proven 
to have collaborated with the Communist Party or the Soviet agents in 
the United States. It will be noted that many of them moved from one 
important government agency to another through years of infiltrating 
activity. The staggering damage they did to the security of the United 
States will probably never be known, but it was obviously tremendous. 
The partial list is as follows : 

State Department 

Alger Hiss, head of the Department of Henry Collins, Jr. 

Political Affairs. Leo Drozdoff 

John Carter Vincent, head of the Far Harold Glasser 

Eastern Division. Irving Goldman 

Robert T. Miller, Assistant head, Divi- Stanley Graze 

sion of Research and Publication. Julian Friedman 

Maurice Halperin, head of the Latin- Mary J. Keeney 

American Division. Carl Aldo Marzani 

Laurence Duggan, head of the Latin- 
American Division. 

DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 

Harry Dexter White, Assistant Secretary of the Treasury 

Harold Glasser, Director of the Division of Monetary Research and Chief Financial 

Advisor to the Economic Board following the invasion of North Africa, and 

Treasury representative to UNRRA. 
Frank Coe, Director of the Division of Monetary Research. 
Abraham George Silverman, Chief Economist, French Purchasing Mission. 
Soloman Adler, Official Treasury Representative to China. 
Bela Gold, Division of Monetary Research. 
Irving Kaplan, Division of Monetary Research. 
Victor Perlo, Division of Monetary Research. 
William Ludwig Ullman, Division of Monetary Research. 
Edward Fitzgerald 
Stanley Graze 
William Taylor 

DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 
John Abt, Special Assistant to the Attorney General. 
Alger Hiss, Special Assistant to the Attorney General. 
Irving Kaplan, Special Assistant to the Attorney General. 
Norman Bursler 
Donald Hiss 
Judith Coplon 

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
John Abt Charles Kramer 

Julia Older Blazer Victor Perlo 

Henry Collins, Jr. Margaret Bennet Porter 

Harold Glasser Lee Pressman 

Bela Gold Julian Wadleigh 

Alger Hiss Nathan Witt 

RESETTLEMENT ADMINISTRATION 

William Ludwig Ullman Nathan Gregory Silvermaster 

Lee Pressman 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



173 



WORKS PROGRESS ADMINISTRATION 

John Abt Lee Pressman 
Harold Glasser 

NATIONAL RESEARCH PROJECT 

Irving Kaplan, Associate Director Harry Magdoff 

Edward J. Fitzgerald Harry Ober 

Charles Flato Herbert Schiemmel 

Jacob Grauman Alfred Van Tassel 



NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD 



Nathan Witt, Secretary 
Edwin Smith 



Henry Collins, Jr. 
Edward Fitzgerald 



Edward Fitzgerald 
Harry Magdoff 



Joel Gordon 



Charles Kramer 
Henry Collins, Jr. 



Charles Kramer 
Allan Rosenberg 

DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 

Donald Hiss 

FEDERAL WORKS AGENCY 

Irving Kaplan 

FEDERAL SECURITY AGENCY 

Edward Fitzgerald 

FEDERAL ECONOMIC ADMINISTRATION 

Edward Fitzgerald 

EMERGENCY DEFENSE AGENCY 

Victor Perlo 

DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

Victor Perlo 
William Remington 

SECURITIES EXCHANGE COMMISSION 

John Abt 

SOCIAL SECURITY BOARD 

Irving Kaplan 

TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY 

William Remington 

NATIONAL YOUTH ADMINISTRATION 

Leon Elveson 

NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 

Victor Perlo 

HOME OWNERS LOAN CORPORATION 

Victor Perlo 



BOARD OF ECONOMIC ADMINISTRATION AND 
FOREIGN ECONOMIC ADMINISTRATION 

Frank Coe, Assistant to the Executive Director of the Board of Economic 

Administration. 
Laughlin Currie, Deputy Administrator of the Foreign Economic Administration. 

(Later an administrative assistant to the President of the United States.) 
Bela Gold Philip Keeney 

Michael Greenberg Nathan Gregory Silvermaster 

Irving Kaplan Allan Rosenberg 

Mary J. Keeney Julian AVadleigh 

FEDERAL EMERGENCY RELIEF ADMINISTRATION 

David Weintraub, Assistant to Harry Hopkins, the Director. 



174 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



Benjamin Wermiel 



CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION 

Irving Schiller 

NATIONAL ARCHIVES 

Irving Schiller 

OFFICE OF EDUCATION 

Alice Prentiss Barrows 

CO-ORDINATOR OF INTER-AMERICAN AFFAIRS 

Robert T. Miller, Head of Political Research. 

Joseph Gregg William Park 

Irving Goldman Bernard Redmont 

CO-ORDINATOR OF INFORMATION 

Julia Older Blazer 

UNITED STATES RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD 

George Silverman 

WHITE HOUSE 

Laughlin Currie, Administrative Assistant to President Roosevelt. 



Joseph Barnes 
Julia Blazer 



OFFICE OF WAR INFORMATION 

Adam Tarn 



OFFICES OF STRATEGIC SERVICES 



Lt. Col. Duncan Chaplin Lee, Legal Ad- 
visor to the Commander of the O.S.S., 
Major Gen. William J. Donovan. 
Maurice Halperin, Head of the Latin- 
American Division. Jack Sargeant 
Harris, Head of Military Intelligence 
for South America. 

Carl Aldo Marzani, Deputy Chief of the 
Presentation Division. Leonard Mins, 
assigned to the collection and analysis 
of information on Soviet Russia. 

George Vuchinich, (also spelled Vuci- 
nich) formerly with the Abraham 
Lincoln Brigade and who worked 
with Tito during World War II. 



John K. Fairbank, China Division. 
Helen Tenney, Spanish Division. 
J. Julius Joseph, Japanese Division. 
Milton Wolff, former Commanding Of- 
ficer of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. 
Leo Drozdoff 
Irving Fajans 
Irving Goldman 
Paul Martineau 
Philip Keeney 
Donald Niven Wheeler 
David Zablodowsky 



Helen Kagen 
Charles Kramer 
Victor Perlo 

Jacob Grauman 
Irving Kaplan 

Edward Fitzgerald 
Harold Glasser 
Stanley Graze 
Jacob Grauman 
Irving Kaplan 



OFFICE OF PRICE ADMINISTRATION 

William Remington 
Doxie Wilkerson 

OFFICE OF WAR MOBILIZATION 

Harry Magdoff 

WAR PRODUCTION BOARD 

Harry Magdoff 
Victor Perlo 
William Remington 
Alfred Van Tassel 
David Weintraub 

OFFICE OF SURPLUS PROPERTY 

Nathan Gregory Silvermaster 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 175 

CONGRESSIONAL INVESTIGATIVE COMMITTEES 
Senate Committee to Investigate Munitions Industry 

Alger Hiss Charles Kramer 

John Abt Allan Rosenberg 

Charles Flato 

Subcommittee on Civil Liberties of the Senate 
Committee on Education and Labor 

Harry Collins, Jr. Sonya Gold 

Charles Flato Herbert Schimmel 

Select Committee on Interstate Migration of Destitute Citizens 

Frederick Palmer Weber Harry Magdoff 

Henry Collins, Jr. Alfred Van Tassel 

Special Committee to Study Problems of American Small Business 

Henry Collins, Jr. Charles Kramer 

Subcommittee on Technological Mobilization of the 
Senate Military Affairs Committee 

Frederick Palmer Weber Charles Kramer 

Senate Subcommittee on Wartime Health and Education of the 
Senate Committee on Education and Labor 

Frederick Palmer Weber 

UNITED STATES NAVY 
Naval Bureau of Ordnance 

Max Eltcher and Morton Sobell, together with eight to ten other members, dis- 
closed during the Rosenberg Atomic Bomb espionage case. 

Record Management Section of the Navy 

Irving Schiller 

Office of Naval Intelligence 

Emmanuel Larsen Andrew Roth 

UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS 

Brig. Gen. Evans F. Carlson 

UNITED STATES ARMY 
(SCAP) Military Government in Japan 

Philip Keeney T. A. Bisson 

Andrew Grajdanzev 

OMGUS (Military Government in Postwar Germany) 

Major Henry Collins, Jr. 

Air Corps 

George Silverman, Economic Advisor William Ludwig Ullman, Materiel & 
and Chief of Analysis and Plans, Ma- Service Section, Pentagon Washing- 

teriel and Service, Pentagon, Wash- ton, D. C. 

ington, D. C. 

Signal Corps 

Sidney Glassman, Signal Corps In- Julius Rosenberg, Signal Corps In- 
spector spector 

Aberdeen Proving Grounds 

Herman Landeau Vincent Reno 

MILITARY INTELLIGENCE 
Psychological Warfare Division 

Peter Rhodes 



176 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Troop Information and Education 

Sgt. Luke Wilson Karl Fenichel, who also testified that 

Lt. Col. Julius Sehreiber, Psychiatrist. he dropped out of the Party when he 

Lt. S. M. Fischer, former reporter on joined the Army.* 

the San Francisco Chronicle who ad- Simon W Gerson, Legislative Director 

mitted he was a Communist Party of the Communist Party of New 

member while a student at Columbia York. 

University in 1940, and thereafter Sgt. William Gandall, former member 

until he entered the Army in 1941, of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, 

when he testified he dropped out of trained by Soviet Military Officials, 
active Communist Party work. 

UNITED NATIONS 

The following employees of the United Nations have invoked the 
Fifth Amendment against self-incrimination when questioned under 
oath about their Communist affiliations and activities: 

Alfred Abel Jerome A. Oberwager 

Frank Carter Bancroft Jane M. Reed 

Julia Older Blazer Irving T. Schiller 

Frank Coe Herbert Schimmel 

Ruth E. Crawford Alexander H. Svenchansky 

Leo M. Drozdoff Alfred Van Tassel 

Dorothy Hope Tisdale Eldridge Eugene Wallach 

Leon Elveson Benjamine P. Wermiel 

Eda Glaser Herman Zap 

Sidney Glassman Marjorie Zap 

Joel Gordon Jacob Grauman 

Stanley Graze Sonia Gruen 

Jack Sargeant Harris Helen Kagen 

Harry Ober 



Note : When this list of United Nations employees was brought to the attention of 
former Secretary General of the United Nations, Trygve Lie, they were shortly 
discharged. 

We wish to emphasize that this list is partial and contains only some of the 
names of individuals who were engaged in pro-Communist activities, invoked 
the Fifth Amendment when asked about their subversive affiliations, were identi- 
fied as Communist Party members, or as collaborators with Soviet agents or 
American Communists. The list was compiled as part of a valuable work by 
Ronald W. Hunter, a recognized expert in the counter-subversive field who has 
had practical exeprience as a government agent, and whose work is entitled, 
Russian Conspiracy in the United States, a History of Domestic Communism. 
The work is thoroughly documented, and the listings are corroborated by official 
documents which are in the public realm. None of the material in Mr. Hunter's 
work is classified and the commercial reproduction of any of its contents is pro- 
tected by common law copyright. 

For those who wish to pursue the study of underground operations 
of the Communist Party in more detail, we refer them to our report 
on the International Federation of Architects, Engineers, Chemists and 
Technicians, Berkeley Chapter, that acted as a cover for scientific 
espionage in connection with atomic bomb research during the early 
forties, and to the testimony of the late Paul Crouch, who headed the 
special section of the Communist Party in Berkeley and Oakland, the 
membership of which was comprised of research scientists and nuclear 
physicists. We trust that this exposition will convince the reader that 

* Evidence produced before a wide variety of official investigative agencies has estab- 
lished that the uniform Communist Party practice was to automatically expel 
all persons when they joined the Armed Forces and to automatically reinstate 
them when they were discharged and returned to private life. The individuals 
mentioned under this section all testified that they followed this procedure, but 
refused to do anything but invoke the Fifth Amendment when questioned the 
period of their active Communist Party activity. They were, to all intents and 
purposes, assigned to underground activity during the period of their service in 
the Armed Forces. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 177 

there is much more to the Communist menace than a lot of imbalanced 
individuals who plod along the picket lines and dabble in Marxism. 
In June, 1947, J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation, summarized the distinction between Communist mem- 
bers of the open or above-ground organization and members of the 
underground and described fellow travelers and the amoral character 
of the party in general in an article which originally appeared in News- 
week on June 9, 1947, and was reproduced in Case and Comment, the 
lawyers' magazine, November-December, 1947, page 21. He said: 

"Our surest weapon is truth. The Communists cannot endure 
the searching gaze of public observation. Their most effective work 
is carried on under a cloak of secrecy. Lies and deceit are their 
principal tools. No trick is too low for them. They are masters of 
the type of evasion advocated by that great God of Communism, 
Lenin, who observed: 'Kevolutionaries who are unable to combine 
illegal forms of struggle with every form of legal struggle are very 
bad revolutionaries.' 

* * * The known, card-carrying * Communists are not our 
sole menace. The individual whose name does not appear on party 
rolls but who does the party's dirty work, who acts as an apologist 
for the party and who rises in its defense and spearheads its cam- 
paign in the numerous fronts, is a greater menace. These are the 
'Communist sympathizers,' 'fellow traveler,' and 'Communist 
stooges.' To prove their evil intent is at times difficult but they 
brand themselves by shifting and turning as the party line changes 
to meet new situations. Whether they be innocent, gullible, or 
willful, makes little difference, because they further the cause of 
communism and weaken our American democracy. 

The Communists are now carrying on a vigorous campaign to 
bring their total membership in the United States up to 100,000. 
This figure, however, does not reveal their actual strength. Con- 
servatively, there are an estimated 1,000,000 others who in one 
way or another aid the Communist Party. 

* * * We cannot hope successfully to meet the Communist 
menace unless there is a wide knowledge and understanding of 
its aims and designs. 

* * * If there were to be a slogan in the fight against Com- 
munism it should convey this thought : Uncover, expose and spot- 
light their activities. Once this is done, the American people will 
do the rest — quarantine them from effectively weakening our 
Country." t 



*The Communist Party ceased issuing membership books or cards in December, 1947. 

t Mr. Hoover amplified these matters and brought a description of Communism in 
the United States down to date in his recently published book, Masters of Deceit: 
The Story of Communism in America and How to Fight It, by J. Edgar Hoover. 
Henry Holt & Co.. New York, 1958. 



178 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

CURRENT COMMUNIST TECHNIQUES 

The present activities of the Communist Party in California, the 
current party line, the character of the physical organization of the 
party apparatus may all be attributed to the events that occurred in 
1956. The years 1939 and 1941 were also critical in the world Com- 
munist movement, because they produced not only profound changes 
in the international Communist Party line but a complete reversal of 
Communist thinking almost overnight. Prior to August, 1939, the Com- 
munists had been taught to hate Hitler and everything he represented. 
For years they had espoused the cause of racial minority groups the 
world over — hypocritically, but nevertheless vociferously. They had 
deplored Fascism, and Hitler not only provided much grist for the 
Communist propaganda machinery by his repression of the Jewish 
minority in that country, but his ruthless and brutal reign through 
the instrumentality of the Gestapo and his role as an arch Fascist 
and threat to world peace and security had been used in Communist 
propaganda publications ever since he was released from Lanclsberg 
prison. Then, in August, 1939, and without previous warning, Hitler 
and Stalin signed a non-aggression pact. The stunned Communist 
Parties throughout the world dutifully changed their propaganda line, 
but their confidence was undeniably shaken. From the time the non- 
aggression pact became effective until it was violated on June 22, 1941, 
the line was at least a toleration of the Hitler regime. Then, after June 
22, 1941, the international line was to hate Hitler again but with far 
greater venom than ever before because he had now attacked the father- 
land of the world Communist movement. In 1956, the Kremlin again 
paralyzed the thinking and the propaganda viewpoint of the Com- 
munist Parties of the world when Khrushchev made his "secret" 
speech in February, 1956, and ripped to shreds the reputation of the 
dead Stalin. 

"We have previously described Stalin and the role he played in the 
Communist revolution of 1917, his rise to power, and the method by 
which he managed to get himself deified throughout the country that 
he ruled with all of the tyrannical attributes of Peter the Great. 
Statues and pictures of Stalin appeared in all public places ; the history 
books were filled with outrageous distortions for the purpose of sub- 
limating him as the brains of the revolution, the leader of the Red 
Army, the originator of all diplomatic strategy, the architect of the 
world Communist movement, the omniscient leader — in short, super- 
human attributes were ascribed to this man who launched the most 
horrible blood purges from 1935 to 1939 that the world had ever seen, 
and whose obsessive vanity and lust for absolute power turned him 
into the warped and tyrannical figure that American anti- Communists 
had proclaimed him to be almost from the time he came to power by 
undermining all his real or fancied opponents and climbing over their 
dead bodies until he became the absolute master of the Russian Com- 
munist Party, the head of its secret police, and therefore the master of 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 179 

the Soviet Union and of world Communism. Thousands of deluded 
fellow travelers who persistently clung to the front organizations that 
nourished during the period of the first United Front, and, indeed, 
thereafter until a few years ago, angrily retorted that all of these 
attacks on the Soviet leader were capitalist propaganda, the product 
of misinformation and downright lies. So accustomed had the Com- 
munist propaganda machinery in this country become to extolling the 
virtues of Stalin and lambasting his critics that it became almost 
automatic for all Communists and their supporters to praise everything 
Stalin did, and to brand every critical remark against him as an 
outrageous falsehood. 

This, then, was the situation that had existed for a period of almost 
30 years when, with the Khrushchev speech of February, 1956, came 
another shattering blow that stunned the Communists of all countries, 
but particularly in the United States, France and Italy. Khrushchev 
proclaimed that Stalin had been a megalomaniac butcher, a figure 
who scorned the protection of civil liberties, gloried in unleashing 
naked terror, and that he was, in short, all of the unpleasant things 
the anti- Communist critics had said he was during all of these years. 

The effect of this speech was to brand as utterly unreliable all of 
the Communist propagandists and fellow travelers throughout the 
world, to highlight their complete hypocrisy, to completely clinch the 
assertion that in Communism the end justifies the means, and — this 
was perhaps most astonishing of all — it necessarily included a tacit 
admission that in his acts of butchery and insensate brutality, Stalin 
had been aided and abetted by the members of the Communist Polit- 
buro who now attacked him, including Khrushchev, the butcher of the 
Ukraine, Mikoyan, the apostle of terror, and every other Soviet leader 
who participated in these activities over so long a period. 

Khrushchev, at the same time, declared that the time had come to 
ease the tensions for which Stalin had been responsible. "Writers should 
be permitted to publish their real beliefs; criticism against the Soviet 
regime should be encouraged; in foreign countries the Communist 
Parties should be allowed to proceed toward their respective goals in 
conformity with the peculiar situations of their several environments, 
instead of slavishly following the dogmatism of an inflexible set of 
rules that had hampered the individual development of these parties 
instead of having encouraged it. Obviously, these relaxations of the 
old repressions were made because the new leaders in the Kremlin 
sensed that the death of Stalin had symbolized a firming up of the 
smoldering resentment of the Russian masses against regimentation, 
discipline, brutality, and terrorism that they had been compelled to 
endure since the Communists came to power. The old methods of the 
Soviet Secret Police would no longer work, rumblings of counter- 
revolution had been heard among the intelligentsia of the country 
and had seeped down into the working masses. Some of the Kremlin 
leaders were old Bolsheviks who had gone through the revolution of 



180 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

1917, and they remembered how the oppressive measures of the Tsar 
had been endured for many years, until finally a spark of revolution 
was started, quickly gathered strength and electrified the entire 
country until almost as one man the people rose and toppled over the 
decaying regime. 

Counter-revolution has always been the one thing that the Kremlin 
leaders fear above all others, hence the maintenance of the Soviet 
Secret Police as an instrument of terror to be used by the Communist 
minority to subjugate the masses of the people, hence the one-party 
control of the means of communication and transportation, to say 
nothing of the instrumentalities of education, the labor unions, and 
all of the other vital institutions in the country. And this, as we have 
said, was the reason for the effort to relax the Stalinist repression and 
give the people some new freedoms in order to avert a counter-revolu- 
tion. 

Then came the books by Dudintsev and Djilas. Then came the sharp- 
ening of the breach between Tito and Khrushchev. Then came the re- 
volts in Poland and Hungary, where the smoldering embers of resist- 
ance burst into flame and the same Mikoyan who recently came to 
spread light and sweetness in consonance with the appeasement line of 
the Soviet Union toward the United States, was sent into Hungary, 
backed up by the armored might of Russia, and ruthlessly mowed down 
the citizens of that country as though his dead master, Stalin, were per- 
sonally directing the affair. Mikoyan had learned his lesson well, be- 
cause he assured the Hungarian leader of safety, persuaded him to come 
to start peaceful negotiations, and when the Hungarian arrived he was 
immediately liquidated. 

China was not immune from the stirring of the masses of oppressed 
people in resentment against the iron regime which ground them into 
obedience, and mowed them down in a bath of blood. They were en- 
couraged to criticize the Chinese Communist regime, the move by Mao 
Tse-tung being alluded to as the "policy of the hundred flowers," but 
when some of these flowers presumed to stick their heads above the 
others and take advantage of the invitation to express their disagree- 
ment with some of the policies of the Red Chinese regime, they were 
summarily extinguished. 

All of these matters plaj^ed their part in driving wedges of doubt 
and dissidence deep into the hearts of many of the Communist Parties 
of the world. Italy, where the party enjoyed more members than any 
foreign party in the world — that is any party organization outside of 
the Soviet Union- — immediately experienced a pronounced decline in 
membership. To a lesser degree the same thing was true in France. In 
the United States the party was divided into cliques and splinters of 
party leaders in angry disagreement. John Gates, the former editor of 
the Daily Worker of New York, resigned in disgust and disillusionment 
when he was unable to persuade his comrades that the party organiza- 
tion in this country had outlived its usefulness and should be dis- 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 181 

banded. He resigned, but his resignation is too recent to enable him to 
completely break the Red cord that, while somewhat frazzled and tenu- 
ous, nevertheless still binds him to the Communist cause. It caused the 
resignation of Howard Fast, the darling of the American Communist 
cultural set, whose books contained effective party propaganda and who 
was hailed and praised uniformly in Communist circles until the time 
of his defection, when the same voices that sang his praises the day 
before now arose in a strident and angry chorus of criticism and abuse. 

Why do we place so much emphasis on these events? We do so be- 
cause it is necessary to understand them in order to appreciate what 
has happened in our own state as a result of these things that occurred 
in countries thousands of miles away. It serves to emphasize the fact 
that Communism is inevitably and innately an international movement, 
and that nothing can happen of any consequence in any Communist 
country, especially the Soviet Union, without producing an immediate 
reaction in the United States on the part of every fragment of the 
party organization. We heretofore stated that in the Communist book- 
store in Los Angeles we were recently able to purchase the books by 
Dudintsev and Djilas and Boris Pasternak. These are actually anti- 
Communist works, and the fact they are now being sold in the Com- 
munist book store in the City of Los Angeles is indeed a startling 
development. It points up the fact that in the International Book 
Store in San Francisco none of these books are to be found, the Com- 
munists in the north being more dogmatic and loyal to such national 
leaders as Foster and Dennis, while the Communists in the southern 
part of the State have become increasingly independent of that 
leadership. 

The answer to this situation is to be found in the fact that the leader 
of the Southern California division of the Communist Party is Dorothy 
Healey. She first appeared before our committee when she was a field 
examiner in the State Department of Labor in December, 1941. Several 
times married to Communist functionaries, and now the wife of Philip 
M. Connelly, Dorothy Healey in 1941 was a pert, vivacious, attractive, 
but completely indoctrinated Communist. She came into state employ 
during the penetration of our government by Communists who flocked 
into their positions during the late thirties, and particularly as a result 
of the election of 1938. Dorothy Healey was typical of scores of under- 
cover party members who managed to entrench themselves deep in the 
heart of our State Government. 

Participating in strikes, lending her considerable organizational 
talents to the creation and operation of front organizations, directing 
the preparation and distribution of ' propaganda, Dorothy Healey 
rapidly rose in the ranks of the Communist Party until finally she 
emerged as a member of its National Committee and the head of the 
organization for all of Southern California. But Dorothy Healey was 
also caught up in the developments of 1956. We should say at 
this juncture that many of the party members who either defected 



182 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

in 1956 or shortly thereafter, or who veered sharply to the right and 
attacked their superiors who still clung to the old dogmatic Communist 
ideas, had gradually been going through a process of disillusionment 
for a great many years. In many cases this occurred unconsciously, 
but people with any semblance of judgment can hardly justify a long 
period of complete contradictions in the Communist Party line, and 
find their ideals and beliefs blasted overnight without realizing that 
no one single thing has actually caused them to leave the movement. 
So when the events of 1956 occurred, for many individuals it was 
simply the final nudge necessary to complete disillusionment and a 
break with the party. Some individuals, of course, left the movement 
completely. Some remained true to Marxism, but left the party organi- 
zation for one reason or another. Others remained in the party and 
fought to put over their own relatively conservative ideas against the 
stubborn party leadership represented by William Z. Foster. Dorothy 
Healey belonged to the latter group. Her battle with Foster was vicious 
and heated. It boiled over into the pages of Political Affairs and threw 
the southern California party organization into a turmoil. This is 
the reason for the presence of the anti-Communist books in the Progres- 
sive Book Store on West Seventh Street, and it also underscores the 
contrast between this propaganda outlet and the store in San Francisco 
where no such literature is to be found. In both stores Communist 
books and other materials are on sale, but in Los Angeles the party 
member can buy literature on both sides of the question. At 1408 
Market Street in San Francisco, no such choice is available. 

We have it on very good authority, which we are unable to disclose 
for public scrutiny, that Dorothy Healey is in very bad graces with 
the Communist high command, and that she will either be brought 
back into the path of strict obedience and rectitude or compelled to 
leave the party. In the meantime, efforts have been made to restore 
discipline among the rank and file membership in Los Angeles, and 
this effort has met with considerable success. 

We sincerely hope that by describing the troubles that are besetting 
the Communists in the United States, and especially in the southern 
district of California, that we do not convey the impression that the 
party has suddenly become weak and impotent. On the contrary, the 
dedicated nucleus of party members who remain active, together with 
the greatly expanded underground organization, comprises those indi- 
viduals who have weathered all the storms of contortion in the party 
line, are more firmly dedicated to their cause than ever before, and 
who are now operating an organization that has rid itself of the 
weaklings and the expendables. The party has activated its sleeper 
apparatus, and the greatest weapon it now possesses is the unfortunate 
apathetic attitude of many American citizens who have deluded them- 
selves into thinking that the trouble from internal subversion is ended. 

Members of this committee, together with such eminent authorities 
as J. Edgar Hoover, the Attorney General of the United States, the 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 183 

head of the Department of Justice's Division of Internal Security, 
the members and staffs of the congressional committees and those of 
the various state committees, undercover agents of the F. B. I., experts 
who have published books on the subject such as the Overstreets, 
Eugene Lyons, Elizabeth Bentley, Louis Budenz, Whittaker Chambers, 
Hede Massing, Benjamin Gitlow, Howard Fast, Boris Morros, Robert 
Morris — and too many others to list here, are unanimous in their 
estimate that the Communist Party in this country is now a more 
challenging menace than ever before. We must always remember that 
the American party is simply an organization of Soviet agents operat- 
ing in this nation to accelerate our destruction. So successful has been 
the technique of internal subversion, not only here but throughout 
the free world, that subversion by force has largely been discontinued 
by the international Communist movement. 

" * # * dependence of the Communists on direct armed ag- 
gression has in recent years been lessened. The emphasis today 
is on indirect aggression. That type of aggression places a much 
heavier reliance than heretofore on subversion and espionage and 
on all forms of political education and political propaganda. 

The principal instrument of the Soviet Communist for carry- 
ing on these tactics of subversion and political agitation abroad 
is, of course, the apparatus of the international Communist con- 
spiracy. ' ' 66 

And as Mr. Hoover stated in his book, Masters of Deceit, the retire- 
ment of the Communist Party to previously prepared underground 
positions and the liquidation of most of its front organizations, to- 
gether with its cleverly contrived propaganda, has tended to convince 
a great many American citizens that the party has all of a sudden 
become too weak to constitute any serious threats. 

Any person who doubts the design of the international Communist 
movement to subvert and conquer us, has only to take the time to read 
the authoritative Communist literature on the subject. It is not neces- 
sary to use any sources except those of the highest Communist author- 
ities, since their avowed and steadfast purpose has been expressed many 
times in terms much more clear and emphatic than anything contained 
in the writings of the late Adolf Hitler. As Nikita Krushchev recently 
declared: "But of course we must realize that we cannot coexist eter- 
nally. One of us must go to his grave. We do not want to go the grave. 
They don't want to go to their graves, either. So what must be done? 
We must push them to their graves. ' ' (i7 

Dmitri Z. Manuilsky was a prominent functionary assigned by the 
Communist Party of the Soviet Union to play a leading role in the 
organization of the Comintern's far-flung international organization. 
His statement about the inevitability of war between the Communist 
and free worlds has been cited many times, and we have referred to it 

88 Department of State bulletin, Dec. 1, 1958, pp. 880-881. 

87 Speech by Nikita S. Khrushchev, reported in American Mercury, Feb., 1959, p. 95. 



184 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

in preceding reports. But the Manuilsky statement, because of his high 
position in the Soviet hierarchy, and because of the tendency toward 
apathy on the part of the American people today, is now more pertinent 
than ever. Mr. Manuilsky was a presiding officer in the United Nation's 
Security Council in 1949. In 1931, he made a speech at the Lenin School 
of Political Warfare, during which he said : 

"War to the hilt between communism and capitalism is inevi- 
table. Today, of course, we are not strong enough to attack. Our 
time will come in 20 to 30 years. To win we shall need the element 
of surprise. The bourgeoisie will have to be put to sleep. So we 
shall begin launching the most spectacular peace movement on 
record. There will be electrifying overtures and unheard of eon- 
cessions. The capitalist countries, stupid and decadent, will rejoice 
to co-operate in their own destruction. They will leap at another 
chance to be friends. As soon as their guard is down, we shall 
smash them with our clenched fist. ' ' 

Petition for Communist School 

We have also mentioned the California Labor School in San Fran- 
cisco as a Communist school which we exposed in the late forties. It 
had been known as the Workers School, the Tom Mooney Labor School, 
and the California Labor School. A hearing on behalf of the Subversive 
Activities Control Board was held in San Francisco for the purpose of 
deciding whether or not the institution was in fact controlled by the 
Communist Party. The decision that it was so controlled was arrived 
at after the taking of considerable testimony, and this conclusion was 
sent to the Board in Washington. Immediately the party apparatus 
began to solicit petitions, letters, telegrams, and all sorts of pressure 
tactics by its fellow-travelers, party members and sympathizers, to- 
gether with a smattering of gullible liberals, and in the process filed a 
petition with the Subversive Activities Control Board asking, in effect, 
that this Red School be permitted to continue its operations. Signers 
of this petition included : Dr. Frank Weymouth, Professor Emeritus of 
Philosophy [sic] at Stanford University; Dr. Percy M. Dawson, Los 
Altos ; Harriet E. Eddy, Librarian Emeritus at the University of Cali- 
fornia; Rev. Stephen H. Fritchman, Pastor of the First Unitarian 
Church, Los Angeles; Mrs. Helen Freeland Gibb, Berkeley; Richard 
Lynden, San Francisco; Bishop Edward Lamb Parsons, San Francisco; 
Prof. Ira B. Cross, Berkeley ; Rockwell Kent, New York ; Rev. Harry F. 
Ward, New Jersey; Dr. Jacob Auslander, New York; Prof. Robert 
Morss Lovett, Chicago; Attorney Daniel G. Marshall, Los Angeles; 
Prof. Albert Guerard, Stanford University; Dr. C. L. Collins, Vallejo; 
Dr. Wilbur F. Swett, San Francisco ; Dr. Joseph Kaufman, San Fran- 
cisco ; Mildred Rosenthal, San Francisco ; Dr. Mary A. Sarvis, Oakland ; 
Rev. Dryden L. Phelps; Clarence M. and Harriet Vickland, Oakland; 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 185 

Dr. Ann Maryin, Berkeley ; Rev. Clarence B. Aggriott, Berkeley ; Dr. 
Ephraim Kahn, Berkeley; Prof. Bayard Quincy Morgan, Palo Alto; 
Prof. C. Alvarez-Tostado, Palo Alto; Gertrude Luehning, Palo Alto; 
Prof. George H. Colliver, Stockton; D. Harding, Brisbane; Prof. Curtis 
MacDougall, Evanston, 111. ; Prof. Karl De Schwienitz, Sr., Evanston, 
111. ; Prof. Ambert W. Herre, Seattle ; Henry Wilcox, South Norwalk, 
Connecticut ; Pauline Taylor, Youngstown, Ohio ; Dr. W. E. B. DuBois, 
Brooklyn, New York; Kumar Goshal, Brooklyn, New York; Herbert 
Aptheker, Brooklyn, New York; William L. Patterson, Brooklyn, New 
York; Earl Robinson, Brooklyn, New York; Rev. William H. Melish, 
Brooklyn, New York; Elizabeth Moos, New York City; Robert W. 
Dunn, New York City ; Prof. Henry Pratt Fairchild, New York City ; 
Dorothy Brewster, New York City; Hugh Hardyman, La Crescenta, 
California; Clinton D. Hollister, Santa Barbara; Morton Dimonstein, 
artist; Ben Margolis, Attorney, Los Angeles; John T. McTerman, At- 
torney, Los Angeles; Leo Branton, Jr., Attorney, Los Angeles; Mrs. 
Charlotta Bass, Los Angeles; Dr. Joseph Hittelman, Los Angeles; 
Rev. D. V. Kyle, Los Angeles; A. Soundel Becker, Los Angeles; Dr. 
Sidney S. Cole, Los Angeles; Stanley Moffett, former Judge, South 
Gate; Rev. Emerson G. Horgan, Long Beach, and Charles S. Litwin, 
Long Beach. 

We can anticipate no legitimate protest to the publication of these 
names, since they were appended to a petition which was filed as a 
public document with the Subversive Activities Control Board in Wash- 
ington, and certainly the signers of the petition would hardly have 
appended their signatures to the document unless they had known 
something about the character of the California Labor School. It would 
have been a very simple matter to review the testimony of the hearing 
in San Francisco, together with a number of hearings and reports by 
this committee, as well as other official agencies. Needless to say, all of 
the agencies, together with the Subversive Activities Control Board ex- 
aminers in San Francisco, agreed that the organization was completely 
under Communist control. A cursory review of its genealogy would 
suffice to establish that purpose. An examination of the cumulative 
index covering this and previous reports will indicate that most of the 
signers of this petition have been referred to on many occasions in our 
reports. 

Although the California Communists are still suffering from the 
effects of internal warfare between the Stalinists and the extreme right 
and left wings, the dissident groups have now been largely eliminated, 
and the difficulties have largely been resolved. We see evidences of this 
in the resumption of the old militant attitude, the tapering off of the 
feud between Dorothy Healey Connelly and William Z. Foster and 
their respective followers, in the renewed interest in the domestic 
political situation, and an acceleration in recruiting and infiltration 
of the two major targets: trade unions and educational institutions. 



186 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

As J. Edgar Hoover remarked at a national convention of the American 

Legion : 

a* * # rphg -p -g j investigations have shown that there is a 
hard core of conspiratorial Reds unaffected by Party differences 
and controlled by the heavy hand of Moscow. As long as this 
undercover 'apparatus' exists, the Communist threat cannot be 
brushed aside as trivial or fanciful. It is a continuing, aggressive 
force constantly at work to suborn and subvert the American peo- 
ple. * * * The influence of the subversive conspiracy has been 
almost unbelievable — reaching deep into practically every walk 
of life. To gauge the effectiveness of this campaign, we need only 
to note the widespread and vociferous clamor raised whenever our 
government attempts to deal firmly in self-defense against the sub- 
versive threat. 

Certain organizations obviously dedicate their efforts to 
thwart the very concepts of security. They vehemently oppose 
methods to gain this security and it is obvious that their aim is 
to destroy it. They protest that they are fighting for freedom, but 
in reality they seek license. They hypocritically bar Communists 
from their membership, but they seem to hate all persons who 
abhor Communists and Communism. They claim to be anti-Com- 
munist but they launch attacks against Congressional legislation 
to curb Communism. They distort and misrepresent and ridicule 
the government 's security program. They lobby and exert pressure 
on the leaders of government both in the legislative and executive 
branches. ' ' 

There is little need now for the Communists to use one of their own 
front organizations, or to create a new one for the purpose of foment- 
ing a protest march against one of the government's atomic research 
establishments in order to highlight a desire to scrap our atomic de- 
fense program. Such a march was led a year ago against the establish- 
ment at Livermore. It originated in Palo Alto, gathered a group of 
pacifists, peace-at-any-price enthusiasts, party liners and fellow travel- 
ers, and this small but determined cavalcade took the road for Liver- 
more under the leadership of Dr. Linus Pauling, who spends some of 
his, time in scientific research at Cal Tech, but who apparently devotes 
most of his energies to attending Communist front meetings, following 
the party line in general, and urging the discontinuance of our atomic 
research for defensive purposes in particular. The Communist Party 
has little need to mobilize its membership to throw picket lines around 
premises that are being subjected to a Communist-supported strike be- 
cause there are enough unions — most of them expelled from their par- 
ent organization — that are Communist dominated to provide this sort 
of manpower. There is little need for the Communist Party to finance 
propaganda publications when a magazine like The Nation, or one 
published in California like Frontier, will attack the F. B. I., support 
the Communist fronts, editorialize sympathetically in behalf of wit- 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 187 

nesses that appear before legislative committees, and generally parrot 
the party line for nothing. 

Party techniques have changed several times since this committee 
was established in 1940. But, as we have pointed out many times, a 
party member who remains completely inactive is of little use to the 
movement, and the instant activity is started, then the anti-Communist 
techniques that have been changed to meet the situation also become 
effective. The accumulation of documentary information over a period 
of almost 20 years provides information of inestimable value; con- 
tinuous practical experience for that length of time is even more val- 
uable, and new sources of information are being constantly developed. 
With the defections that have been caused by the occurrences of 1956, 
many disillusioned former Communists have come forward to volunteer 
their information. But it must be remembered that the party foresaw 
this sort of development as early as 1931, when Vassiliev issued his 
famous lecture on security and underground organization. Since the 
party reorganized itself several years ago on an underground basis, 
no former member can describe the activities of any unit except that 
to which he belongs. This information would entail the identities and 
activities of a very few individuals, and since the front organizations — 
with the exception of those that we have already described as still 
active — have been cast aside, it is necessary to secure information from 
a great many individuals in order to obtain an accurate picture of the 
inside operations of the Communist apparatus from day to day. This 
task, however difficult and challenging, is by no means impossible. And 
if continued vigilance results in the elimination of a few subversive 
individuals a year from positions where they could do injury to our 
youth, utilize critical information for the benefit of the party, twist 
the thinking and activities of divisions of our State Government to the 
Communist Party line — then the effort is very much worthwhile. In- 
deed, there is no other medium through which responsible public 
officials can be kept reliably informed concerning these vital matters. 

COMMUNISM AND THE LAW 

The Supreme Court 

No discussion of the fight against subversion can be complete without 
an understanding of the recent decisions of the United States Supreme 
Court — decisions that have provoked more comment than any since the 
same court declared the National Kecovery Act unconstitutional in 
1935. Dealing with problems of Communist activity, this series of deci- 
sions not only reflects a complete reversal of the high court's previous 
attitude, but they will seriously hamper the efforts to deal adequately 
with the constant challenge to our national security by subversive 
forces. 

It is highly pertinent that we discuss these decisions here and at 
some length, and we do so for the reason that they directly affect con- 



188 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

ditions in this state. One of the eases resulted in the reversal of a jury- 
conviction of California Communist leaders, and struck down the 
weapons that had been legally used by the F.B.I, to put them behind 
bars; another decision held that the California Legislature would 
thenceforth be powerless to pass sedition laws for the protection of the 
people within the borders of the state; a third opinion held that a 
committee of the California State Bar had no business to inquire of an 
applicant for the privilege of practicing law in this state whether or 
not he was then a member of the Communist Party. The other decisions, 
more than a dozen, all deal with problems of internal security and are 
of as much if not more practical application in California as elsewhere 
in the United States. We wish to make it very plain that we do not 
criticize the Supreme Court as an institution; we do not suggest, even 
by implication, that its powers and prerogatives be changed. We do dis- 
agree with the decisions in the field of internal security, and we know 
of no rule or decision, as yet, which would deprive us of exercising that 
right. It has been suggested that Congress pass legislation to whittle 
down the high Court's jurisdiction. We wish to make it clear, again, 
that we imply nothing of the sort in this portion of our report. We do 
wish to present the facts fully, and for that purpose we will refer to 
resolutions passed by the American Farm Bureau Federation, the Con- 
ference of State Chief Justices from the several states, and the Ameri- 
can Bar Association. We also have included statements by Dean Erwin 
Griswold of Harvard Law School, and Louis C. Wymans, former Presi- 
dent of the National Association of State Attorneys General. 

The Communist Party of the United States was started at a Chicago 
convention in 1919. It thereafter affiliated with the Communist Inter- 
national and swore to be obedient to the mandates of the Kremlin. It 
has since carried on a continual program of infiltration of our schools, 
churches, cultural organizations, scientific projects and communications 
media — and it has placed its agents deep in the heart of our govern- 
ment. As federal and state legislative committees dug into Communist 
activity and disclosed the techniques whereby liberal dupes were at- 
tracted to front organizations, the people began to realize the nature of 
the very imminent threat to our continued security. The Gouzenko, 
Hiss, Remington, White, Ware, Wadleigh, Field, Silvermaster, Kramer, 
Glasser, Oppenheimer, Fuchs, Rosenberg, Gold, Sobel and MacLean 
cases, to name a very few, quickly dispel any doubt about the extent of 
the infiltration. The arrest of Col. Rudolf Abel of the Soviet Secret 
Police a few months ago should dispel any doubt about the present 
danger. 

As we have said, as these disclosures increased, so did the activities 
of the F.B.I, and the legislative committees. Under the Smith Act ! 
Communist leaders were convicted and imprisoned. Deprived of its 
leadership, harried by the testimony of defectors and undercover opera- 
tives, exposed by legislative committees, the Communist Party was, by 
the middle of 1951, getting desperate. In August, 1951, the organ of the 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 189 

National Committee of the Communist Party of the United States 
declared : 

" It is evident that there is growing alarm voiced among progres- 
sives and in the labor movement, at the increasing onslaught 
against the Bill of Rights. The struggle against the Smith Act is 
today the link to the broadest anti-Fascist unity, around the dis- 
senting opinions of Justices Black and Douglas. [Reference is to a 
decision of the U. S. Supreme Court upholding the constitution- 
ality of the Smith Act, in which Justices Black and Douglas wrote 
a dissenting opinion.] The demand for a hearing by the Supreme 
Court on the appeal of the eleven Communist leaders and the de- 
fense of all others to be tried under the Smith Act are bound 
together as one struggle, and must be the basis for an immediate 
broad mass campaign to restore the Bill of Rights. (Committee's 
italics.) 

The American peoples' love of democracy and their will to 
peace cannot be destroyed by McCarran Acts and Smith Acts. 
The forces of democracy and peace in our country are possessed 
of strength — a strength of which they must be made fully con- 
scious. The full alerting to the conscious action of these forces in 
the United States demands the vanguard role of the Communist 
Party. In that role the Communist Party will continue to func- 
tion — and no Hitler -like legislation and police state hounding can 
halt it." (Committee's italics.) 

In the September issue of the same publication this appeared : 

"A rehearing must be demanded by a mobilization of everyone 
who has ever spoken out on the Smith Act. This demand must be 
heard decisively in Washington. (Committee's italics.) It is the 
duty and responsibility of all progressive anti-Fascist, democratic 
forces to join in this crusade to save the Bill of Rights. Regardless 
of differences, it is the duty of the labor movement to unite against 
this forerunner of the Taft-Hartley Law, which is an abominable 
threat to the life of the labor movement today. We Communists, 
who are post-June 6th victims of the Smith Act, are resolute in our 
determination to expose the real conspirators against the historic 
freedom of the American people — those who constitute an actual 
clear and present danger to the freedom of our people, those who 
would substitute a Smith Act for the Bill of Rights." 68 

There were other articles, most of them equally critical and defiant. 69 

The declaration of war by the Communist Party against the Supreme 

Court of the United States in an effort to bring about a change in the 

judicial precedent that body had established, and to gain a breathing 

spell for the subversives, appeared in Political Affairs in March, 1952, 

88 "The Smith Act Strikes Again," by Elizabeth Gurley Flynn. Political Affairs, Aug., 

1951, pp. 18 and 22. 
" "What the Supreme Court Unleashed," by Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Political Affairs, 

Sept., 1951, p. 28. 



190 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

when a party official angrily denounced the court in an article com- 
mencing on page 15, which was entitled, ' ' The Supreme Court Will Not 
Have the Last "Word ! ' ' Here are some excerpts : 

"The Supreme Court majority of Truman appointees has de- 
clared war against the peace aspirations of the American people. 
With flagrant arrogance it has provided the 'legal' framework for 
further Fascist onslaughts on the most elementary democratic 
rights of the people in a frenzied effort to intimidate into submis- 
sion all opposition to the warmakers of Wall Street. 

* * * Like the entire State apparatus of which it is a part, 
the Supreme Court is an instrument of the ruling class, and its 
decisions throughout the nation's history bear the imprint of that 
relationship, as well as the general alignment of class forces pre- 
vailing at each period * * * 

These decisions make it compellingly clear that the Bill of 
Rights is in the gravest danger in our history. They shout fromj 
the housetops that the Supreme Court, far from being a defender! 
of the Constitution, serves to acelerate monopoly's drive against] 
Fascism and war. 

But these decisions, drastic and sweeping as they are, cannot 
be held proof of the inevitability of Fascism in the United States.; 
They prove quite simply that Americans cannot rely on the Su- 
preme Court for the defense of the peoples' hard-gained rights' 
and liberties" 

"The actions of the Supreme Court and its onslaughts on civil 
liberties are directly associated with the bi-partisan war drive.' 
They are directly associated with a tax on labor and the Negro j 
people." 

* * * The Communist Party must redouble its efforts on two 
fronts — on the one hand, to overcome passive or defeatist moves 
that may have been instilled in the labor progressive movements' 
as a result of these new blows; on the other hand, to use these; 
lessons to prove to the broad masses that their interests are vitally: 
affected * * * the Party can, in the development of these move-] 
ments, help give shape and form to the organization of a power-i 
fid peoples' and anti-Fascist coalition. 

The Supreme Court will not have the last word. The people 
must and will take up the challenge." (Committee's italics.) 

Whether or not this Communist campaign, announced in such clear, 
and vehement terms, was successful, or whether it was pure coincidence 
that resulted in the stream of new decisions by the court that wereg 
eminently satisfactory to the party is an intriguing question. We know: 
that such a campaign as the party announced was in fact launched; 
we know that the party's propaganda nationwide machinery was set; 
in motion, and that the entire strength of the organization was alerted: 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 191 

o bring pressure and influence to bear in strategic places. The party 
vas fighting for its very life, and this ambitious undertaking was for 
he avowed purpose of bringing about a change in the type of Supreme 
3ourt decisions that had so hampered the operation of the Communist 
onspiracy. It needed softer laws and more freedom to continue the 
vork of subverting our government. 

During the last week of June, 1957, the Communist propaganda 
aachinery began to hail the Supreme Court as the saviour of the 
copies' liberties. The praises swelled to ever mounting proportions 
yhen decision after decision was rendered by the court — hamstringing 
igencies of the government, and giving the Communists more freedom 
rom prosecution and exposure than they dared hope for. Completely 
■eversing the position it had adopted for years, this is what the Su- 
n-erne Court did within the space of two years: (The following sum- 
naries of the decisions are taken from the report of the American Bar 
Association, Special Committee on Communist Tactics, Strategy and 
)bjectives, American Opinion, Dee. 1958, page 31 et seq.) 

1. Communist Party v. Subversive Activities Control Board. The 
court refused to uphold or pass on the constitutionality of the 
Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950, and delayed the effec- 
tiveness of this act. 

2. Pennsylvania v. Steve Nelson. The court held that it was unlawful 
for Pennsylvania to prosecute a Pennsylvania Communist Party 
leader under the sedition act of that state and indicated that the 
antisedition laws of 42 states and of Alaska and Hawaii cannot be 
enforced. 

3. Yates v. United States. The court reversed two federal courts and 
ruled that teaching and advocating forcible overthrow of our gov- 
ernment, even "with evil intent," was not punishable under the 
Smith Act as long as it was ' ' divorced from any effort to instigate 
action to that end," and ordered five Communist leaders freed and 
new trials for another nine. 

4. Cole v. Young. The court reversed two federal courts and held 
that, although the Summary Suspension Act of 1950 gave the 
federal government the right to dismiss employees "in the inter- 
est of the national security in the United States," it was not in 
the interest of the national security to dismiss an employee who 
contributed funds and services to an undisputed subversive organ- 
ization, unless that employee was in a "sensitive position." 

5. Service v. Dulles. The court reversed two federal courts which had 
refused to set aside the discharge of John Stewart Service by the 
State Department. The F. B. I. had a recording of a conversation 
between Service and the editor of the pro-Communist magazine 
Amerasia in the latter 's hotel room, during which Service spoke 
of military plans which were very secret. Earlier the F. B. I. had 



192 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

found large numbers of secret and confidential State Department 
documents in the Amerasia office. The lower courts had followed 
the McCarran Amendment which gave the Secretary of State ab- h 
solute discretion to discharge any employee in the interest of the 
security of the United States. 

6. Slochower v. Board of Education, New York. The court reversed 1 
the decisions of three New York courts and held that it was un-J 
constitutional to automatically discharge a teacher, in accordance 
with the law of New York, because he took the Fifth Amendment 
when asked about Communist activity. On his petition for rehear- 
ing, the court admitted that its opinion was in error in stating 
that Slochower was not aware that his claim of the Fifth Amend- 
ment was ipso facto result in his discharge; however, the court i 
denied rehearing. 

7. Sweezy v. New Hampshire. The court reversed the New Hamp- j 
shire Supreme Court and held that the Attorney General of New j 
Hampshire was without authority to question Prof. Sweezy, a<| 
lecturer at the state university, concerning a lecture and other j 
suspected subversive activities. Questions which the court said | 
that Sweezy properly refused to answer included : ' ' Did you ad- j 
vocate Marxism at that time ? ' ' And ' ' Do you believe in Com- 
munism ? ' ' 

8. United States v. Witkovich. The court decided that, under the Im- J 
migration and Nationality Act of 1952, which provides that any 
alien against whom there is a final order of deportation shall ' ' give { 
information under oath as to his nationality, circumstances, habits, j 
associations, and activities, and such other information, whether I 
or not related to the foregoing, as the Attorney General may deem j 
fit and proper, ' ' the Attorney General did not have the right to I 
ask Witkovich: "Since the order of deportation was entered in | 
your case on June 25, 1953, have you attended any meetings of j 
the Communist Party of the U. S. A.?" 

9. Schware v. Board of Examiners of New Mexico. The court re- 
versed the decision of the New Mexico Board of Bar Examiners r 
and of the New Mexico Supreme Court which had said : ' ' Wei > 
believe one who has knowingly given his loyalties to the Commu- 
nist Party for six or seven years during a period of responsible 
adulthood is a person of questionable character." The Supreme 
Court ruled that "membership in the Communist Party during 
the 1930 's cannot be said to raise substantial doubts about his 
present good moral character. ' ' 

10. Konigsoerg v. State Bar of California. The court reversed the 
decisions of the California Committee of Bar Examiners and of 
the California Supreme Court, and held that it was unconstitu- 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 193 

tional to deny a license to practice law to an applicant who refused 
to answer this question put by the Bar Committee : ' ' Mr. Konigs- 
berg, are you a Communist?" and a series of similar questions. 

11. Jencks v. United States. The court reversed two federal courts 
and held that Jencks, who was convicted of filing a false non- 
Communist affidavit, must be given the contents of all confiden- 
tial F. B. I. reports which were made by any government witness 
in the case even though Jencks "restricted his motions to a re- 
quest for production of the reports to the trial judge for the 
judge's inspection and determination whether and to what extent 
the report should be made available. ' ' 

12. WatMns v. United States. The court reversed the Federal District 
Court and six judges of the Court of Appeal of the District of 
Columbia, and held that the House un-American Activities Com- 
mittee could not require a witness who admitted "I freely co- 
operated with the Communist Party," to name his Communist 
associates, even though the witness did not invoke the Fifth 
Amendment. The court said, "We remain unenlightened as to the 
subject to which the questions asked petitioner were pertinent." 
The court did not question the "power of the Congress to inquire 
into and publicize corruption, maladministration or inefficiencies 
of agencies of the government." The court did question the right 
of Congress to inquire into and publicize Communism and sub- 
version, and suggested that this "involves a broadscale intrusion 
into the lives and affairs of private citizens. ' ' 

13. Ealey, Stern, & Brown v. Ohio. The court reversed the Ohio Su- 
preme Court and lower courts to set aside the conviction of three 
men who had refused to answer questions about Communist activ- 
ities put to them by the Ohio un-American Commission. 

14. Flaxer v. United States. The court reversed two federal courts and 
set aside the conviction of Flaxer of contempt for refusing to pro- 
duce records of alleged Communist activities subpoened by the Sen- 
ate Internal Security Subcommittee. 

15. Sacher v. United States. The court reversed two federal courts and 
set aside the conviction of Sacher of contempt for refusing to tell 
the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee whether he was "a 
member of the lawyers' section of the Communist Party." In the 
second Sacher appeal, the court again reversed the Court of Ap- 
peal and said that this question was not pertinent to the subcom- 
mittee's investigation of Communist witness Matusow's recanta- 
tion. The court refused to hear any argument from the govern- 
ment lawyers representing this Senate subcommittee. 



7— L-4361 



194 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

16. Yates v. United States. In the second Yates appeal the court re- 
versed two courts and held that the refusal of Communist Party 
member Yates "to answer eleven questions about Communist 
membership of other persons ' ' did not constitute eleven contempts. 
In the third Yates appeal, the court reversed two federal courts 
and held that Yates' contempt sentence of one year should be 
reduced to the fifteen days already served for this offense. 

17. Bonetti v. Rogers. The court reversed two federal courts and held 
that, although the Internal Security Act of 1950 provides that any 
alien, who "at any time" after entering the United States shall 
have been a member of the Communist Party, is deportable, 
Bonetti, who became a Communist after entering the United 
States, was not deportable because he had re-entered after quitting 
the party. The dissenting judges charged that this construction 
reads "at any time" out of the act and the word "last" into the 
Statute, and "cripples the effectiveness of the act." 

18. Consul General for Yugoslavia v. Andrew Artukovic. The court 
reversed two federal courts and held that Artukovic, an anti- 
Communist refugee from Yugoslavia who was living with his wife 
and children in California, could not claim political asylum in the 
United States but had to submit to an extradition hearing which 
would be based on Yugoslavia's political charges. 

19. Rockwell Kent v. Dulles. The court reversed two federal courts 
and held that the State Department could not require every appli- 
cant for a passport to file a non-Communist affidavit. 

20. Dayton v. Dulles. The court reversed two federal courts and held 
that the State Department had to give a passport to a research 
physicist whose passport application to accept a job in India had 
been denied for security reason. The Secretary of State had found 
that Dayton had lived for eight months with a person who "was 
involved in the espionage apparatus of Julius Kosenberg" and 
that Dayton was going to work in India with another Communist 
who "recently renounced his American citizenship." 

Needless to say, the articles in Political Affairs assumed an entirely 
different tone after these decisions had come rolling down from the 
nation's highest legal tribunal. 

One example of the enthusiasm with which the Communists have 
taken advantage of this abrupt and complete reversal of judicial 
precedent is to be seen in a recent editorial entitled, ' ' Reds Now Travel 
on Their Subversive Errands — by Supreme Court Decree!" The edi- 
torial points out that during the 21st convention of the Communist 
Party of the Soviet Union, held last February at Moscow, Khrushchev 
completed his insulting and threatening remarks about the United j 
States, and after a similar speech by Marshal Malinovsky, Minister of 
War, an American citizen addressed the assemblage. He was James E. i 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 195 

Jackson, a representative of the Communist Party of the United States. 
The editorial proceeds : 

"How did Jackson get there? He got there openly and legally. 
And so did other U. S. Communist leaders who went to Moscow at 
the same time. These characters were present because the Supreme 
Court ruled last June that the Secretary of State had no right to 
withhold passports from members of the Communist Party. 

Jackson had been convicted by a jury in a federal court as a 
conspirator against the United States. Last August the Court of 
Appeals reversed the conviction, on the grounds that the Supreme 
Court in a similar case had freed several convicted California red 
leaders. Thus Jackson was saved from prison. 

Meanwhile the Supreme Court had issued its decision that the 
Communists must not be denied passports. President Eisenhower 
quickly sent a special message to Congress, urging legislation au- 
thorizing the Secretary of State to withhold passports from the 
supporters of communism. The bill was passed in the House, but 
when it came to the Senate it got tied up in a jam of legislation 
just before adjournment. So the Communist Party was free to send 
Jackson to represent it at the convention of the Soviet Communist 
Party. 

Also present in Moscow was the best-known member of the C. P. 
U. S. A., Paul Robeson. He, too, had received a passport after the 
Supreme Court's decision. And who should show up in Moscow, 
almost immediately after Jackson, but Harry Bridges, President 
of the Communist-controlled International Longshoremens and 
AVarehousemens Union ? Years ago a split decision of the Supreme 
Court saved this Australian-born citizen from deportation. 

A few days earlier, Khrushchev received Dr. W. E. B. DuBois, 
91-year-old scholar, former professor and intellectual leader of the 
pro-Kremlin forces among Negroes in the United States. Both 
DuBois and his wife were identified long ago as members of the 
Communist Party. Although not a member now, he makes no secret 
of his devotion to the Communist regime. For years his efforts to 
get a passport failed. Then came the Supreme Court decision— and 
DuBois was free to go to Moscow. From Moscow, DuBois and his 
wife flew to Peking, defying the State Department regulation that 
United States passports are not valid for travel to Red China. 

Another United States citizen in Moscow was George Morris, 
labor editor of the Communist Party's misnamed paper, the 
Worker, and member of the CP's Labor Commission. After months 
of delay, the State Department had unwillingly given him a pass- 
port. 

Meanwhile, Dr. Alpheus Hunton, another identified Com- 
munist Party member, had gone to Africa. I hint on used to be the 
Director of the Council on African Affairs, which Attorney General 
Brownell called a Communist front. 



196 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

The State Department has been forced to grant passports to 
scores of important Communists and fellow travelers. The depart- 
ment even felt obliged to give passports to a precious pair, one of 
whom on a previous trip abroad made speeches charging the 
United States with germ warfare ! "Who can check on what harm 
such people do to the United States abroad ? Congress should adopt 
the bill that President Eisenhower urged last summer, unmistak- 
ably authorizing the State Department to deny passports to Com- 
munists and their 'willing instruments,' and to cancel every pass- 
port now in such hands. ' ' 70 

While the Communists were naturally delighted with these decisions, 
other segments of American life were not so pleased. The states were 
expressing resentment at what they deemed the big brotherly attitude 
of the court in substituting its own judgment for that of state agencies. 
The Department of Justice and the F. B. I. expressed resentment be- 
cause of the edict that threw open their secret files to the scrutiny of 
the sort of lawyer who would defy state bar committees that inquired 
about his subversive affiliations in determining his fitness to practice 
law. School administrators were resentful because they were stripped 
of their power to fire teachers who refused to answer questions about 
their Communist activity. Administrators of the federal loyalty pro- 
gram were resentful because they were shorn of their authority to fire 
disloyal employees, no matter what sort of a job they held. Experience 
had indicated clearly that a non-sensitive position in government today 
might well become highly sensitive overnight. 

Judging from the flood of editorials, magazine articles, resolutions, 
newspaper items and commentaries, the public as a whole is also resent- 
ful because the Communists were figuratively handed a license to pur- 
sue their subversive activities almost without restriction, while the 
agencies of the government — federal and state alike — charged with the 
duty of coping with the problem, were loaded with new shackles and 
new restrictions. On July 1, 1957, Life Magazine ran an editorial that 
put the sentiments tersely: 

" * * * The Smith Act, the Congressional investigations, the 
Hiss and Rosenberg cases, the loyalty procedures, the internal 
security laws, are not only facts of life but wound stripes on an 
older, tougher and wiser body politic. 

Instead of earning its own stripes by wrestling with the same 
problem, the court often displays the most lamentable virginity 
about Communism. ' ' 

"When, a few months ago, the House of Delegates of the American 
Bar Association adopted a resolution criticizing these decisions and 
recommending that Congress pass legislation to rectify matters, an im- 
mediate protest was heard from the Communists, their front organiza- 
tions, and assorted liberals. They called the American Bar Association 

™ Editorial. Saturday Evening Post, April 4, 1959, p. 10. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 197 

old fashioned, conservative to the point of reactionism, and shrugged 
off the fact that the House of Delegates represented thousands of the 
most able members of the legal profession in the United States. 

We have never seen any publication calling attention to the fact that 
the American Bar Association, although certainly the most persuasive 
organization that lifted a voice of protest against these decisions, is by 
no means the earliest or the only legal body that expressed such senti- 
ments. On June 24, 1957, the President of the National Association of 
State Attorneys General, represented by delegates at a Sun Valley, 
Idaho, meeting declared that : 

"The recent Supreme Court decisions have thrown the fight against 
Communism for a 25-year loss." He received a standing ovation from 
the assembled delegates. 71 

On August 20, 1958, the Tenth Annual Conference of State Chief 
Justices, representing 48 states, Hawaii and Puerto Rico, met at Pasa- 
dena. There they approved a report criticizing the decisions of the 
Supreme Court in a resolution that declared: 

" * * * In the fields with which we are concerned, and as to 
which we feel entitled to speak, the Supreme Court too often has 
tended to adopt the role of policymaker without proper judicial 
restraint. We feel this is partially the case in the extension of the 
federal power and in the supervision of state action by the Supreme 
Court by virtue of the Fourteenth Amendment. In the light of the 
immense power of the Supreme Court and its practical nonreview- 
ability in most instances, no more important obligation rests upon 
it, in our view, than that of careful moderation in the exercise of 
its policymaking role. 

It has long been an American boast that we have a government 
of laws and not of men. We believe that any study of recent de- 
cisions of the Supreme Court will raise at least considerable doubt 
as to the validity of that boast. ' ' 
Specifically mentioned in this report adopted at the meeting were 
three decisions concerning Communism : Nelson v. Pennsylvania, 
Sweezy v. New Hampshire, and Konigsoerg v. California. 72 

Dean Erwin N. Griswold, of Harvard Law School, whom even the 
members of the National Lawyers Guild could hardly term reactionary, 
has criticized the court for basing its own opinions on grounds that 
were far too broad, and offered the Watkins case of 1957, which has 
effectively hampered Congress in its attempts to elicit information about 
subversion, as an example of the court's unwarranted generalizing of a 
narrow issue. 73 

Not only lawyers and judges have raised their voices in protest 
against this reversal of judicial precedent, but laymen as well. In De- 
cember, the American Farm Bureau Federation held its fortieth annual 



n Los Angeles Times, June 25, 1957. 

72 Los Angeles Times, Aug. 21, 1958 ; Sept. 12, 195S. 

78 National Review, Nov. 8, 1958, p. 292. 



198 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

convention at Boston, Massachusetts, and passed a resolution which 

provided : 

"We are deeply concerned with respect with the tendency of the 
United States Supreme Court to enact legislation by judicial ac- 
tion." 

And the resolution recommended that : 

"* * * Congressional action be taken prescribing the proper 
limits of court jurisdiction and correcting or conforming legisla- 
tion in those fields where the Supreme Court has invaded the legis- 
lative field." 74 

No informed person could possibly entertain the idea that the Su- 
preme Court Justices are subversive, or that any of them are pro-Com- 
munist. Earl Warren was appointed Chief Justice to fill the vacancy 
created by the death of Fred Vinson in 1953. He assumed office imme- 
diately, which brought a quick protest from certain professors of con- 
stitutional law who pointed out quite accurately that his action was 
somewhat premature, because he had neglected to wait until he was 
confirmed by the Senate. Since the flood of controversial and liberal 
decisions was commenced about the time Warren assumed office, there 
has been much speculation in the press and magazines and on the part 
of commentators about whether he was the ultra-liberal whose per- 
suasiveness carried along the majority of the court. 

It happens that Earl Warren is probably the only Chief Justice of 
the United States Supreme Court who, prior to assuming that position, 
had been questioned by a committee on un-American Activities. We 
referred to the occasion earlier. He appeared as a co-operative witness 
before our committee in San Francisco when he was serving as the 
State Attorney General on December 3, 1941. The circumstances were 
these : The press had recently announced the release on parole of three 
convicts who had been convicted by Warren when he was district attor- 
ney in Oakland. They had been arrested and prosecuted for the murder 
of an anti-Communist crusader named Alberts, and the Communist 
press and the propaganda outlets were most solicitous in their behalf 
and most uncomplimentary to Warren. He declared that at least two 
of the men were Communists. Culbert Olson was Governor at the time, 
and Warren charged him with playing politics by favoring the granting 
of the parole. That action, said Warren, " * * * was nothing more nor 
less than appeasement to the Communists for what he had done in sign- 
ing the bill against them. ' ' Mr. Warren successfully opposed Olson in 
the next gubernatorial election. 

During his lengthy testimony before the committee, Warren ex- 
pressed his attitude toward Communism and state committees on un- 
American activities. He declared that such a committee could render 
service by exposing subversive activities — a fact that is stressed here 
only because he was to take the opposite view in one of the decisions 

74 Los Angeles Times, Dec. 12, 1958. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 199 

already referred to. His attitude toward legislative committees must 
have continued during his three terms as Governor, since he constantly 
called upon this committee for the purpose of ascertaining whether any 
of the persons he was considering for appointive positions had subver- 
sive records. 

His testimony against Communism was positive, clear, emphatic, and 
unhesitating. To intimate that Chief Justice Warren is in any way sub- 
versive is simply foolish. 

The Law Clerks 

It has been pointed out that there are 18 young clerks who assist the 
justices in preparing their opinions. 75 They are selected from leading 
law schools on the basis of their outstanding scholarship. Their average 
age is 27 years, and six of them have never passed the Bar examination. 
None of them are subjected to a loyalty screening. Alger Hiss once 
served as a law clerk to one of the Supreme Court Justices. These young 
men submit their opinions concerning the law, prepare memoranda that 
form the backbone of the ultimate decisions, discuss the theory of each 
decision with their respective justices, and thus are obviously in a posi- 
tion to exert a tremendous influence on the general tenor of the court 
and its opinions. 

Since the opinions of the Supreme Court are of such vital importance 
to the nation, it would seem that these influential young men should 
be required to have some experience in the practice of the law, and 
should be picked for stability and balance and loyalty and common 
sense — not simply because they made high grades studying legal theory 
in law school. Certainly they should be subjected to a loyalty screening 
like the other federal employees. The extremely sensitive nature of their 
jobs is amply demonstrated by the character of the decisions regarding 
our Nation 's internal security that we have already discussed. 

The article in U. 8. News & World Report closes with this statement : 

"It is openly acknowledged in Washington, however, that the 
Supreme Court Justices lean heavily on the shoulders of their 
young assistants. It is unlikely, say observers of the Federal Courts' 
system, that the justices could wade through the 1,500 to 2,000 
cases that confront them each term without benefit of the spade 
work done for them by their clerks. 

The question that is raised at this time, when the Supreme 
Court is deploying its power in fields formerly controlled by other 
branches of the government, is whether the influence of these young 
law clerks — some of them as yet not even admitted to the Bar — 
is reflected in court opinions." 

Whether or not these clerks have a record of documentable affiliation 
with subversive organizations, it is manifest that if, while attending 
college and law school, they were subjected to a subtle dissemination 

75 U. S. News d World Report, July 12, 1957, p. 135. 



200 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

of the party line, they could become infected to such an extent that 
they would act as ideological Typhus Marys — hut we do not accuse 
any of these clerks with subversion, any more than such charges 
should be leveled at members of the court. The Communists called 
the court and everything* attached to it a great many insulting things 
when the tide of decision was flowing against them, and characteris- 
tically reversed themselves at precisely the time the court began to 
reverse its opinions. It is our purpose in this portion of the report to 
simply point out the fact that a situation exists which should be 
brought to the attention of all persons interested in combatting subver- 
sion, and certainly to the members of the Legislature of this State where 
some of these decisions originated. We wish to emphasize the fact that 
the Communist Party of the United States did work to bring about 
exactly this sort of judicial change. 

It is also significant to note that at a Communist Party meeting held 
in Seattle last year, spokesmen for the party who came from New 
York to attend the affair declared that the party had, indeed, an- 
nounced its intention to spearhead a national crusade to bring 
about this change in the decisions that were causing it so much 
oppression, and that the party then and there claimed full credit for 
having been responsible for the recent stream of decisions that enabled 
it to go about its business with more freedom than ever before. This 
meeting was covered by at least three undercover informants, each of 
them made sworn and independent statements, and the committee not 
only has them in its files but also has a document giving us permission 
to refer to them in this fashion. 

The Commission on Government Security, in the report heretofore 
mentioned, considered the problem of screening these law clerks, and 
made the following recommendation: 

"The judicial branch of the government should take effective 
steps to insure that its employees are loyal and otherwise suitable 
from the standpoint of national security." 

And the commission proceeded to give the rationale for its recom- 
mendation, in part, as follows: 

"It is fundamental that there should be no reasonable doubt 
concerning the loyalty of any federal employee in any of the three 
branches of the government. In a judicial branch, the possibility 
of disloyal employees causing damage to the national security is 
ever-present. As an example, federal judges, busy with the ever- 
crowded court calendars, must rely upon assistance to prepare 
briefing papers for them. False or biased information inadvertently 
reflected in court opinions in crucial security, constitutional, gov- 
ernmental or social issues of national importance could cause severe 
effects to the nation's security and to our federal loyalty-security 
system generally. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 201 

There appears to be no valid reason why an employee of the 
judicial branch should not be screened, at least as to his basic 
loyalty to the United States. Certainly the judiciary proper and 
the public generally should have the assurance that the men and 
women who carry the administrative responsibilities of the courts 
or assist in the preparation of decisions are loyal, dependable 
Americans. 

The Commission therefore recommends, as in the case of the 
legislative branch, that the judicial branch and the executive 
branch endeavor to work out a program under which adequate 
investigation or screening can be provided for all judicial em- 
ployees." 76 

The American Bar Association special committee that rendered the 
report on which the Association's resolution was based, had this to 
say about the present Communist menace : 

"The phrase 'remember Pearl Harbor' should remind us that 
we, people and leaders, were cocksure and complacent before the 
afternoon of December 7, 1941. The F. B. I. had warned of fre- 
quent messages from the Japanese Consulate at Hawaii to Tokyo 
telling of the presence and absence of American warships at Pearl 
Harbor. Dies Committee reports of Japanese espionage by fishing 
vessels were ridiculed as headline hunting. Capt. Laurance Safford, 
who was recently awarded $100,000 by a grateful Congress for his 
World War II coding and decoding inventions, had decoded all 
the Japanese pre-Pearl Harbor war messages for his superiors. Yet, 
the attack came as a stunning surprise. 

Most persons who are informed on Communism think our 
country is now in greater danger than were the Titanic and Pearl 
Harbor. The thesis of J. Edgar Hoover's new book, Masters of De- 
ceit, is: 'Communism is the major menace of our time. Today, it 
threatens the very existence of our Western civilization.' 

In his speech to the 1957 national convention of the American 
Legion, Mr. Hoover warned : ' To dismiss lightly the existence of 
the subversive threat in the United States is to deliberately to 
commit national suicide. In some quarters we are surely doing 
just that.' 

On July 6, 1958, Prof. J. Sterling Livingston, a Pentagon 
consultant, stated : ' The doctrine of pre-emptive war is definitely a 
part of Soviet strategy. The Russian's plan as part of their strategy 
to strike a forestalling nuclear blow against their enemies.' 

The lawyer-author of the Gaither report to the President on 
national security recently told our Association : ' Our security is 
in unprecedented peril * * * The ultimate objective of interna- 
tional Communism is world domination, and the Soviet Union will 



78 Report of Commission on Government Security, pursuant to Public Law 304, Eighty- 
fourth Congress, as amended, June, 1957, pp. 106-107. 



202 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

pursue this objective ruthlessly and relentlessly, employing every 
possible political, economic, subversive, and military strategy and 
tactic'." 

The Bar Association's special committee considered Communists in 
the legal profession such a serious menace to the nation's security, 
and so inconsistent with the standards of the profession that it has im- 
plemented its convictions with positive action. The report declared : 

"In accordance with the resolution of the House of Delegates 
and authorization of the Board of Governors, our committee — on 
the request of the State Attorney for its co-operation — applied 
for and obtained permission to appear as amicus curiae in the 
appeal pending in the Supreme Court of Florida from the order of 
dismissal of the disciplinary proceedings against Leo Sheiner. 
Leo Sheiner had twice previously been ordered disbarred by the 
Circuit Court of Florida. 

Our committee prepared and submitted a brief to the Supreme 
Court of Florida stating its views on the duty of the Bar and of 
the courts to cleanse its ranks of an unfit member. The committee 
further stated its concepts of an acceptable standard of fitness for 
attorneys and for the unfitness of any member of the Bar who, in 
appropriate proceedings, persists in refusal to answer pertinent 
questions concerning his activities in the Communist Party or Com- 
munist-dominated fronts on the grounds that his answers to such 
questions concerning his activities might tend to incriminate him. 
It is inconceivable to us that an attorney and officer of the court 
may continue in good standing while he pleads self-incrimination 
in refusing to answer questions relating to subversive activities. 

The brief pointed out that, in other walks of life, labor union 
officials, teachers, government emploj^ees, and employees of private 
industry, there had been set a standard under which the individual 
might be safeguarded in invoking the Fifth Amendment to inquiries 
which might tend to incriminate him, but by so doing he forfeits 
his position of trust and responsibility. The Sheiner case is very 
important to the Bar as other states having such problem attorneys 
on their roles have been awaiting the final decision in this matter. 

The appeal was argued before the Supreme Court of Florida on 
February 8, 1958. Julius Applebaum, a member of our committee, 
argued as amicus curiae for this association. On July 24, 1958, the 
court issued an order on its own motion requesting argument on 
September 5, 1958, and permitting supplemental briefs as to the 
application of three decisions. * * * rendered by the United States 
Supreme Court on June 30, 1958. Our committee is preparing such 
supplemental briefs in behalf of the association that will partici- 
pate in the reargument. Our committee is willing to appear in simi- 
lar cases upon direction of the House of Delegates or Board of 
Governors." (Committee's italics.) 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 203 

It is most interesting to note, by way of contrast, that the Supreme 
Court of free Germany started to consider the legal status of the Com- 
munist Party in that country about the same time as our Subversive 
Activities Control Board did — each court taking evidence for a period 
of about five years. As we have seen, our Supreme Court not only re- 
versed the board when it decided against the Communist Party and 
sent the matter back for more years of taking evidence, but has per- 
sistently refused to rule on the. constitutionality of the Act of 1950, 
under which the board functions. 

This is what the German Supreme Court held : 

"The Communist Party of Germany is unconstitutional. 

"The Communist Party of Germany will be dissolved. 

"It is prohibited to establish substitute organizations for the 
Communist Party of Germany or to continue existing organizations 
as substitute organizations. 

"The assets of the Communist Party of Germany will be con- 
fiscated in favor of the Federal Republic of Germany for purposes 
of the common weal. ' ' 77 

Hancock v. Burns 

On August 10, 1953, the committee held a closed hearing in the City 
of San Francisco for the purposes of investigating the extent to which 
the Pacific Gas & Electric Company had been infiltrated by Commu- 
nists. Among the witnesses subpoened were Patrick Thomas Hancock, 
Travis Lafferty, Joseph Chasm, and Holden Hayden. The press was not 
admitted to the hearing, and each of the witnesses was represented by 
counsel. When questioned about membership in the Communist Party 
and activities as Communists, the defendants all invoked the privilege of 
the Fifth Amendment and declined to testify on the ground that if 
they gave truthful answers to these questions they would subject them- 
selves to criminal prosecution. 

Other witnesses were called during the course of the hearing, and 
thereafter Senator. Burns, as chairman of the committee, wrote a letter 
to the Pacific Gas & Electric Company in which he stated that the em- 
ployees mentioned bad invoked the Fifth Amendment and expressed his 
opinion that employees of public utilities in general who invoked the 
Fifth Amendment when questioned by official agencies under oath about 
their subversive affiliations were bad security risks. Thereafter, on 
August 14, 1953, after the committee had authorized the release of a 
complete transcript of the hearing, the Pacific Gas & Electric Company 
discharged the four employees mentioned. 

On August 13, 1954, a matter of minutes before the statute of limita- 
tions would have barred the right of the employees to file a suit, a 
complaint was filed in the Superior Court of the State of California at 
San Francisco against Senator Burns, Senator Nathan F. Coombs, 

"Judgment of the Federal Constitutional Court, Aug. 17, 1956. Translation by the 
Division of Language Service, U. S. Department of State. 



204 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

the late Senator Earl D. Desmond, Senator John F. McCarthy and 
Senator John F. Thompson, both individually and as members of the 
committee, and against R. E. Combs, individually and in his capacity 
as counsel for the committee. The complaint alleged all of the facts 
heretofore stated, and proceeded to charge that all of the members of 
the committee and its counsel had wrongfully conspired to persuade the 
Pacific Gas & Electric Company to discharge the plaintiffs and asked for 
damages in the sum of $218,333. 

The San Francisco Superior Court ruled that the plaintiffs had no 
case, and sustained a demurrer without leave to amend. An appeal was 
then taken to the District Court of Appeals for the first Appellate Dis- 
trict of California, where a written decision was rendered by a unani- 
mous court in favor of the committee. The plaintiffs then appealed to 
the State Supreme Court, and their appeal was rejected. Since the 
rendering of our last report, time for an appeal to the Supreme Court 
of the United States has elapsed and the case has ended. 

It is to be noted that the attorney for the plaintiffs was also the 
attorney for the American Civil Liberties Union of Northern Cali- 
fornia, and was so designated on the complaint; and after he resigned 
from that position he was replaced by Attorney Albert M. Bendich, 
staff counsel for the American Civil Liberties Union of Northern Cali- 
fornia, and these attorneys were assisted by Rubin Tepper and Edward 
F. Newman. The committee was represented by the Attorney General 
of the State, then the Honorable Edmund G. Brown, through his Chief 
Assistant, Clarence A. Linn, by the Legislative Counsel Bureau and 
the San Francisco firm of Melvin, Faulkner, Sheehan & Wiseman. 

So important and practically valuable to all legislative committees 
was the opinion rendered by the district court of appeal in our favor, 
that we quote briefly from it as follows: 

"While Senate Resolution No. 127 does not, nor could it, au- 
thorize the commission of tortious acts, nevertheless it does estab- 
lish a committee of the State Senate authorized to act as an official 
adjunct of that body. Such committees are expressly authorized 
by our State Constitution in Article IV, Section 37. Therefore, 
by reading the resolution in conjunction with the complaint, it 
becomes apparent that the conjunctive pleading of respondents' 
status (as to respondents' having acted both as committee mem- 
bers and as individuals in doing the acts here complained of) 
must be grounded on reasoning that by going outside the legisla- 
tive sphere the defendants were stripped of any legislative im- 
munity and stand before the court as individuals. 

This theory of the evaporative quality of legislative immunity, 
by its very statement, discloses its own vice. If government, operat- 
ing through the individuals who form it, is afforded immunity 
from private suit only when its actions are beyond any question, 
and loses that immunity upon mere allegation of improper motives 
or unlawful acts in a complaint seeking damages, then those per- 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 205 

sons who form government are subject to the threat of personal 
liability in any matter in which their discretion is exercised. 

The fact that a legislative committee erroneously exercised 
powers, in a mistaken belief that it has such powers, would imme- 
diately subject its members to the harrassment of litigation. What 
would a logical extension of this rule lead to so far as the judiciary 
is concerned? Would a judge who mistakenly assumed the juris- 
diction in a proceeding be liable to personal suit by an agrieved 
party litigant who merely alleged willfulness, wrongfulness and 
malice? Would not such a rule require the examination of the 
motives as well as the propriety of all governmental action by 
our courts? We think so. 

The basic principle of separation of power which is one of 
the bases for our entire form of constitutional government would 
be diluted to the point where the judicial branch, because of artful 
allegations in a complaint, would be required to re-examine every 
act of the executive and legislative branches which had an adverse 
effect upon any individual. 

Granting that the courts have the privilege and the duty of 
protecting the personal civil rights of the citizens of this Country 
from abuse, nevertheless, when the enforcement of such personal 
civil rights results in an erosion of the government which alone 
can guarantee such rights, the obligation to society as a whole 
may dictate that the individual forego personal recovery for in- 
juries suffered so that government may continue. 

It has often been said that when elected officials so conduct 
themselves as to indicate a lack of essential obligation to their 
responsibilities, there are remedies available to the electorate 
which can correct these abuses ; also the power of impeachment still 
exists. 'The Constitution has left the performance of many duties 
in our governmental scheme to depend upon the fidelity of the 
executive and legislative action and, ultimately, on the vigilance 
of the people in exercising their political rights.' 

It will no doubt be argued that, by holding the action here 
taken by the committee as within the protection afforded by legis- 
lative immunity, the members of such a committee could commit 
any tortious act by claiming it to be within the same rule. The 
argument would, however, fail. Were the committee or its members 
charged with the commission of some bodily injury inflicted on 
another in the course of conducting their hearings, such acts could 
not reasonably be urged to come within the immunity here stated, 
as the mere recitation of the infliction of bodily harm is a state- 
ment of an act which by no reasonable means could be encompassed 
by the immunity. 

The act here complained of was committed by the use of the 
ordinary means adopted by such committees in reporting their 



206 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

findings and conclusions : namely, the preparation and forwarding 
of a written communication. 

One of the basic foundations of our constitutional government 
is to be found in the separation of powers. This doctrine has been 
recognized as essential to a free form of government wherein 
public officers may perform their duties untrammeled by fear of 
sanction in the form of personal liability if it transpires that their 
acts were unwise or based upon a misinterpretation of the law. 
Much has been written, commencing with Montesquieu in the 
Eighteenth Century, and continuing up to date, regarding the 
necessity or advisability of continuing the doctrine of the separa- 
tion of powers. It has been said, 'The problems of government 
are complicated and difficult of solution. But must it not be ap- 
parent to everyone, as we gaze into the future, that we cannot 
hope to maintain the way of life which we call American without 
exercising every effort to preserve to each branch of government 
its proper sphere and the states and the union a due recognition 
of their proper function.' 78 

The rights here sought to be enforced are assuredly right to 
which a citizen of this country is entitled unless, in the exercise 
of those rights, the person committing the act is protected by some 
privilege or immunity. * * * 

In view of our holding that the action of respondents here 
was protected by their legislative immunity * * * it is not neces- 
sary to discuss the other points urged by appellants. The im- 
munity appearing on the fact of the complaint, it would be useless 
to allow amendments. 

The judgment is affirmed. McMurray, Justice pro Tern; Peters, 
Presiding Justice ; Bray, Justice. ' ' 

THE LIQUIDATORS 

We have noted how the Communist Party found it necessary to 
declare war on the Supreme Court of the United States and launch 
a campaign to bring about a change in the type of decisions being 
handed down b} r that tribunal. We also noted how the Communists 
mounted the campaign and then claimed credit for the complete and 
sudden reversal of the Supreme Court's opinions and the issuance of 
a series of decisions that gave it more freedom than ever. Not content 
with having brought about this amazing situation, for which the party 
claims full credit, it is now engaged in an equally earnest and wide- 
spread endeavor to liquidate the state and federal legislative commit- 
tees on un-American activities and to further stifle the activities of 
the Federal Bureau of Investigation. 



78 The Doctrine of the Separation of Powers and Its Present Day Significance, by 
Arthur T. Vanderbilt, p. 142. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 207 

In previous reports we have discussed in great detail the old cultural 
front, the Arts, Sciences and Professions Council. We also gave resumes 
of hearings involving its successor, the Citizens Committee to Preserve 
American Freedom. We have indicated how a great many of the lead- 
ers of the old Arts, Sciences and Professions Council are now to be 
found doing equally active work for the Citizens Committee to Pre- 
serve American Freedom. This organization, largely confined to the 
southern part of the state, although it has also been active to some 
extent elsewhere, is loosely affiliated with the Emergency Civil Liber- 
ties Committee, a nationwide organization established in 1957 for the 
same general purposes. Frank Wilkinson, a graduate of the University 
of California at Los Angeles, and formerly a top employee of the Los 
Angeles City Housing Administration, is probably the most active 
single figure in both organizations, being loaned back and forth between 
the two as the exigencies of the situation may demand. 

Wilkinson was first brought to the attention of this committee when 
the former Attorney General of the State, now Governor Edmund G. 
Brown, together with the Housing Authority, requested us to conduct 
an investigation into alleged Communist infiltration, and which resulted 
in a closed hearing and the discharge of several employees, including 
Wilkinson. 

It was also disclosed that Mrs. Wilkinson was employed as a teacher 
by the Los Angeles City Board of Education, and this led to the 
first of a series of hearings that ended with the discharge of more 
teachers, paved the way for the passage of the so-called Dilworth Act, 
and prompted the board of education to inaugurate a system by which 
it could keep itself currently advised concerning the subversive back- 
grounds of applicants for employment, both academic and adminis- 
trative. 

On the occasion of its last hearings concerning the Citizens Com- 
mittee to Preserve American Freedom, and at hearings involving the 
former Communist front, the Arts, Sciences and Professions Council, 
the committee had intended to subpoena Dr. Murray Abowitz, who 
had been prominent as a member of the Medical Division of the latter 
organization. He appeared before the committee in Los Angeles on 
June 9, 1958, represented by his attorney, Robert W. Kenny. 

The witness admitted that he was chairman of the medical division 
of the Arts, Sciences and Professions Council in 1952, and also re- 
called having attended several meetings of the organization over a 
period of several years, together with several meetings of the Citizens 
Committee to Preserve American Freedom. 

It will be recalled that the Arts, Sciences and Professions Council 
was a Communist-controlled organization, described as such by several 
official agencies, but that it had dissolved itself shortly before Dr. 
Abowitz testified at the hearing in 1958. He had no hesitancy in testi- 
fying about his activities in that organization, but promptly invoked 



208 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

the Fifth Amendment when asked whether or not he was a Communist. 
The following question was then put to him: 

Q. (By Mr. Combs) : Is it not a fact that you joined the Com- 
munist Party in Los Angeles in 1936, that you were attached to 
the physicians branch of the 13th Congressional District Sec- 
tion, that in 1938 your Communist membership book bore No. 
78476, and that in 1939 your Communist membership book bore 
No. 1205? 

The Witness: I decline to answer to answer that, too, on the 
same ground. 

Q. Is it not also a fact that during the period of your member- 
ship in the Communist Party, commencing in 1936 and extending 
through 1939, you used the Communist Party name or alias of 
Thomas Wilson? 

A. I decline to answer that question also on the same grounds, 
but I would also like to point out to you, Mr. Combs, that I wasn 't 
in California in 1938— '36. 

Q. Where were you in 1936? 

A. I was in medical school in Vienna, Austria. 

Q. Would that prevent your having been assigned to the Com- 
munist Party of Los Angeles County ? 

A. I was just trying to help you with your records; I'm just 
trying to be helpful. 

Q. I am satisfied with it." 

Dr. Abowitz admitted that he had attended meetings of the Civil 
Eights Congress, which was described by the United States Attorney 
General as a Communist front organization and by the witness as "a 
fine, worthy organization that defended many civil rights cases. * * * " 
The witness also stated that he had contributed to the Joint Anti- 
Fascist Kefugee Committee, that he held a membership in the Interna- 
tional Workers Order — both Communist-controlled organizations— and 
that he was on the Board of Directors of the Communist school in Los 
Angeles, the California Labor School, in 1948, and was affiliated with 
the American-Soviet Medical Society. 

Dr. Abowitz has been identified as a member of the Communist Party 
by several witnesses, probably the earliest one being a former employee 
of this committee who declared under oath that she had known Dr. 
Abowitz and his wife as members of the Communist Party during the 
late thirties. 79 

A documentation from Communist sources and from various official 
agencies investigating Communist activities was recently published by 
Mr. George Robnett, of Pasadena. The booklet, entitled, "The Crusade 



See affidavit and testimony of Rena M. Vale, 1943 committee report; see, also, 1947 
report, pages 54, 55, 70, 73, 210, 238, 241, 244, 298; 194S report, pages 198, 239, 
253, 254, 279, 308, 309, 355; 1949 report pases 421, 428, 433, 435, 436, 478; 1951 
report, pages 255, 268, 275, 280; 1953 report, page 139; 1959 report, pages 86, 
100, 105-109, 112, 114, 138, 208, 223, 267, 277, 287, 293, 295, 302, 303, 307, 308, 
311-313, 315-318, 320, 338, 351, 357, 360, 367, 370, 374, 387. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 209 

Against Government Investigating Agencies, a Report on Forces and 
Processes, ' ' opens with this statement : 

"What do you think would be the reaction in this country if a 
group of individuals were caught trying to destroy our Army, our 
Navy, or our Air Force, especially at a time when we were engaged 
in a life and death struggle with some enemy country? 

How different would you consider this to be in principle from 
the present collaboration of certain individuals and groups whose 
clear purpose is to destroy our front line of security — defense 
agencies, when we are engaged in the deadliest 'cold' war that this 
Country has ever faced with an avowed enemy ? 

This latter reference is to an open and active crusade by 
certain groups to demolish the House Committee on un-American 
Activities, as well as to a campaign, not so openly declared but 
just as real, to discredit and dissipate the work of the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation and other security agencies." 

The attack against the Federal Bureau of Investigation was kicked 
off on October 18, 1958, with a special issue of The Nation, edited by 
Carey Mc Williams. The entire issue of 280 pages is devoted to an article 
by Fred J. Cook entitled, "The F. B. I." Our copy was purchased at 
the International Book Store, 1408 Market Street, San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia, where it seemed to be in great demand. 

Mr. McWilliams has been the author of several books, many of them 
widely sold. He is the author of Factories in the Field, he appeared as 
a witness before this committee many years ago, and he has been listed 
as a member of practically every major Communist front organization 
that ever existed. McWilliams was active in California as Commissioner 
of Immigration and Housing in the early forties, having been appointed 
to that position by Governor Culbert Olson, and prior to that time he 
had been active in Labor's Non-Partisan League, the United Organiza- 
tion for Progressive Political Action, and with the Communist Party 
itself. During the late thirties McWilliams was collaborating with 
Dorothy Healey, who was then known as Dorothy Ray. We have al- 
ready devoted some attention to Mrs. Healey, now Mrs. Philip M. 
Connelly, in her capacity as the Chairman of the Southern California 
Division of the Communist Party, and the target for considerable 
criticism on the part of the top functionaries in New York. In October, 
1938, Dorothy Ray was sent to Bakersfield by the International of the 
United Cannery, Agricultural, Packing & Allied Workers of America, 
a Communist-dominated union, to handle a cotton strike in that vicinity. 
Two years thereafter a field workers' school was sponsored by that 
union at Chino, California, for the purpose of training its organizers. 
Among the instructors at the institution, with whom Dorothy Healey 
was then co-operating, were Revels Cayton, Amy Schechter, and Carey 
McWilliams. 



210 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Mc Williams, contemporaneously with his elevation to a state 
position with some prestige and authority, ceased his intimate contacts 
with the Communist Party but continued to publish his progressive- 
type books, kept up his dues in front organizations, and essayed the 
role of a liberal. The fact is, however, that Mr. Mc Williams did join the 
Communist Party, according to the sworn statements of many indi- 
viduals who sat in closed party meetings with him. How long his mem- 
bership continued we do not know, but we are quite aware of the fact 
that his Communist front affiliations have continued for at least 20 
years, and that he is the editor of a publication that contains an attack 
against the Federal Bureau of Investigation that was considered so 
effective that it evoked high praise from the Soviet Union, as follows : 

"It transpires from Cook's article and from press reports on big 
trials that the main task of the F. B. I. is the identification and 
liquidation, including the physical liquidation, of persons of whom 
the U. S. ruling circles disapprove for one reason or another." 80 

No stranger to the artifices and techniques of the Communist Party, 
especially in California, is Los Angeles County's new Sheriff, Peter 
Pitchess. While an F. B. I. agent in Los Angeles, one of Pitchess' duties 
was to deliver lectures to peace officers throughout the state. At the 
LaFayette Hotel in Long Beach last February 12, Mr. Pitchess told 
members of the Exchange Club that the Communist Party is conducting 
a "concerted drive to destroy public confidence in the F. B. I. That the 
Communist Party and its sympathizers and apologists whose hatred 
for the F. B. I. results from its effectiveness in carrying out its re- 
sponsibilities and in protecting the internal security of America, had 
been accelerated to an extreme degree. ' ' 

Sheriff Pitchess concluded his remarks by adding: "I must further 
express hope that the American public * * * will continue to demon- 
strate its faith in this great law enforcement leader, J. Edgar Hoover, 
by rejecting the foul spewings of the Kremlin's messenger boys." sl 

In contrast to the remarks of Los Angeles County's Sheriff, let us 
examine some comments by Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, charter member 
of the Communist Party of the United States and a member of its 
National Committee. Mrs. Flynn, herself a Smith Act defendant who 
was sent to prison, and who played a remarkably active role in the 
party's fight to bring about a change in the federal laws that were 
hampering its operations, was moved to comment about J. Edgar Hoo- 
ver and his book, Masters of Deceit, which attained best-seller status. 
She said : 

"* * * J. Edgar Hoover is today the undisputed czar of the 
F. B. I. The master of self-adulation, who continually publicizes 
himself on the radio, in the press and magazines, speaks to women's 
clubs, graduating classes, businessmen, the Legion, etc. If ever 

80 Radio Moscow, 1S00 gmp. 22 December, 1958. 

81 Los Angeles Examiner, Feb. 12, 1959. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 211 

there was a shilling example of the 'cult of the individual,' it is 
exemplified in this politically illiterate and conceited man, who has 
used almost unlimited power for the attempted suppression of the 
Bill of Rights." 82 

In Washington Congressman James Roosevelt introduced a measure 
which would have taken away the autonomous power of the House 
Committee on un-American Activities and stifle it to death by absorb- 
ing it in the Judiciary Committee. The House, however, voted $327,000 
to enable the committee to function during the current year, and the 
Communist pressure has apparently been shifted to bring about a repeal 
of the McCarran Act, to undermine public respect for the F. B. I. The 
tentative moves have already been made, but, as was the case of the 
campaign to liquidate the House Committee on un-American Activities, 
the sniping is always made from concealed positions and frequently by 
individuals who have no formal connection with the party but are, 
nevertheless, most sensitive to its demands and responsive to its 
pressures. 

An example of how some of these credulous liberals are utilized con- 
temptuously by the Soviet Union appears in a book by Boris Morros, 
an undercover counter agent for the Federal Bureau of Investigation. 

"Some time before, I had told Vitaly that I would be returning 
to the United States in the Fall. He had two assignments for me 
on this trip : he wanted me to find between 10 to 20 Americans 
who were loved and trusted throughout the United States, and to 
get them to come in a group to Moscow. These influential Ameri- 
cans could then see for themselves that the Russians truly wanted 
peace. Vitaly insisted that the Reds were willing to make conces- 
sions to such a delegation of Westerns. 'We do not want to talk to 
your comedian progressives, ' he said, ' but to men who can go home 
and convince the people of America that another World War is the 
last thing the Kremlin wants ! ' I was to hear this plea a hundred 
times from the lips of other Communist officials and spies. ' ' S3 

Just as the constant program of exposure and vigilance caused the 
Communist Party to give up its major front organizations and to re- 
treat to its underground sanctuaries, so has the program of public 
education and disclosure operated to shrink the supply of gullible 
liberals who could be wheedled into unconsciously carrying on the 
party's dirty work. It is not very difficult to distinguish between a 
sincere and dedicated liberal and one who is consciously or uncon- 
sciously imbued with the precepts of the class struggle and the Commu- 
nist ideology to the point that they become almost a part of his sym- 
pathetic nervous system. The true liberal is interested in resolving 
conflicts, in fighting for advanced and really progressive reforms for the 
benefit of humanity. The Communist tool, on the other hand, is con- 
stantly striving to perpetuate the current party line, and instead of 

82 Political Affairs, May, 195S, p. 61. 

63 My Ten Years as a Counter-Spy, op. cit, pp. 142-113. 



212 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

resolving- conflict and problems he seeks to keep the class struggle going 
by complicating the old problems and creating new ones. 

At least in California, there is encouraging evidence that liberals in 
the true sense of that much-abused term, are beginning to heed the 
phrase attributed to Vemelot, and which is so characteristic of totali- 
tarian in general and Communists in particular: "When I am the I 
weaker I demand liberty of you, because liberty is one of your prin- 
ciples ; but when, one day, I am the stronger, I shall strip you of liberty 
because stripping others of liberty is one of my principles. ' ' 84 

There are other signs of encouragement in California, in this never- 
ending battle against internal subversion. The committee has found dur- 1 
ing the last three or four years a rapidly increasing interest on the part j 
of students and faculty members alike in obtaining accurate and objec- 
tive information not only on Communist ideology and revolutionary 
history, but on practical problems on combating Communist subver- 
sion. "VVe wish to particularly commend the Citizens for Political Free- 
dom in Pasadena. Also the Women for America in Beverly Hills. The 
Pasadena organization, under the leadership of Mrs. Virginia Cassil, 
has just completed its third year as sponsor of a series of annual lec- 
tures at Pasadena City College's extended day program, entitled "How 
to Detect Communist Indoctrination." The popularity of this course 
has increased every year, it is well attended by students and teachers 
in addition to the public at large, and by arrangement with the State 
Department of Education, institute credit is given to teachers who 
attend all of the lectures. The lecturers are carefully selected, not only 
for their ability as speakers and their qualifications as experts in their 
respective fields, but because of their balance and stability in handling 
controversial topics. 

Women for America, the organization in Beverly Hills, recently com- 
pleted an outstanding program under the aegis of the extended day 
department of the Beverly Hills High School. This program, like the 
ones held in Pasadena, comprises lectures by the best experts the 
sponsors can obtain, each lecture running for approximately two hours 
including a period for questions and answers from the audience. Mrs. 
Morrie Ryskind and Mrs. Fred Bartman are to be congratulated on the 
time and effort they have devoted to making this Beverly Hills pro- 
gram an outstanding success. 

The Fresno State College Chapter of Phi Gamma Mu, a scholarship 
honor society of faculty members and students, also sponsored a lecture 
on Communism in California in January of this year, and these pro- 
grams are being duplicated by many schools throughout the state. We 
also note that the press is carrying an ever-increasing amount of reliable 
information concerning problems of internal Communist subversion, 
which is replacing a great deal of unreliable and sensational material 
that was being widely published a few years ago. 



8i Letter from Prof. William Roetke to the International Association of Political 
Science, 1958. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 213 

Such patriotic organizations as the American Legion, the Daughters 
of the American Revolution and the Los Angeles Chapter of the Ameri- 
can Jewish League Against Communism have contributed greatly to 
public understanding of these problems by sponsoring citizenship and 
patriotism awards and holding programs that emphasize the necessity 
of understanding the problems that we face from Communism, and by 
encouraging the proper sort of educational programs on the widest 
possible basis. It is, of course, impossible to mention all of the schools 
and all of the patriotic organizations that are contributing to an educa- 
tional program that will arm the public at large with the proper know- 
ledge that will equip them to recognize these subtle subversive activities, 
to know the party line, to identify the front organizations, and to help 
in rendering completely ineffective the all-out Communist campaign 
which is now being waged to undermine public confidence in our official 
agencies. 

THE INTIMIDATION OF VIRGINIA HEDGES 

Virginia Hedges came to California from Terre Haute, Indiana, with 
her mother and stepfather in August, 1947. They lived at 5154 Sunset 
Boulevard, Hollywood, for about a year and a half, moved to La 
Canada for 18 months, then returned to their former residence in 
Hollywood. Shortly thereafter the mother and her husband separated, 
and Virginia lived with her mother at 1308 West 109th Street in Los 
Angeles for several years. 

After graduating from high school, Virginia got a job with the tele- 
phone company in Los Angeles and had a phone installed under her 
own name — Virginia Hedges. This was in June, 1953. 

For the purpose of clarifying a complicated set of circumstances, it 
is necessary to bear in mind that the hearing at which Frank "Wilkinson 
was examined occurred during the latter part of October, 1952. In con- 
nection with the interrogation of Mr. Wilkinson we had received reports 
from several former Communists who had attended closed party meet- 
ings with him. These informants gave entirely separate and independent 
statements, and no one of them was aware that any of the others were 
cooperating with us. One of these informants was, by an amazing co- 
incidence, named Virginia Hedges, although not related to and com- 
pletely unknown by her namesake. 

But this identity of names was only the first of a series of coinci- 
dences. Our informant had once resided in the same general vicinity as 
Virginia Hedges and her mother. And the latter bore a striking re- 
semblance to our informant. Adding to this confusing situation was the 
fact that our informant also had a telephone listed in her name — 
Virginia Hedges, and when she moved her name was taken out of the 
directory, only to be replaced shortly thereafter when her namesake 
had her telephone installed. So, although there was only one Virginia 
Hedges in the book, after June, 1953, it was actually the name of a 
different person. 



214 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

During the time that elapsed after we first questioned Mr. Wilkinson, 
he devoted more and more of his time to Communist activities, partici- 
pating in many front meetings, especially the newly formed Citizens 
Committee to Preserve American Freedom. We received reliable in- 
formation that he had also advised party members who had gone under- 
ground concerning security precautions, and he was obviously given 
an important assignment when he was sent east to assist the Emergency 
Civil Liberties Committee correlate its campaign to liquidate federal 
and state committees on un-American Activities and undermine the 
reputation of the F. B. I. 

We consequently decided to contact our informants to secure any 
available information that might shed additional light on these develop- 
ments. On January 23, 1958, a letter was accordingly directed to the 
only Virginia Hedges listed in the Los Angeles telephone directory and, 
of course, it was received by the informant's namesake. 

Puzzled by the somewhat cryptic terms in which the letter was 
written, Miss Hedges consulted the Los Angeles Field Office of the 
F. B. I., described to them a series of experiences that had occurred to 
her, and was advised to contact us. This she did in a note dated 
January 28, 1958, and we then learned for the first time of the peculiar 
circumstances we have already described. 

Conferences with Miss Hedges disclosed that she had been mistaken 
for our informant and subjected to a familiar harassment that com- 
menced almost as soon as the telephone was listed under her name and 
continued until she appeared before us as a witness on June 10, 1958. 

We have described this technique of Communist intimidation by 
telephone in previous reports. It is constantly used, now more than 
ever since there are more defections from the party than previously, 
to prevent former party members from cooperating with official agen- 
cies. Even after having testified openly and fully, informants are 
frequently subjected to this type of annoyance. 

This final section of our report is being dictated on Saturday, April 
4th. On the evening of March 5th, a representative of the committee 
visited with Paul and Marion Miller, who acted as undercover agents 
for the F. B. I. in the Communist Party. Mrs. Miller was active in 
the Los Angeles Chapter of the Citizens Committee for the Protection 
of the Foreign Born for five years, and then disclosed her experiences 
to the fullest extent by testifying under oath. Since that time the 
Millers have been subjected to precisely the same sort of telephone 
annoyance that were described by Virginia Hedges. On the eve- 
ning of March 5th, an anonymous telephone call was made to the 
Miller home, and when one of their three children answered the tele- 
phone he was subjected to a tirade of vicious and unprintable abuse 
of his parents. 

The Millers had expected to be subjected to this familiar pattern 
because they had been warned that it would probably occur, and they 
were more or less prepared for the barrage of false and defamatory 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 215 

statements on mimeographed leaflets that were anonymously distributed 
among their neighbors. But Virginia Hedges had never had any experi- 
ence with any type of subversive groups, and was completely unpre- 
pared for the long harassment to which she and her mother were 
subjected. 

She testified that her telephone would ring at 3 or 4 o'clock in the 
morning and when she or her mother awakened and answered they 
would hear someone breathing, then a click as the receiver was hung 
up and the connection was broken. Then, after an hour or more, the 
call would be repeated. This procedure continued for almost five years. 

It seems rather odd that in cases where a former Communist has 
already testified, it is usual practice to subject them to a tirade of 
abuse during a short conversation before the connection is broken. But 
when it is desired to intimidate a former member who is only suspected 
of having given information, or whom the party wishes to prevent 
from doing so, the calls are ordinarily without conversation, the re- 
ceiver being hung up after an interval of a few minutes. 

This practice is described in many books by former Communists 
and by non-Communists whom the party seeks to scare into ceasing 
their anti-Communist activities. An officer of the Commonwealth Club 
of California was recently subjected to such calls for a period of many 
months. Virtually all ex-Communists who have really broken from the 
party have received this form of intimidation. 

Finally, Virginia Hedges' mother noticed that she was being followed 
when she left her home in the afternoon. She saw the same person 
following her day after day, and finally complained to an attendant 
at the service station she usually patronized and he told her that he 
had also noticed she was being followed. Then came a call on January 
24, 1958, that so unnerved the mother that she left California and 
returned to her former home in Indiana. Her daughter described the 
experience in a reply to the original letter intended for our informant, 
and written in January, 1958 : 

"Mr. Combs: In reference to the enclosed letter I'm sorry to 
say there must be a mistake. I've never testified. You must have 
the wrong address. 

On the twenty-fourth my mother received a call for an uni- 
dentified person who said 'Tell Virginia Hedges she is going to 
get her throat cut.' 

On Sunday there was a call from New York, too. I don't 
know who it was. 

I am the only Virginia Hedges listed in tin 1 phone book. It 
sounds like she is in trouble." 

Questioned by the committee in June. 1958, Virginia Hedges de- 
scribed the calls as follows : 

Q. "When did this telephone call threatening to cu1 your throat 
occur, and what time did your mother receive that call? 



216 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

She answered the telephone, did she not? 

A. Yes. 

Q. What time of the day? 

A. I am not sure. 

Q. Was it a man or a woman ? 

A. It was a woman. 

Q. Was there any noticeable accent ? 

A. She wasn't sure. 

Q. She wasn't sure ? 

A. No. 

Q. During all of these times the telephone would ring early in 
the morning, or any time during the two-year period, would you 
endeavor to find out who was calling and whom they wanted, and 
so on? 

A. Well, several times I answered the phone and they would 
ask for Virginia Hedges. 

Q. Yes? 

A. And I would say, 'This is Virginia Hedges.' 

Q. Yes? 

A. But, for some reason they wouldn't say anything else. 

Q. They would just hang up? 

A. Yes. 

Q. You haven't had a bit of trouble since you wrote me this 
note, have you? 

A. No, sir. 

Q. You don't know the other Virginia Hedges? 

A. No. 

Q. Virginia Hedges No. 1 ? 

A. No. 

Q. You have never had any connection with any Communist or- 
ganization of any kind, have you? 

A. No, sir. 

Q. * * * Did you ever have any experience with telephone calls 
of this type before in your entire life? 

A. No. 85 

Shortly after having received the note from Miss Hedges, and after 
having conferred with her at some length, representatives of the com- 
mittee contacted the real informant who had moved several times and 
had changed her occupation. A supplemental sworn statement was 
taken from her, in which she described in detail the circumstances 
under which she affiliated with the Communist Party, her attendance 
at the Communist beginner 's classes for a period of approximately eight 
months, the party textbooks and other material she was required to 
study in order to prepare herself for active party membership, and 
her assignment to a definite unit of the party. 

88 Vol. 66, Committee Transcript, pp. 156-158. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 217 

The informant gave additional information concerning Mr. Wilkin- 
;on and his identity as a Communist Party member, together with his 
ictivities in the party unit to which he was assigned. 

"We wish to make it clear that our informant, Virginia Hedges, has 
io telephone, and has already given full and complete cooperation to 
ill official agencies that have asked her to do so. In that connection she 
estified as follows on June 5, 1958: 

Q. Have you ever been solicited by any party member to reac- 
tivate your activities and rejoin the party? 

A. No, I have not. 

Q. Have you ever had any threats, either directly or indirectly, 
about disclosing the information you gained during your party 
membership ? 

A. No, I have not. 

Q. It is a fact, is it not, Miss Hedges, that you have heretofore 
given to this committee full and detailed information concerning 
other people who were in the party with you, in addition to Frank 
Wilkinson, and detailed information concerning your own activi- 
ties while you were a party member? 

A. That is correct. 

Q. This is also true, is it not, that you flew to Sacramento several 
years ago, at your own expense, for the purpose of conferring with 
me about the general matters that are covered in this statement? 

A. That is correct. 

Q. And is it not also true that in addition to giving information 
to this committee, that you voluntarily have given full and detail 
information to federal agencies concerning your experiences during 
all of the time you were a member of the Communist Party ? 

A. That is correct. 

Q. And it is also true, is it not, Miss Hedges, that you are giving 
this testimony pursuant to a subpoena served upon you by me, 
which subpoena is a continuing subpoena to remain in effect until 
such time as you are excused from appearing before the committee? 

A. That is correct. 86 

It is clear to the committee that the reason our informant was not 
lothered after she had cooperated with us in 1952 was because the 
ndividuals responsible for the anonymous telephone calls had been 
onfused by the series of coincidences outlined above and had spent 
lmost five years intimidating the wrong person. During the 18 years 
iuring which the committee has been active, we have never experienced 
tor heard of a case like this, and we include it in the report for the 
•urpose of documenting still another example of the techniques that 
re being used by the Communist Party in California. 

Sworn statement executed by Virginia Hedges on June 5, 1958, taken by John B. 
Hossack, Certified Shorthand Reporter, pursuant to the provisions of Senate Reso- 
lution No. 132, adopted by the California State Senate, at the General Session of 
the California State Legislature in 1957. 



218 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

The party had an excellent motive for endeavoring to frighten] 
our informant so she would refuse to give information and thel 
party was well aware of the fact that she did possess highly} i 
damaging knowledge about the Communist activities and stature ofl] 
Mr. Wilkinson, who became an exceedingly active and important Com-I 
munist figure after he was discharged by the Los Angeles City Housing 
Authority. There was utterly no reason whatever for the intimidation!! 
of the Virginia Hedges who actually received these telephone calls,! 
since she never had the slightest connection with any sort of Com- 
munist organization, even an innocuous Communist front, and while! 
to laymen this business of panting into a telephone then hanging upj 
may seem somewhat melodramatic and silly, to people who have beenn 
members of the Communist Party for a number of years and who| 
never know when they go to bed at night whether or not they will!) 
be awakened by the ominous ringing of their telephone at 3 or 4; 
o'clock in the morning, the implied threat is clearly understood, andl 
after several years the intimidation becomes extremely annoying.) 
Since the calls are usually made from either a pay phone or from I 
sources that are changed from time to time, and since the conversation, 
or lack of conversation only continues for a minute or so, the calls 
are virtually impossible to trace. 

The official of the Commonwealth Club who was subjected to a period 
of similar early morning calls, was not particularly bothered at first 
because, having been extremely forthright in his anti-Communist j 
activities, he had rather expected such occurrence. But he can testify 
most convincingly concerning the nervous tension that is produced in 
an individual who has been subjected to this technique for a period of 
several months. 

We should add at this point that the party 's attacks on former mem- 
bers who are suspected of being possible sources of information to 
anti-Communist agencies is incredibly vicious. The preservation of 
secrecy concerning all of its activities and the concealment of the 
identity of all its members is essential to the ..continued operation of 
the party, and it will go to any length to destroy the credibility of 
former members who presume to break through this elaborate screen 
of security. We have had informants who, while still in the party, 
were given the most responsible assignments, highly complimented for 
the caliber of their Communist work, regarded as extremely dedicated 
and capable comrades. The instant they defected and testified before 
us, however, the party attempted to destroy their credibility by cir- 
culating wild rumors of sexual perversion, mental instability, alco- 
holism, and resorted to every trick and device for the purpose of 
destroying their reputations. 

This type of activity, as well as the espionage activities of the Com- 
munist Party, are carefully insulated away from most of the intellec- 
tual members of the party, who are usually convinced that the organ- 
ization does not engage in this sort of thing. It is a source of never- 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 219 

ending astonishment to us that American citizens can be lured into 
the Communist apparatus and indoctrinated to the point that they 
will believe only the things that originate from Communist sources, 
and soon come to distrust and disbelieve all statements issued by the 
capitalist press which they regard as propaganda from the class enemy. 

In conclusion the committee wishes to again state that Ave do not 
believe it is now necessary to hold large-scale public hearings for the 
purpose of exposing individual party members who have been in the 
organization for a number of years. The indices of our various reports 
have listed such people from the middle twenties down to the present 
time, and we have learned from years of practical experience that 
very little good is accomplished by issuing subpoenas for indoctrinated 
party members, listening to them use the witness stand as a propa- 
ganda medium, having them clutter up the expensive shorthand report 
of the proceedings by monotonously invoking the Fifth Amendment 
)ver and over again, and indeed, very little real good is accomplished 
by prosecuting and convicting this type of witness for contempt. This 
type of fanatic cannot be cured by a 30-day jail sentence. He is eager 
;o suffer for the cause, he furnishes propaganda ammunition for the 
party that regards him as a martyr, and he emerges from his cell as 
i proletarian hero who is more eager and dedicated than before. To 
parade a somewhat moth-eaten series of dedicated party members 
■rough a hearing and afford them the facilities of radio and television 
publicity while they castigate the committee has become in our view 
argely a waste of time. In earlier years public hearings were necessary 
—and are occasionally still necessary — for the purpose of exposing 
Iront organizations. And 10 years ago it was necessary to hold a good 
nany public hearings for the purpose of breaking through public 
ipathy and exposing Communist schools, Communist publications, and 
>pen party activities. 

It is imperative that we obtain the cooperation of the utilities, the 
various agencies and departments of State Government, the trade 
■ions, and organizations of all types for the purpose of keeping 
ibreast of Communist tactics and implementing the enforcement of 
;he laws that have been enacted to cope with the situation. 

We believe that the preventive aspect of the problem is now para- 
nount, that the work of a committee cannot be gauged by the amount 
)f publicity it receives, and that the most effective weapon against 
nternal subversion is an informed Legislature and an enlightened 
mblic. 



I INDEX 

For Reports of 

1943, 1945, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1951, 1953, 1955, 
1957, and 1959: 

The Committee on Un-American Activities believes a 
complete index of its reports will be of assistance for 
those engaged in referencing work on the activities and ac- 
complishments of hearings conducted by the committee from 
its inception in 1943. This index identifies the person or 
subject, followed by the year in which the report was pub- 
lished, and the page number. 



(221) 



INDEX 



A. C. L. U. — See American 
Civil Liberties Union 
A. F. L.-C. I. O. 

1959—104, 107 
A. F. of L. — See also Amer- 
ican Federation of La- 
bor 
A. F. of L. Painters Union, 
District Council No. 9 

1959 94 

A. F. of L. Painters Union, 
National Executive 
Board 

1959 — 115 
A. F. of L. Painters 

1947 — 80 
A. F. of L. Teachers Union 

1947 — 113, 128 
A. F. of L. Teachers Union, 
Local 430 

1947 — 136, 138, 139 
A Guide to the Soviet Union 

1951 — 152 
A Man Called White 

1957 — 106 
A. P. Burns Bureau 

1943 — 362, 365, 366, 368, 
369, 373 
A. P. Mason Bureau 

1943 — 373 
A. P. Roberts Bureau 

1943—365, 373 
Aaron, Dr. Harold 

1948 — 328 
Aarons, "Slim" 

1948 — 183 
Abascal, Salvador 

1943 — 200 

1945—197 
Abbe, George 

1949—486 
Abbott, Bernice 

1948 — 238 

1949 — 480, 499 
Abbott, Edith 

1948 — 320 
Abbott, Olive 

1948 — 211 
Abel, Dr. Martin 

1953 — 241, 249 
Abel, Alfred 

1959 — 176 
Abel, Col. Rudolf 

1959 — 188 
Aberdeen Proving Grounds 

1959—175 
Abern, Martin 

1949 — 162 
Abern v. Wallis 

1949 — 248 
Abolish Peonage Committee 

1948 — 34, 93, 95 

1949 — 267, 446 
Abowitz, Eleanor Bogigian 
(Mrs. Murray) 

1951 — 255 

1955—112, 315, 358 
Abowitz, Ellenore 

1947—54, 55, 70, 210, 241, 
294, 298 

1948 — 198, 239, 253, 254, 
308, 309 

1949—421, 435, 436 



Abowitz, Dr. Murray 
1947—70, 73, 238, 294 
1948 — 279, 355 
1949 — 421, 428, 433, 478 
1951 — 268, 275, 280 
1953 — 139 

1955 — 86, 100, 105, 106, 
107, 108, 109, 112, 
114, 138, 208, 223, 
267, 277, 287, 293, 
295, 302, 303, 307, 
308, 311, 312, 313, 
315, 316, 317, 318, 
320, 338, 351, 357, 
360, 367, 370, 374, 
387 
1959 — 207, 208 
Abraham Lincoln Branch of 
the Communist Party 
1948 — 215 
Abraham Lincoln Brigade 
(also Battalion) 
1943 — 140 

1948 — 35, 66, 93, 94, 96, 
99, 100, 101, 125, 
157, 185, 225, 254, 
271, 295, 308, 382 
1949 — 179, 267, 296, 370, 
407, 452, 469, 501, 
502, 548, 553, 555, 
561 
1951—100, 159, 160, 207, 
236, 238, 239, 287 
1955 — 95 
1959 — 174, 176 
Abraham Lincoln School 
1948 — 95, 120, 342 
1949 — 267 
Abraham, Morris 

1948 — 146 

Abramowitz, Bessie 

1948 — 242 

1953 — 63 

Abrams Case 

1953 — 63 

1957—1, 125 

1959 — 15 

Abrams, Philip 

1957 — 45 
Abrams, Sheldon 

1959 — 37 
Abrams v. U. S. 

1953 — 180 
Abramson Furniture Co. 

1951—267 
Abt, John 

1959 — 172, 173, 175 
Abt, John J. 

1951—90, 272, 281 
Abt, John W. 

1948 — 343 
Academic and Civil Rights 
Committee 
1948 — 35 
1949 — 268 
Academic and Civil Rights 
Council of Calif. 
1943 — 97 
1947 — 103 
1948 — 6, 136 
1949 — 268 
Academic Freedom 

1959 — 52, 57, 60, 68, 70, 
78 



Academic Integrity and 
Academic Freedom 

1951 — 50 
Academic Senate 

1957—13 
Academic Sinica 

1957 — 129 
Academy of Motion Picture 
Arts and Sciences 

1955—445 

1959—116 
Academy of Political and 
Social Science 

1949 — 493, 497 
Academy of Science 

1951 — 45 
Academy of Sciences of the 
U. S. S. R. 

1949 — 497 
Acheson, Dean 

1949—492 
Achron, Joseph 

1948 — 311 
Ackerman, Nena 

1948 — 184 

1949 — 561 
Ackley, Charles B. 

1949 — 449, 480, 489, 499, 
507, 509, 512, 513, 
521 
Ackley, John Kenneth 

1948—179 
Action 

1948 — 224 

1949 — 381, 548 
Action Bulletin 

1948 — 49, 224 

1949 — 381, 548 
Action Committee to Free 
Spain 

1948 — 271 

1949 — 268, 469 
Action Conference on 
Indonesia 

1949—268 
Action for Today 

1948 — 224 

1949 — 381, 548 
Action Letters, The 

1947 — 70, 299, 300 

1949 — 421 
Action Now 

1949 — 381, 443 
Actors' Equity 

1948 — 315, 316 

1951 — 83 

1959 — 116 
Actors' Laboratory 

1947 — 72, 74, 191 

1948—95, 97, 104, 105, 
129, 159, 259, 348 

1949 — 268 
Actors Laboratory Theater 

1948 — 52, 95, 96, 104-106, 
347 

1949 — 268, 315 

1951 — 59, 60, 290 

1955 — 437, 444, 445, 447 

1959 — 137 
Adamic, Louis 

1948 — 109, 114, 131, 199, 
200, 202, 216, 225, 
239, 262, 273, 323, 
327, 328, 351, 353, 
390 



(222) 



223 



teflamic, Louis — Continued 
, 1949—414, 415, 449, 471, 
480, 484, 489, 498, 
502, 503, 505, 506, 
509, 510, 512, 513, 
516, 517, 520, 521, 
522, 525, 528, 530, 
531, 535, 548 
1951 — 56, 60, 261, 271, 287 
1953 — 131, 151 
Wamic, N. J. 

1949 — 548 
Warns, Charles 
; 1949 — 517 
Warns, Dr. Charles 
Christopher 
1949 — 480, 499 
Warns, Comfort A. 
1948 — 271, 351 
1949 — 468 
Warns, Edward 

1949—302 
Warns, Franklin P. 

1948 — 262, 330 
Warns, Fred 
1951 — 194 
Warns, Dr. George P. 
1948 — 216, 328, 351 
1951 — 92 
1953 — 175 
Warns, Mrs. George P. 

1948 — 216 
Warns, James T. 

1948 — 330 
Warns, Prof. Josephine T. 

1948 — 327 
Warns, Lauretta 

1943 — 87 
Warns, Peter 

1948 — 311, 312 
Warns, Rev. Stacy 

1949 — 480 
Warns, Theodore F. 

1948 — 320 
Wdes, George F. 
1948 — 201, 323 
Wdis, Jean 
1948 — 182, 184, 185 
1949 — 560, 561 
Wdis, Dr. Thomas 
1947—88, 93, 103 
1948—114, 132, 144, 163, 
176, 182, 1S5, 201, 
202, 248, 249, 328, 
350, 352, 353, 35S, 
377, 391, 392 
1949 — 146, 425, 480, 489, 
499, 502, 504, 505, 
506, 507, 50S, 509, 
510, 511, 512, 517, 
518, 521, 522, 524, 
526, 527, 528, 530, 
531, 533, 560, 588 
1951 — 56, 59, 60, 92, 94, 

1953—171,' 172, 173, 176, 
259, 260 
Iddis, Mrs. Thomas 

1948 — 216 
Ldelman, Mrs. Marci 

1948 — 146 
Ldelman, Meyer 

1948 — 163 

1949—448, 449 
Ldelson, Dr. David 

1947—102, 103 

1951 — 57, 64, 234 
Ldhikari, G. M. 

1953 — 230 
idhunic, Bastak Bhander 

1953—229 
Idler, Clarence 

1948—311 



Adler, David 

1948—330 
Adler, Dr. Irving 

1948 — 177, 344 

1955 — 392 
Adler, Mrs. Irving 

1951—286 
Adler, Jacob 

1948 — 196 
Adler, Jay 

1948 — 355 
Adler, Larry 

1947—179, 189 

194S — 210, 254, 355 

1949 — 478, 543, 683 
Adler, Luther 

1948 — 96 
Adler, Mollie 

1948 — 278 
Adler, Soloman 

1959 — 172 
Adler, Stella 

1948 — 248, 277 

1949—480, 499 
Adoratsky, A. 

1943 — 38 
Adoratsky, V. 

1949 — 191, 217 

1951 — 152 
Ad vance 

1953 — 62 
Advance Printing Co. 

1951—280 
Advertising and Public 
Relations (Local 44) 

1947 — 177 
Advertising Association of 
the West 

1949 — 623, 673 
Advertising Club of Los 
Angeles 

1943 — 103, 104 
Aetna Life Insurance Co. 

1955 — 405 
Affidavit of Alex Harris 

1948 — 300 
Affidavit of Geo. W. Crosby 

1948 — 292 
Affidavit of Rena Vale 

1948—311 
Affidavit of Wm. D. 
Handelsman 

1948 — 282 
African Blood Brotherhood 

1948 — 333 

1949 — 268, 279 
After School Club 

1943—300 
After the Seizure of Power 

1949 — 192 
After Work Club 

1943 — 3 00 
Age of Reason 

1953—177 
Age of Treason 

1948 — 106, 100 

1949—3X1 
Ager, Cecilia 

1949 — 480, 499, 529, 530 
Aggriott, Rev. Clarence B. 

1959 — 185 
Agins, Dr. Jack 

1947 — 7 3 

1948 — 171, 177 

1951—286 

1953 — 139 
Agins, Dr. Jacob 

1955 — 263, 264 
Agins, Minna 

L9 17—73 

1948 — 178 
Agitation and Propaganda 

1943 — 120 



Agit-Prop 

1943 — 34 
1949 — 180, 461 
Agrarian Party 

1949 — 118, 119 
Agricultural, Packing and 
Allied Workers of 
America 
1948 — 38 
Aidlin, Joseph W. 
1943 — 143 
1945 — 139 
1948—332 
1949 — 542, 688 
1951 — 255 
Aidlin, Mary 
1943 — 143 
1947 — 238 
1948 — 106, 160, 355 
1949 — 688 
AIMS (See Association of 
Internes and Medical 
Students) 
AIMS at U.S.C. 

1955 — 162 

Aims of Spanish Communist 

Party 

1943 — 121 

Ain, Gregory 

1947 — 238 

1949 — 480, 484, 499, 517, 

688 
1951 — 271, 280 
1955 — 387, 390 
Aircraft and Machinists Di- 
vision of United Auto- 
mobile Workers 
1959 — 93 
AKA Progressive German- 
Americans of Chicago 
1949—268 
Akahoski, Ted 

1943 — 337 
AKED 

1949 — 46 
Akers, Robert 

1951 — 229 
Akerstein, Evelyn 

1953 — 266 
Akins, Jack 
1947 — 152 
Alabama Farmers Union 

1959 — 94 
Alameda Building Trades 
Council 
1947 — 80 
Alameda County Communist 
Party 
1947 — 39, 41, 43, 44 
1948 — 7, 11, 220 
1951—50, 86, 169, 174, 178, 
186, 187, 190, 192, 
193, 197, 198, 205, 
212, 216, 217, 224, 
228, 231, 235, 243, 
276 
Alameda County Communist 
Party, County Organ- 
izer 
1951 — 192, 206, 238 
Alameda County Communist 
Party, Educational Di- 
rector 
1951 — 217 
Alameda County Communist 
Party, Secretary 
1951—235 
Alameda County < Communist 
Party, Special Section 



1951- 



■187, 200, 201, 202, 

204, 205, 206, 207, 

208, 209, 212, 213, 

216, 217, 218, 219, 

220, 221, 222, 223, 

224, 226, 228, 231, 



224 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



Alameda County Commu- 
nist Party, Special Sec- 
tion — Continued 

232, 234, 235, 238, 
241, 242, 243 
Alameda County Communist 
Party, Special Section 
Organizer 

1951—206 
Alameda County Congress 
of Industrial Organiza- 
tion Council 

1951—37, 50, 51, 76, 79, 
173, 175, 176, 185, 
186, 192, 193, 194, 
198, 201, 203, 207, 
208, 212, 213, 236, 
254 
Alaska Fishermen's Union 

19 47 — 92 
Alba, Victor 

1951—272 
Albany Civil Rights Con- 
gress 

1949 — 446 
Albert, Bessy 

1948—179 
Albert, Lillian 

1951—267 
Albert, Sam 

1955—386 
Albert, Samuel 

1943 — 60 
Alberts Case 

1959 — 15, 198 
Alberts, Doris 

1948—311, 314, 317 
Alberts, George 

1959 — 131 
Alberts, George W. 

1943—150, 177, 178, 182 
Alberts, Sam 

1947—238 

1948—311, 314, 317, 355 
Albertson, William 

1948—213 
Albrier, Mrs. Frances 
(Francis) 

1948 — 194 

1949 — 438 

1953—284 
Albritton, Clarence 

1948—338 
Alcalay, Helen 

1947—73 
Alderete, Nora 

1949—438 
Alert 

1949 — 9, 614, 616, 631, 646, 
651, 654 

1955 — 106 
Alesen, Dr. Lewis Albert 

1955—85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 
90, 91, 218 
Alexander, Charlene 

1959—42, 43 
Alexander, Dr. Chauncey A. 

1947 — 189 
Alexander, Ed 

1951 — 24 
Alexander, Mrs. Elizabeth 

1947 — 185 
Alexander, George 

1948 — 338 
Alexander, Harmon 

1947 — 185 
Alexander, Dr. Herbert 

1948 — 148, 310 
Alexander, Hursel 

1949 — 429, 432 

1953 — 162, 253 
Alexander, Leon 

1947 — 74, 85, 89, 91 

1949 — 425, 429, 431 
Alexander, Mara 

1947—89, 91 



1948—185 
1949—425 
Alexander, Milnor 

1955 — 318 
Alexander, Raymond Pace 

1949 — 449 
Alexander, Robert 
1947 — 238 
1948 — 355 
1949—480 
1953 — 107, 108, 113 
1955 — 319, 387 
Alexander v. State 

19 49 254 

Alexander, Dr. Will H. 

1948 — 199 
Alexandrov 
1953—235 
Alexeev, Alex M. 
1948—268, 374 
1955 — 390 
Algase, Benjamin 
1948 — 271 
1949 — 468 
Algren, Nelson 
1945 — 121, 126 
1948 — 274 
1949—472 
Aliard, John 
1943—137 
1947 — 67 
1948—63, 280 
1949 — 419, 437, 470, 688 
Alkaw, J. M. 
1948 — 383 
All-American Anti- 
imperialistic League 
1948 — 67, 106, 107, 143, 

145, 188, 273 
1949 — 174, 268 
All-American Slav Congress 

1949 — 413, 414 
Allan Rudak Studio 

1948 — 104 
Allan, William 

1948 — 233, 343 
All-Calif. Conference for De- 
fense of Civil Rights 
and Aid to Labor's Pris- 
oners 
1948 — 107 
1949—269 
Allen 

1957—116 
Allen, Dr. Bennet M. 

1948 — 171 
Allen, Billy 
1947—203 
Allen, Rev. Carl 

1948 — 106, 160, 161, 164, 
358 
Allen, Claude O. 

1949—438 
Allen, Fay 

1943 — 137, 139, 195 
1947 — 47, 67, 71, 96, 97, 

129 
1948 — 116, 183, 201, 328, 

351, 375 
1949 — 419, 422, 638 
Allen, Harland 
1948 — 323 
1949 — 538 
Allen, Dr. Harold B. 

1948—185 
Allen, Henry D. 

1943 — 359 
Allen, James Egert 
1948 — 198 
1949 — 449 
Allen, James S. 
1948 — 233, 343 
1949 — 189, 621, 626 
1957 — 106 
1951—153 



Allen, James T. 

1948 — 15 
Allen, Oliver S. 

1949 — 480, 489 
Allen, Dr. Raymond 

1959 — 54 
Allen, Dr. Raymond B. 
1953 — 201, 202, 204, 206 
1957 — 5, 6, 8, 9, 16, 18, 
27, 30, 31, 32 
Allen, Sam Houston 

1955 — 309, 360 
Allen, Shannon C. 

1948 — 248 
Allen, Ted 

1948—226 
Allen, Warren O. 

1947 — 47, 67, 71, 96, 97, 

129 
1948—317 
Allen, William 

1948—164, 332, 340 
1949 — 542, 547, 638 
1951 — 267 
1953 — 103 
Aller, Elsa 

1948 — 179 
Alley, Raymond 

1948—338 

All-Harlem Youth 

Conference 

1948 — 75 

1949 — 269 

Alliance, The 

1953 — 23 
Alliance of Certain Racke- 
teer and Communist 
Dominated Unions h 
the Field of Transpor- 
tation 
1959—109 
Alliance of Social Revolu- 
tionaries 
1953—22 
Allied Labor News 

1948 — 168, 181, 280 
Allied Labor News Service 
1948 — 49, 224 
1949 — 269, 381, 460, 461 
Allied Printing Trades 
Council 
1947—80 
Allied Voters Against 
Coudert 
1948—38, 96, 146 
1949—269 
Allied War Relief Rally 

1948 — 216 
All-India Kisan Sabha 

1953—231 
All-India National Congress 

1953 — 214, 215 
All-India Trade Union 
Congress 
1953 — 225, 226, 230, 231, 
233, 242 
Allis-Chalmers 

1949—440 
Allison, Elmer T. 

1948—243 

Allison, Tempe 

1947 — 89 

1949 — 425 

Allister, Mona 

1948 — 355 
Allister, Wm. 

1948—355 
All-Slav Congress 
1949 413 

All-Union Society for Cul- 
tural Relations With 
Foreigners 
1948—107, 383 
1949 — 269 
Allsberg, Dr. Martin 
1959 — 125 



225 



Almanac Singers 

1949 — 270, 542, 543 
Almazoff, Samuel 

1949 — 464 
Almeida, Joseph 

1947—155 
Almenana, Anacleto 

1948—273 
Almond, Gabriel 

1957 — 85, 100 
Alpenfels, Prof. Ethel J. 

1949 — 480 
Alper, Joseph 

1948 — 338 
Alper, Rabbi Michael 

1948 — 152, 211, 271, 328, 
351, 377, 392 

1949—468 
Alpi, Maurio 

1949 — 173 
Alsberg, Henry G. 

1943 — 139 
Alsberge, Dr. Marden A. 

1955 — 101, 105, 109, 113, 
116, 127, 367, 368, 
369, 370, 371, 372, 
373, 374, 375, 376, 
377 
Alshuler, Walter 

1948—179 
Alswang, Ralph 

1949 — 480, 535 
Altgeld Club No. 1 

1953—106, 107, 111 
Altman, Dave 

1951—230 
Altman, George 

1948—221 

1951 — 267 
Altman, Mischa 

1943—60, 85 

1947 — 261 

1948 — 311, 314, 317 

1949 — 688 
Altrocchi, Rudolph 

1943—284, 293, 294 
Aluminum Workers 

1959 — 94 
Alvarez, Ida, Mrs. 

1955—390 
Alvarez, Larry 

1955—390 
Alvarez-Tostado, C. 

1959 — 185 
Alves, Bertram 

1948 — 198, 318 
Aly Betrayed 

1949 — 654 
Amalgamated Clothing 
Workers 

1959—103 
Amalgamated Clothing 
Workers, Local 42 

1947 — 92 

1948—243 
Amalgamated Clothing 
Workers Union 

1953—61, 62 
Amalgamated Lithogra- 
phers of America, 
Local 17 

1947 — 92 
Amar, Singh 

1953 — 218 
Amar, Singh 

(different man) 

1953 — 218 
Ambellan, Harold 

1948 — 189 
Amerasia 

1948 — 224 

1949—381, 546 

1959—191-192 
America Declares Peace 

1948—257 
8 — L-4361 



America First Committee 
1943 — 254, 273, 274 
1949—89, 90 
America for Americans 

1943 — 280 
American Artists and Writ- 
ers Committee Med- 
ical Bureau, American 
Friends of Spanish De- 
mocracy 
1949—510 
American Artists Congress 
1947 — 82 
1948—35 
1949 — 270, 454 
American Artists Group 

1949 — 467 
American Artists School 

1949 — 452 
American Artists Union 

1943 — 129, 130 
American Association for 
Reconstruction in 
Yugoslavia 
1949—270, 467 
American Association of 
Scientific Workers 
1948 — 318 
1949 — 270 
American Association of 
University Professors 
1951 — 99, 100 
1955 — 390 
1957—59 
1959 — 75 
American Authors' 
Authority 
1947 — 286, 287 
1948 — 138, 189 
American Bar Association 
1951—262 
1955 — 142, 143, 144 
1959—126, 188, 191, 196, 
201, 202 
American Bar Association 
Board of Governors 
1959 — 202 
American Bar Association 
House of Delegates 
1955—143 

1959 — 196, 197, 202 
American Bar Association, 
President 
1951 — 67 
American Board of Exam- 
iners in Professional 
Psychology 
1957—17 
American Birobidjan Com- 
mittee (Ambidjan) 
1949 — 270, 533 
American Birobidjan Com- 
mittee, Southern Calif. 
Division 
1951 — 267 
American Board of In- 
ternal Medicine 
1955 — 210 
American Board of 
Pediatrics 
1955 — 151 
American Building 
Maintenance Co. 
1947 — 93 
American Caravan, The 

1948—254 
American Civil Liberties 
Union 
1943 — 92 

1948—5, 6, 107, 112, 179, 

246, 319, 349, 353 

1949 — 270, 445, 447, 518, 

576, 613 
1951—41, 260 
1955 — 349, 455 



1957 — 59, 70, 71, 100, 104, 

112 
1959—59, 83, 124, 127, 
135, 144, 145, 146 
American Civil Liberties 
Union, Los Angeles 
Chapter 
1959 — 144, 146 
American Civil Liberties 
Union, Northern 
California 
1959—80, 204 
American Civil Liberties 
Union, Southern Calif. 
Chapter 
1951—260 
American Civil Liberties 
Union, Southern 
California 
1959 — 145 
American Civil Liberties 
Union-News 
1948 — 111 
American Coalition of Patri- 
otic, Civic, and Frater- 
nal Societies 
1948 — 325 
American College of 
Physicians 
1947—72 
American Committee for a 
Democratic Greece 
1949—455 
American Committee for a 
Free Indonesia 
1947—56 

1948 — 112, 113, 225 
1949 — 270, 271, 389, 549 
American Committee for 
Anti-Nazi German Sea- 
men 
1948 — 365 
American Committee for 
Anti-Nazi Literature 
1948—334 
1949 — 270 
1953 — 176 
American Committee for 
Democracy and Intel- 
lectual Freedom 
1947 — 202 
1948 — 61, 96, 112, 319, 320, 

335 342 
1949— 27L 452, 453, 454, 

502 
1951—92 
1953—175, 280 
1955 — 88 
American Committee for 
Democracy and Intel- 
lectual Freedom to Dis- 
continue the Dies Com- 
mittee 
1948 — 391 
American Committee for 
European Workers' Re- 
lief 
1949—271 
American Committee for 
Free Yugoslavia, The 
1948 — 66 
1949—127, 271 
American Committee for 
Friendship With the 
Soviet Union 
1948—38, 324 
1949—271, 533 
American Committee for 
Indonesian Independ- 
ence 
1948—112, 113 
1949 — 271 
American Committee for a 
Korean People's Party 
1948 — 112 
1949—270 



226 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



American Committee for 
Protection of the For- 
eign Born 
1947 — 45, 202, 219 
1948 — 75, 96, 113, 114, 115, 
122, 168, 319, 321, 
334, 335, 336, 350, 
365, 381, 390 
1949 — 271, 280, 337, 450, 
451, 455, 466, 502, 
517, 522, 547, 551, 
635 
1951 — 92, 280 
1953 — 176, 279 
American Committee for 
Russian Famine Relief 
1948—114 
1949—272 
American Committee for 
Spanish Freedom 
1948—100, 102, 115, 116, 

125, 139, 148 
1949 — 272, 468 
American Committee for 
Struggle Against War 
1948 — 67, 150, 324, 334 
1949—272, 377 
American Committee for 
the Defense of Trotsky 
1948 — 156, 189 
American Committee for 
Yugoslav Relief 
1948—125, 126, 131, 132, 

218 
1949 — 127, 273 
1951 — 59 
American Committee in Aid 
of Chinese Industrial 
Cooperatives 
1951 — 280 
1953—247 
American Committee of 
Jewish Writers, Artists 
and Scientists 
1947—45 

1948 — 103, 129, 130 
1949—273 
American Committee of Lib- 
erals for the Freedom 
of Mooney and Billings 
1948 — 61 
1949—273 
American Committee to Aid 
Korean Federation of 
Trade Unions 
1948 — 112 
1949 — 273 
American Committee to Aid 
Soviet Russia 
1948 — 141 
1949 — 273 
American Committee to An- 
swer Attack on Public 
Education 
1953 — 176 
American Committee to Save 
Refugees 
1947—45 

1948 — 75, 141, 166, 175, 
234, 270, 335, 368, 
381 
1949—273, 308, 324, 366, 

468, 551 
1951—92, 235 
1953 — 171, 280 
1955 — 88 
American Communication 
Assn. (CIO) 
1943—141 
1947—72,163, 210 
1948—141, 212, 339, 383 
1949 — 475 
1953—63 
1955—417, 418 
1959—41, 93, 99, 103, 104 



American Communicatio7i 
Assn., C.I.O. v. Douds 
1955 — 61, 64 
American Communication 
Assn., Local 3 and 9 
1947 — 90, 92 
American Communism 

1949—653 
American Communism, a 
Critical Analysis of Its 
Origins, Development 
and Programs 
1959 — 27 
American Communist Party 
— see Communist Party 
American Congress for 

Peace and Democracy 
1948—67 
1949 — 273, 293 
1953 — 171 
American Congress to Free 
Earl Browder 
1947 — 202 
1949 — 274 
American Continental Con- 
gress of Peace 
1955—182 
American Continental Con- 
gress for World Peace 
1951—272, 273, 274 
1953 — 247 
American Continental Con- 
gress for World Peace, 
Chief Organizer 
1951 — 272 
American Council for Dem- 
ocratic Greece 
1949—109, 274, 313, 454, 

502 
1951—280 
American Council for 
Soviet Relations 
1951 — 235 
American Council Institute 
for Pacific Relations 
1948—168 
American Council on Soviet 
Relations 
1947 — 202, 210 
1948 — 35, 38, 65, 101, 115, 
169, 176, 334, 357, 
366 
1949—274, 412, 453, 532 
American Croatian 
Congress 
1948—66, 75 
1949 — 274, 551 
American Crusade to End 
Lynching 
1948 — 136 
American Discount Co. v. 
Wycroff 
1949—255 
American Embassy in Bel- 
grade, Yugoslavia 
1948 — 140 
American Farm Bureau 
Federation 
1959—188, 197 
American Federated Russian 
Famine Relief Commit- 

1948 — 141, 169 

1949 — 274, 412 
American Federation for 
Political Unity 

1949 — 274 
American Federation of 
Govern. Employees 

1943 — 130, 134, 137 

1948 — 379, 3S0, 381 

1953—130 



American Federation of 
Labor (A. F. of L.) 
1943 — 88 

1947 — 4, 49, 50, 51, 53, 54, 
70, 79, 87, 104, 161, 
169, 170, 172, 175- 
177, 188, 192, 229, 
230, 260, 369, 370 
1948—36, 37, 39, 41-43, 
60, 70, 88, 116, 120, 
223, 347, 379 
1949—90, 109, 264, 275, 
277, 364, 443, 472, 
473, 475, 542, 551, 
623, 631, 632, 647, 
648, 705, 706 
1951 — 41, 83, 205 
1953 — 52, 59, 67, 125, 127, 
130, 131, 140, 142, 
148 
1955 — 399, 424, 427, 431 
1957 — 152 

1959—23, 24, 29, 33, 37, 
52, 89, 90, 93, 94 
American Federation of 
Labor Council 
1953 — 62 
American Federation of 

Labor Press Association 
1949—623 
American Federation of 
Labor Social Workers 
1948 — 382 
American Federation of 
Labor Trade Union 
Committee for Unem- 
ployment Insurance and 
Relief 
1949—275 
American Federation of 
Musicians 
1947—67, 177, 260 
1948 — 311-315, 362 
1949 — 419 
American Federation of 
Polish Jews 
1955 — 388 
American Federation of 
Radio Artists 
1947 — 194 
1948—216 
American Federation of 
State, County and Mu- 
nicipal Employees AFL 
55 
1948—55 
American Federation of 
Teachers 
1943—115, 135 
1948 — 280, 320 
1953—145, 146, 165 
1959 — 99 
American Federation of 
Teachers, Local 1021 
1955 — 424 
American Flag 

1943 — 229 
American Friends of Asia 

1949 — 276 
American Friends of 
Czechoslovakia 
194S — 145 
1949—275 
American Friends of Soviet 
Russia 
1953—58 
American Friends of 

Spanish Democracy 
194S— 66, 147, 191, 319, 

324, 335, 336 
1949—275, 454, 510 
1953—171 
1955—88 



INDEX 



227 



American Friends of the 
Chinese People 
1947—45, 191, 313 
1948 — 35, 66, 142-144, 211, 

335 
1949—275, 371, 452, 454 
1951—238 
American Friends of the 
Mexican People 
1948—35 
1949 — 276 
American Friends of the 
Soviet Union 
1949 — 276 
American Friends of the 
Spanish People 
1948—35 
1949—276 
American Friends Service 
Committee 
1953—250 
American Fund for Public 
Service 
1948 — 145, 247, 336 
1949—276, 308, 312, 369, 
395, 396, 460 
American Gallery Films 

1948 — 373 
American Guard 

1943 — 259 
American Heart Associa- 
tion 
1955—210 
American Hungarian 
Woman's Circle 
1951 — 267 
American Institute of 
Pacific Relations 
1949—694 
American Institute of 
Public Opinion 
1949 — 661, 665 
American Investors Union 
1948—334 
1949 — 276 
American Jewish Committee 
1948—146 
1949 — 694, 695 
American Jewish Congress 
1948—145, 146, 149, 221 

31 S, 355 
1949—277, 695 
1951 — 57, 265 
American Jewish Labor 
Council 
1949—277, 438, 647, 648 
American Jewish League 
Against Communism 
1949—277, 647, 648 
1959 — 213 
American Journal of ' 
Medicine 
1955—221 
American Journal of 
Physiology 
1955—221 
American Labor Alliance 

1949 — 158, 277 
American Labor Committee 
Against War 
1947 — 202 
1949 — 277 
American Labor Movement 

1943—76 
American Labor Party 
1948 — 41, 339 
1949—277, 352, 449, 450, 
503, 508 
American Leasue Against 
War and Fascism 
1943—93 
1947—219,314 
1948—35, 98, 106, 124, 128, 
149, 150, 176, 180, 
196, 223, 320, 324, 
333-336, 366 



1949—147, 277, 278, 2S6, 
346, 368, 387, 454, 
487, 488 
1951 — 275 
1953—161, 174, 
1955—420 
1959 — 140 
American League for 
Ex-Servicemen 
1949—279 
American League for Peace 
and Democracy 
1943 — 135 
1947—202, 209 
1948—6, 33, 35, 67, 96, 
141, 142, 147, 149, 
150-154, 180, 181, 
196, 246, 267, 319, 
327, 334, 335, 342, 
366, 377 
1949—147, 273, 278, 279, 
289, 294, 299, 307, 
334, 339, 342, 350, 
354, 362, 372, 387, 
452, 453, 454, 455, 
461, 464, 488, 656 
1951—59, 275 
1953 — 104, 172 
1959 — 112, 140 
American League of 
Christian Women 
1943—259, 260 
American League of Ex- 
Servicemen 
1949—374 
American League of 
Writers' School 
1949—421 
American Legion 
1943—7, 99 
1945—6, 5S 

1947 — 5, 34, 229, 230, 293 
1948 — 16-19. 41-43, 127, 

171, 246, 384 
1949—637, 650, 652, 657, 

670, 675 
1951 — 101, 254, 268 
1959—130, 167, 201, 210, 
213 
American Le? ion Auxiliary 

1948—15-19 
American Legion Book 
Service 
1949 — 654 
American Legion Magazine 
1947 — 214 
1949 — 652 
1951— 282 
1955 — 43 
American Medical Associa- 
tion (A.M. A.) 
1943 — 104 
1953 — 139 

1953 — 74, 75, 107, 128, 
129, 130, 133, 210, 
215, 217, 218, 219, 
220, 376 
American Medical Associa- 
tion, House of Dele- 
gates 
1955—126, 129 
American Mercury 
1947—81 
1948—104-360 
1953—200 
1959 — 157, 183 
American Negro Labor 
Congress 
1948 — 333 
1949 — 174, 279 
1957—119 



American Newspaper Guild 

1945 — 117 

1949 — 451 

1959 — 93, 94, 98, 99 
American Opinion 

1959—19 
American Peace Crusade 

1943—93 

1947—170 

1948—67, 106, 133, 154, 
155, 160, 161, 165, 

250, 319 
1949—147, 280, 288, 3S1, 

617 

1953 — 247 

1955—175, 343 

American Peace 

Mobilization 

1943 — 96 

1947 — 20, 69, SI, 83, 170, 
202, 210, 219, 267 

1948—33, G7, 93, 96, 104, 
124, 133, 137, 141, 
150, 154, 155, 160- 
165, 169, 211, 250, 

251, 257, 275, 321, 
332, 340, 342, 351, 
367, 377, 379, 380 

1949 — 89, 90, 147, 280, 
281, 284, 292, 296, 
343, 364, 371, 412, 
420, 448, 451, 452, 
453, 454, 455, 466, 
488, 541, 542, 617 
1951 — 275, 276 
1953—67 

1959 — 137, 139, 140 
American Peace Mobiliza- 
tion Conference 
1948 — 115 
American People's Fund 
1948 — 168, 376 
1949— 2S0, 295, 303, 308, 
338, 359 
American People's Meeting 
1948—165 
1949 — 281 
American People's 
Mobilization 
1948 — 150 
1949 — 281 
American Personnel and 
Guidance Association 
1957 — 17 
American Physiological 
Society 
1955—221 
American Polish Labor 
Council 
1949 — 124, 281 
American Polish Society 

1955 — 10 
American Presbyterian 
Hospital 
1955 — US 
"Ann rican Professor" 

1959—102 
American Progressive Party 

1949—486 
American Progressives 

1949 — 527 
American Progressives De- 
fending the Moscow 
Trials 
1948 — 123, 176, 365 
American Pro-Japanese 
Organizations 
1945—62 
American Psychological 
Association 
1957 — 17 
American Pushkin Com- 
mittee 
1948—320, 335 
1949—281 



228 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



American Quarterly on the 
Soviet Union 
1948 — 169, 224 
1949—382 
American Red Cross 

1948—357 
American Relief for Greek 
Democracy 
1948—168, 169 
1949 — 281 
American Relief Ship to 
Spain 
1947 — 210 
1948—335 
1949—281 
American Rescue Ship 
Committee 
1948 — 270, 350 
American Rescue Ship 
Mission 
1949—282, 468 
American Review of Soviet 
Medicine 
1949 — 532 
American Review on the 
Soviet Union 
1948—169 
1949 — 382, 412, 466 
American Revolutionary 
Writers' Congress 
1948—196 
American Round Table on 
India 
1948—336, 353 
1949 — 282 
1953 — 173 
American-Russian Corpora- 
tion 
1949 — 543 
American-Russian Council 

1948 — 327 
American-Russian Cultural 
Exchange 
1951—57, 59 
American-Russian Fra- 
ternal Society 
1949 — 466 
American-Russian 
Institute 
1947 — 88, 89, 103 
1948 — 38, 65, 101, 123, 
168-172, 176-178, 
217, 218, 225, 237, 
261, 325-327, 353 
1949—280, 382, 402, 412, 
460, 466, 532, 539, 
540 
1951—130, 133, 142, 153, 

258, 286, 289 
1953 — 1, 247, 263, 264, 
265, 266, 269, 270, 
272, 274, 277, 281, 
1955—185 
1957—133 

1959 — 48, 128, 132, 137, 
144 
American-Russian Institute 
for Cultural Relations 
With Russia 
1948 — 246, 334 
1949 — 282, 412 
American-Russian Institute 
for Cultural Relations 
With the Soviet Union 
1953—272 
American-Russian Institute 
of Los Angeles 
1953—272 
American-Russian Institute 
of New York 
1949—282 
American-Russian Institute 
of Philadelphia 
1949—282 



American-Russian Institute 
of San Francisco 
1949—282, 547 
1953—265, 268, 273, 276 
1959 — 40 
American-Russian Institute 
of Southern California 
1949—282 
American-Russian Institute 
Peace Committee 
1953—268 
American-Russian Music 
Corporation 
1949—282 
American-Russian Music 
Publishers 
1949—533 
American-Russian-Ukrain- 
ian Fraternal Home 
1955—389 
American-Slav Congress 
1949 — 124, 127, 282, 401, 

414, 461, 551 
1951 — 280, 283 
1955—43 
American Social Democrats 

1949 — 692 
American Socialist Labor 
Party 
1949—172 
American Societv for Cul- 
tural Relations With 
Russia 
1949—283 
1953—172 
American Society for Rus- 
sian Relief 
1949—532 
American Society for Tech- 
nical Aid to Spain 
1947 — 313 
1948 — 367 
American Society for Tech- 
nical Aid to Spanish 
Democracy 
1949 — 283 
American-Soviet Friendship 
Rallv 
1949—533 
American-Soviet Medical 
Society 
1949—421 
1959 — 208 
American-Soviet Music 
Society 
1948—323, 392 
1949—283, 532, 538 
American-Soviet Science 
Society 
1948—323 
1949—283, 533, 53S 
American Student Union 
1943 — 115 
1947 — 81, 116 
1948—5, 33, 115, 159, 178, 
179, 182, 196, 335, 
336, 338, 341, 377 
1949—90, 91, 147, 283, 
343, 368, 403, 454, 
455, 542, 560 
1951—9, 10, 19, 37, 78 
1953 — 101,135 
1955 — 420 
American Technical Aid 
Society 
1949—284 
American Trade Unionism, 
Principles and Organi- 
sations, Strategy and 
Tactics 
1959—91 
American Trust Company, 
Grand Avenue Branch 
1953 — 265 
American Unitarian Church 
1951—153 



American Veterans Com- 
mittee 

1947 — 196, 228, 230, 231, 
247 

1949—437 

1951—25, 101 
American Veterans of 
World War II 

1947 — 231 
American Women for Peace 

1955 — 392 
American "Writers Assn. 

1947 — 286 
American Writers Congress 

1945—120, 124, 127, 128, 
134 

1948—35, 38, 52 

1949—284 
American Writers' School 

1947—70 
American AVriters Union 

1943 — 128, 129, 130 

1959 — 137 

American Youth Congress 
1 94 3 gg 

1948—54, 115, 148, 162, 

179, 180-182, 185, 

195, 334, 342, 383 

1949 — 147, 284, 285, 408, 

452-455, 542, 560, 
562 

1951 — 9, 10, 11 

1953 — 135, 140, 174, 176, 

1955 — 420 

1959 — 20, 130 
American Youth for a Free 
World 

1949 — 285, 378 

American Youth for 

Democracy 

1947 — 21, 24, 28, 37, 39, 
47, 60, 61, 71, 72, 
75, 82, 95, 96, 97, 
100, 103, 119, 180, 
187, 188, 189, 190, 
191, 198, 199, 202, 
228, 230, 245, 246, 
247, 249, 252, 253, 
254, 259, 260, 267, 
269, 278, 306, 313, 
369 

1948—35, 38, 47, 48, 54, 
60, 62, 63, 102, 116, 
130, 134, 136, 137, 
143, 147, 149, 182- 
190, 203, 224, 225, 
252, 253, 277, 280, 
281, 309, 31S, 334, 
339, 340, 370, 379 

1949 — 285, 288, 290, 311, 
343, 361, 366, 377, 
379, 380, 382, 387, 
403, 404, 410, 422, 
449, 450, 454, 455, 
467, 470, 472, 542, 
543, 546, 547, 558, 
560, 561, 562, 563, 
610, 678, 705 

1951—13, 15, 19, 25, 26, 
31, 32, 33, 35, 57, 
63, 111, 265 

1953 — 70, 91, 97, 99, 102, 
118, 120, 126, 135, 
195, 245, 255, 258, 
260, 272, 280 

1955—4, 173, 203, 239, 
406, 409, 420, 437, 
439, 440, 453 

1957 — 5, 21 

1959—84, 114, 137 
American Youth for Democ- 
racy, Executive 
Secretary 

1951—25, 31 



229 



American Youth for Democ- 
racy, Northern 
California 

1953—259 
Americanism Commission of 
the American Legion 

1951 — 3 
Americanism Educational 
League 

1948 — 17 
Americanism of Mr. 
Mudgett 

1948 — 342 
Americans in the U. S. S. R. 

1953 — 273 
America's Tenth Man 

1948 — 369 
Amerikadentscher, Volks- 
bund 

1943—229 
Ameringer, Oscar 

1948—163 
Ames, John 

1948 — 196 
Ames, Walter M., Jr. 

1947—117 
Ami, Jacob Ben 

1948—114 
Amlie, Thomas R. 

1948 — 181, 244 
Ammons, Forrest 

1948 — 220 
Among Friends 

1948 — 49, 224 

1949—382, 546 
Amster, Lou 

1943—154 
Amsterdam World Congress 
Against War 

1948 — 149, 150 

1949 — 377 
Amter, Israel 

1947 — 12 

1948 — 151, 176, 336 

1949 — 157, 177-179, 453, 
454, 520 

1951 — 260 

1953 — 174 
Amtorg Trading Corp. 

1949 — 678 

1951 — 180 
Amvets 

1948 — 16-19, 43 
An Armed People Oppose 
Armed Counter-Revo- 
lution 

1953—240 
An Evening for the Lab 

1948—159 
An Open Letter to American 
People 

1948 — 136 
An Outline of Russian 
Literature 

1949 — 539 
Analysis of the lath Annual 
Convention of the Com- 
munist Party of the 
United States 

1959—43 
Anang, George K. 

1947 — 56 

1948—113 
Anchor Club 

1948 — 15, 18, 19 
Ancient Egyptian Order of 
Sciots 

1948 — 17, 18 
Andersen, George 

1959 — 124 
Anderson, Bruce 

1948 — 215 
Anderson, Charles 

1948—185 



Anderson, Clinton H. 

1951—244, 245, 246, 247, 
248, 250, 252, 254, 
256 
Anderson, David L. 

1948 — 15 
Anderson, Dolores 

1948 — 185 
Anderson, George 

1943 — 186 

1947 — 89, 149, 189 

1948 — 215, 265, 266, 299, 
332, 358 

1949 — 425, 542, 6SS 
Anderson, George R. 

1953 — 175 

1959—132-133 
Anderson, Rev. J. Raymond 

1948 — 203 
Anderson, Kurt 

1949 — 480 
Anderson, Martin 

1947 — 50 
Anderson, Maxwell 

1948—260, 323, 330 

1953—131 
Anderson, Ray 

1945 — 20 

1948—94 

1949 — 554 
Anderson, Sherwood 

1948 — 151, 199, 270, 310, 
338 

1953—151 
Anderson, Mrs. Sherwood 

1948 — 227, 278 

1949 — 456 
Anderson, William A. 

1949 — 449 
Anderson-Berney Bldg. Co. 
v. Lowry 

1949 — 256 
Andre, Carole 

1953—94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 
106, 107, 108, 112, 
113, 114, 115, 116, 

1955—454 
Andrews, Robert 

1948 — 251, 254 
Andriano, Sylvester 

1943 — 284, 291, 292, 297, 
300, 301, 303, 306, 
307, 309, 310, 318, 
319 
Angell, Ernest 

1948—109 
Angell, Phillip 

1951—232 
Angeloff, Sylvia 

1953—40 
Anglo-American Institute 

1953 — 271 
Annand, Jack 

1947 — 50 
Annone, Pauline 

1948 — 186 

1949—562, 563 
Anshen, Eleanor 

1947 — 94 
Anshen, Robert 

1947 — 91, 94 
Antenine, William 

1948 — 287 
Antheil, George 

1948—254, 311, 317 

1949—480, 489, 499, 513, 
523, 526, 688 
Anthony, Earle E. 

1947 — 181, 182 
Anthony, Robenia 

1949—480, 489, 499, 504, 
512, 517 
Anthony, II, Susan B. 

1948 — 201, 228-230 

1949 — 457, 458 



Anti-American Agitation 

1949—174 
An ti- Axis Committee 

1943 — 345 
An ti- Communist Federation 

1943 — 259 
Anti-Communist Northwest 
Military Council 

1948 — 144 
Anti-Defamation League 

1943 — 7 

1945 — 6 

1947—5 
Anti-Duhring 

1949—190, 191 
Anti-Duhring Revolution, 
The 

1951—153 
Anti-Fascist Alliance of 
North America 

1949 — 174 
Anti-Fascist Refuge 
Committee 

1951—40, 234 
Anti-Hearst Examiner 

1943 — 119 
Anti-Imperialist League 

1949 — 461 

1959—137 
Anti-Imperialist War Line 

1949 — 136, 137, 138, 460, 
461, 468, 472, 542, 
544, 553, 563 
Anti-Nazi League 

1943 — 42 

1948 — 33 

1949 — S8 

1955 — 456, 457 

1959—137 
Anti-N azi News 

1948—188, 250, 341 

1949 — 382, 396, 397 
Anti-Nazi Student Congress 

1959 — 45 
Antioch College 

1948—325 

1949 — 539 
Anti-R.O.T.C. Committee 

1943 — 98 

1959 — 130 
Anti-Semitic Policy 

1943 — 248 
Anti-Semitism 

1943—247, 248, 253, 284 
Antiseptic Squad 

1943—65 
Anti-War Committee 

1943—98 

1959 — 130 
Antolish v. Paul 

1949 — 247 
Antonini, Linzi 

1948 — 181, 327 
Antonofskv, George 

1948—338 
Antonyerk, Nina 

1948—171 
Anvil 

1957 — 65, 67, 69 
Apenfels, Ethel J. 

1953 — 285 
Appeal for Laurence 
Simpson 

1948—335 

1949 — 286 
Appeal to Lift Spanish 
Embargo 

1949—507, 510 
Appeals of Communism, The 

19T.7— S5, 100 
Appel, Charlotte 

1955 — 423 
Applebaum, Julius 

1959—202 



230 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



Appelman, Dr. David 

1948 — 170, 171, 241 

1949—422, 688 
Appleman, Ruth 

1948—227 

1953 — 131 
Appleton, David 

1947—71, 95, 257 
Appleton, William 

1951—229 
Apresian, Mr. Stephan 

194S— 171 
April Conference 

1949 — 192 
Aptheker, Herbert 



1949 — 4S0, 



501, 

516, 



489, 499 

508, 513 

520, 522, 529 

536, 537 

272, 278 



519 
530 

1951 — 271 

1957—11 

1959—185 
Arbeiter Der 

1949 — 382 
Arbelaez, Enrique P. 

1951 — 273 
Aragan, Louis 

1947 — 106 
Aratania, Shigemi 

1943 — 337 
Archer, Corliss 

1955 — 447 
Archer, Frank 

1948 — 338 
Architectural Environment 
of Modern Culture 

194S— 311 
Archives of Internal 
Medicine 

1955 — 221 
Arden, Betty 

1943 — 130, 135 
Arderino, Madeleine L. 

1948— 1S1 
Ardrey, Robert 

1948 — 211 
Arens, Mr. 

1953 — 142 
Areson, Clinton 

1948—375 
Arjan, Singh 

1953—219 
Ark a to v, James 

1955—386 
Arkin and Weissman 

1955—409 
Arkin, Sandy 

1955—391 
Arlen, Harold 

1948—317 
Arlington Heights School 

1953—271 
Arlt, Gustane 

1945—116 
Armacost. George H. 

1953 — 133 
Armenian Progressive 
League 

1955—390 
Armenian Progressive 
League of America 

1949—286 
Armenta, Isidore 

1947—96 
Armenta, Jesse 

1943 — 210, 217 
Armenza, Jessie 

1945 — 182 
Arms, John Taylor 

1948—323, 330 
Armstrong 

1953 — 206 
Armstrong, Arnold B. 

1945 — 121 



Armstrong, Henry 

1947 — 96 

1948 — 185, 186 

1949 — 562 
Armstrong, Margaret 

1948—277 
Army Air Corps 

1939 — 175 
Army Signal Corps 

1959 — 175 
Arnaud, Leon 

1948 — 311 
Arnautoff, Victor 

1947—88, 91 

1948 — 216 
Arndt, Elmer J. F. 

1949 — 449 
Arndt, Mrs. W. B. 

1948 — 15 
Arnold, Emil 

194S — 266 
Arnold, John 

1948—119 
Aron, Burno 

1949 — 480 
Aron, Wellesley 

1948 — 146 
Aronberg. Philip 

1949—178 
Aronson, James 

1949 — 480, 499 
Art Committee 

1948—323 
Art Is A Weapon 

1947 — 92. 106 
Art Young Branch of the 
Communist Party 

1948—215 
Artef 

1948—188 

1949 — 286 
Artef Theatre 

1948—188 
Artford, Kenneth 

1947 — 72 
Arthur, Art 

1948—372 

1955 — 441, 442, 446 
Arthur. Chester A., Jr. 

1948—266 
Arthur, Jean 

1948 — 254 
Articles on India 

1953—224 
Artists and Writers Guild 

1949—286 
Artists Committee to Win 
the War 

Artists Fight Back 

1948—139, 140 
Artists Front to Win the 
War 
1947 — 191 

194S— 52. 97, 98, 99, 124, 
136, 188, 192, 367 
1949 — 286 
1951—58. 60 
1953 — 2S0 
Artists, Sciences and Pro- 
fessions Council 
1953 — 97 
Artists Union 
1949—354 
1959 — 94 
Artman, Florence 

1943—136 
Arts Advisory Council 

1947 — 94 
Arts, Sciences and Profes- 
sions Council 
1949—316, 476, 477, 478, 

517 
1951—59, 271, 277, 289 
1953 — 1, 107, 119, 120, 
267, 277, 2S0 



1955—91, 96, 97, 99, 106, 
109, 135, 161, 166, 
168, 176, 182, 185, 
18S, 203, 231, 235, 
236, 23S, 247, 248, 

249, 260, 261, 292, 
293, 294, 295, 296, 
297, 303, 305, 310, 
311, 313, 316, 320, 
322, 332, 336, 339, 
340, 341, 342, 343, 
344, 345, 348, 350, 
351, 354, 358, 359, 
361, 362, 363, 364, 
366, 373, 384, 385, 
386, 390, 392, 393, 
448, 461 

1959 — 34, 128, 207 
Arts, Sciences and Profes- 
sions Council, Medical 
Division 
1955 — 98, 107, 137, 138, 
159, 167, 168, 173, 
175, 181, 189, 203, 
207, 220, 230, 231, 
236, 240, 248, 249, 

250, 254, 255, 256, 
258, 261, 262, 264, 
290, 291, 293, 301, 
302, 306, 311, 312, 
313, 317, 318, 319, 
320, 322, 324, 352, 
357, 358, 359, 361, 
382 

1959—207 
Arts, Sciences and Profes- 
sions Council, Medical 
Division, Committee 
Against Discrimination 
1955 — 317, 318, 319, 320, 
322, 324. 325 
Arts, Sciences and Profes- 
sions Council, Medical 
Division, Executive 
Board 
1955—231, 236, 256, 257, 
262, 291, 305, 307, 
309, 310, 313, 316, 
338, 354 
Arts, Sciences and Profes- 
sions Council, Architec- 
ture and Engineering 
Division 
1955 — 318, 319, 321 
Arts, Sciences and Profes- 
sions Council, Equal 
Rights Conference 
1955 — 168, 236, 250, 258 
Arts, Sciences and Profes- 
sions, Hollywood Thea- 
ter 
1955 — 298 
Arts, Sciences and Profes- 
sions Council, Peace 
Committee 
1955—231, 296, 299, 302, 
341 
Arts, Sciences and Profes- 
sions Council, Science 
and Education Division 
1955—305, 306, 307, 319 
Arts Union Council 
1943—165, 166 
1948—316 
1951—83 
1959—20 
Arvin, Newton 
1945—127 
1948—248, 273, 338 
1949 — 471 
Aryan Book Store 

1943—226, 229, 234 
Asbel. Bernard 

1948 — 392 
Asch, Moe 
1949—543 



INDEX 



231 



Asch, Nathan 
1945—121 
1948—266 
Ascher, Charles S. 

194S — 109 
Asen, Simon 
1949 — 480 
Ashby, George 

1947—226 
Ash ton, Marion 

1948—15 
Ashwell, George Governeur 

1943 — 356, 377, 379, 382 
Askew, Maude 

1943 — 382 
Askey, E. Vincent, Dr. 
1955 — 128, 129, 130, 131, 
132, 133 
ASP (See Arts, Sciences 
and Professions Coun- 
cil) 
Aspects of China's Anti- 
Japanese 
1952—238 
Asperlin 

1949—255 
Aspimvall High School 

1951 — 237 
Assembly Committee 

1959—27, 127 
Assembly Concurrent Reso- 
lution No. 13 
1943—5, 386, 388 
Assembly Concurrent Reso- 
lution No. 59 
1945 — 5 
Assembly Relief Investigat- 
ing Committee 
1949 — 129, 130, 701, 702 
Assignment in Utopia 

1943 — 19 
assignment to Berlin 

1945—15, 17 
Associated Farmers 

1948 — 15, 17, 18, 19 
Associated Farmers of 
Orange County 
1955 — 36, 37 
Associated Film Audiences 
1948 — 167, 193, 225 
1949— 2S6, 387 
1953 — 176 
Associated Magazine Con- 
tributors, Inc. 
1948—49 
1949 — 460 
Associated National 
Bookshops 
1949 — 286 
Associated Press 

1949—67, 114 
Associated Students, 
U. C. L. A. 
1957 — 33 
Association for Jewish Col- 
onization of the Soviet 
Union 
1949—549 
Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science 
1955—210 
Association Nacional Mex- 
ico Americana 
1955—390 
Association of Industrial 
Sciences 
1947 — 210 
Association of Internes 
and Medical Students, 
(AIMS) 
1955—80, 83, 86, 87, 152, 
156, 157, 160, 161, 
381, 382 
Association of Lithuanian 
Workers 
1949—287 



Association of Medical 
Students 

1955—87, 382 

Association of National 

Advertisers and the 

American Association 

of Advertising Agencies 

1949—660, 661, 669, 673, 
675 
Association of Veteran 
Home Buyers 

1953—102, 103 
Ateman, Edward 

1948 — 378 

1949—557 
Atherton, Leigh 

1953—93 
Atkinson, Brooks 

1948 — 188 

1949 — 51 
Atkinson, Cyril 

1947 — 89 

1949 — 425 
Atkinson, Harry 

1951—267 
Atkinson, N. P. 

1949 — 549 
Atkinson, William, Dr. 

1955 — 309, 315 
Atlanta Federal Peniten- 
tiary 

1948—200, 214 
Atlanta Ordnance Base 

1955 — 404 
Atlantic Charter 

1949 — 15 
Atlantic Pact 

1949 — 413, 472, 540 
Atlas, Leopold 

1948—389 
Atlee, Prime Minister 
Clement 

1953 — 226, 227 
ATOLA 

1955 — 431 
Atomic Bomb Research 

1947—205 
Atomic Energy Commission 

1955 — 50 
Attorney General of the 
United States 

1959 — 138, 140, 141, 142, 
182 
Attorney General's List 

1959 — 138, 146 
Atwater, Dr. H. Gale 

1948 — 358 
Atwater, Edith 

1949 — 480, 4S9, 499, 503 
Auden, W. H. 

1948 — 330 
Auer, Mischa 

1948—358 
Auslander, Jacob, Dr. 

1959—184 
Austin, R. G. 

1945 — 45 

1948 — 338 
Australian Communist 
Party 

1951 — 498 
Australian Royal Commis- 
sion 

1955 — 394 
Austrian Communist Party 

1949—172 
Austrian, Spencer 

1943—125 

1948—332 

1949 — 542 
Austro-American Council 

1949 — 287 
Ausubel, Nathan 

1949—625 
Authors' League 

1947—286, 2S7, 288 



Auto-Tech Garage 

1948—343 
Averbuck, Alvin 

1948—214 

1953 — 110, 111 
Averbuck, Evelyn 

1953 — 111 
Avery, R. S. 

1945 — 137 

1947—71, 96, 179, 189 

1948 — 185 

1949—419, 422 
Avery, Stephen Morehouse 

1948—210 
Axelrod, William 

1949 — 688 

1959—99 
Axelrod, Jeanette 

1948 — 375 
AYD Club 

1953 — 259 
AYD in Action 

1948 — 224 

1949—382, 547 
Aydelotte, Dr. Frank 

1948 — 323 
Ayeroff Brothers 

1948 — 343 

1949 — 688 
Ayeroff, Joseph 

1943 — 159, 160 
Ayers, James M. 

1948—338 
Azad, Prithi Singh 

1953—223 
Azad, Teja Singh (See Teja 

Singh Azad) 
Azember 

1949 — 181 



3 



Baarslag, Karl 

1949 — 601, 606, 60S, 629, 
634, 637, 647, 677 

1951—269 
Babb, Sonora 

1943 — 164, 166 

1951 — 83 
Baber, Zonia 

1948 — 273 
Bacall, Lauren 

1948 — 210 
Baccoccini, Angelo 

1943 — 304 
Bachelis, Lee 

194S — 106, 132, 160, 198 

1949—688 

1951—60 

1955—299, 301, 302, 315, 
353, 360 

1959 — 127 
Bachelis, Selma Mikels 

1947 — 251 

1951 — 260, 267 

1959 — 127 
Bachrach, Marion 

1948— 318 
Bachus, George 

19 48—355 
Bachus, Henry 

1948 — 355 
Bachus, Jim 

1948 — 355 
Backus, John 

1951—229 
Bacon, Sir Francis 

19 17— sr, 
Bacon, Elizabeth M. 

1948—226, 343 
Bacon, Leonard 

19 is— 330 
Bacon, Merriel R. 

1948—209 



232 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



Baer, Ellen 


Baldulf 




1948—355 


1957—58 




Baer, May 


Baldwin, C. B. 




1948—355 


1947 — 184 




Baetcke, Drucilla (Mrs. 


1948 — 354, 392 




Max Schoen) 


1949 — 543 




1955—298 


Baldwin, Joseph Clark 




Baffa, Frank 


1948—323 




1948 — 259 


Baldwin, Roger N. 




Bailey, Ezra 


1948—107, 145, 151, 


L79, 


1947—226 


181, 194, 200, 244, 


Bailey, Gus 


247, 333, 338, 351 


1948—333 


1949 — 688 




Bailey, Harry 


Bales, William 




1948— 2S0, 311, 313 


1949 — 480 




Bailey, William 


Baliga, Dr. A. V. 




1948 — 94, 185, 218, 297 


1953 — 233 




1949 — 554 


Balint, Alex 




Baird, Max 


1948 — 205 




1949 — 547 


Balint, David 




Baker, Dr. Alonzo 


1948 — 205 




1948 — 171 


Baliol College 




Baker, Beverly 


1953—231 




1955 — 392 


Ball, Lucile 




Baker, Bill 


1943 — 127 




1951—230 


Ballam, John J. 




Baker, Charles 


1949 — 178 




1948 — 243 


Ballard, Benjamin Franklin 


Baker, Chester 


1943—258 




1947 — 152, 164 


Ballard, W. W. 




Baker, Eddie 


1949—480 




1955 — 391 


Ballila 




Baker, Enos J. 


1943—301 




1948 — 214 


Ballot. Southern California 


Baker, Dr. Frank 


Chapter of the 


Na- 


1948 — 151, 325 


tional Council of 


the 


1949 — 539 


Arts, Sciences and Pro- 


Baker, George T. 


fessions 




1943 — 251-253, 275, 281, 


1955—343, 344 




284, 291 


Ballou, Walter 




Baker, Hart 


1943 — 161 




1948 — 95 


Balokovic, Zlato 




Baker, James 


1948 — 113, 114, 126, 


131, 


1955 — 392 


168, 208, 265, 


323, 


Baker, James C. 


374 




1948 — 320 


1949—415, 449, 455, 


480, 


Baker, Bishop James 


489, 494, 499, 


503, 


Chamberlain 


505, 509, 512, 


513, 


1948—109, 114 


515, 517, 518, 


519, 


Baker, Josephine 


522, 524, 530, 


531. 


1955—296 


534, 537, 538 




Baker, Melville 


1951 — 271, 287 




1948—372 


1953 — 131, 172 




Baker, Miriam 


Balokovic, Mrs. Zlato 




1955—391 


1951 — 286 




Baker, Mr. and Mrs. Percy 


Baiter, Harry Graham 




1948 — 216 


1948—151, 152, 249 




Baker, William 


Baiter, Sam 




1948 — 94 


1947—180, 181, 183 




1949 — 554 


1948—198, 202, 279 




Baker, Miss Wilma 


1949 — 688 




1948 — 198 


Baltic Riddle, The 




Bakery Drivers Local 276 


1948—326 




1947 — 50 


1949 — 539 




Bakery Wagon Drivers 


Baltic Soviet Republic, 


The 


Salesmen, Local 484 


1947 — 114 




1947—90, 93 


Baltimore Sunday Sun 




Bakesy, Charles G. 


1948 — 124 




1943 — 61 
Bakewell, Bernard K. 


Baltisky, N. 
1949 — 67 




1948 — 15 
Bakunin, Michael 
1945 — 68 


Balzer Department Store 
1951—267 


1947—9 


Bancroft, Frank C. 




1953 — 9, 10, 21, 22, 23, 


1948 — 1G3, 375 




25, 29, 30, 32 


Bancroft, Frank Carter 


Balahap, Juan 


1959 — 176 




1949 — 181 
Balamuth, Lewis 
1948 — 179 


Bancroft, Philip, Jr. 
1948—15 




Balbanoff, Angelica 


Banenberger, Weston 




1949—160, 161 


1955 — 391 




Balch, Prof. Marston 


Bangal Corporation 




1949 — 480 


1953 — 231 





Bangs, Mrs. Grace Allen 

1948 — 228 

1949 — 458 
Bank of America 

1943 — 286 
Banke, Evelyn 

1955—416 
Bankhead, Thomas 

1949—437 
Bankhead, William G. 

1955 — 409 
Banks, Joan 

1948—355 

1953—286 
Banning Live Wire 

1948—20 
Barahal, Allan 

1949 — 429, 430 
Barankovic, Istvan 

1949 — 114 
Baras, Joseph 

1948 — 341 
Barber, Carl 

1951 — 229, 230 
Barber, Samuel 

1948 — 330 
Barbers Union, Local 48 

1947 — 80 
Barbour, Josephine C. 

1949 — 4S0 
Barbour, Katherine 

1948 — 375 
Barbussi, Henri 

1945 — 119 

1947 — 106 

1948—149, 246, 266, 384, 
385 

1949—318, 368, 377, 487 

1953—175 
Barclay, Rev. Wade 
Crawford 

1949 — 480, 506, 507, 530 
Bard, Phil 

1948—244 
Barilone, John 

1948—233 
Barkan, Camille 

1948—184 

1949 — 561 
Barker, Mary C. 

1948 — 278 
Barker, Oner B., Jr., Dr. 

1955 — 79, 277, 2S6, 287, 
367, 3S0, 393 
Barlin, Paul 

1955—387 
Barlo, Ed 

1947 — 90 
Barlow, Edward 

1951—280, 281 
Barlow, Jarvis 

1948 — 355 
Barlow, Sam 

194S— 392 

1949 — 4S0, 4S4, 499, 505, 
507, 509, 513, 517, 
519, 543 
Barlow, Samuel L. M. 

1948 — 327 
Barlow Sanitorium 

1955— 9S 
Barmine 

1949—62 
Barnes, Carol 

1948—8, 215, 220 
Barnes, Clifford W. 

1948—323 
Barnes, Edward L. 

1948 — 62 

1949 — 470 
Barnes, Dr. Harry Elmer 

1948 — 109, 181, 196, 211, 
247, 248, 265, 351 

1949 — 688 
Barnes, John 

1948—279, 383 



233 



Barnes, Joseph 

1948 — 341 

1959 — 174 
Barnes, Joseph Fels 

1948—357 
Barnes, Mrs. Kathleen 

1948 — 170 
Barnes, Mary Natividad 

1955—391 
Barnes, Roswell P. 

1948—193 
Barnett, Eugene E. 

1948 — 322 
Barnsten, Louise 

1947—88 
Barnum, Carl 

1948 — 195 
Barnum, Prof. Cyrus P., Jr. 

1949 — 480, 489 
Baron, Isabel 

1948 — 184, 185 

1949—561 
Baron, Lou 

1943 — 159, 162 

1947—64, 65, 74, 169 

1949 — 417, 418 
Baron, Rose 

1948 — 266 

1949 — 179 

1955 — 389 
Baroway, Leo 

1948 — 213 

1949—545 

1951 — 188, 190 
Barr, Arvil S. 

1953 — 151 
Barr, Mrs. Clinton M. 

1948—333 
Barran, Joseph 

1948 — 94 

1949 — 554 
Barrett, Edward L., Jr. 

1959 — 49 
Barrie, Lee 

1948 — 355 

1955 — 387 
Barrier, Edgar 

1948—356 
Barrigan, Andy 

1943 — 155 

1948 — 182 

1949 — 560, 688 
Barrigan, Andrew 

1959—99 
Barron, Samuel 

1949 — 546 
Barrows, Alice 

1948 — 151, 226, 328 

1949 — 480, 488, 489, 499, 
509, 512, 516, 528, 
530 
Barrows, Alice Prentiss 

1959 — 174 
Barry, Frank D. 

1943—275, 277 
Barrv, John D. 

1948—358 
Barry, John M. 

1957—31 
Barry, Katherine Dixon 

1943 — 275 
Barsky, Edward K., Dr. 

194S — 125, 231, 234, 271, 
350, 353, 376 

1949—342, 460, 468, 480, 
489, 499, 501, 503, 
506, 508, 509, 511, 
512, 513, 515, 519, 
520, 531, 534, 688 

1951 — 92, 271, 272, 275 

1953—131, 171, 172 
Barsky, George 

1953—174 
Barsky v. United States 

1955—61 



Bartlett, Noel 






Bauer, Hans F. 


1947 — 211 






1943 — 225, 242, 243 


1951—77, 229, 230 




Bauer, Katherine 


Bartlett, Sy 






1953—172 


1948 — 211 






Bauer, Marion 


1955 — 456, 457 






1948 — 311 


Bartman, Mrs. Fred 




Bauer, William P. 


1959—212 






1943 — 225, 235, 236 


Baruch 






Bauers, Louisa, Mrs. 


1949 — 43 






1955 — 388 


Baruch, Dorothy 






Baum 


1947 — 96 






1947 — 203 


1948 — 279 






Baum, B. 


Barzin, Leon 






1949 — 501 


1948 — 311 






Baum, Prof. Bernard 


Barzman, Ben 






1949 — 480, 527 


1947 — 73 






Bauman, Harry 


Bashore, Lee 






1948 — 146 


1949—702 






Bauman, Mordecai 


1951—1 






1949 — 480, 499, 514, 519, 


Basky, Louis 






520 


1957 — 87 






Baumgartner, D. Leona 


Bass, Basil 






1948 — 227 


1948 — 169 






Bavaria 


1949 — 412 






1943 — 218, 219 


Bass, Charlotta 






Baxter, Charles 


1959 — 185 






194S — 383 


Bass, Charlotta A 






Baxter, David 


1945 — 137, 139, 


"182, 


185, 


1943—225, 243 


208 






Bay Area Committee to 


1947 — 47, 67, 79, 89 


, 93, 


Save the Rosenbergs 


96, 238 






1955 — 403 


1948 — 59, 183, 


184, 


185, 


Bay Area Council Against 


190, 202, 


203, 


204, 


Discrimination 


215, 221, 


279, 


320, 


1947—209, 210 


330, 344, 


346, 


355, 


Bay, Emanuel 


375, 378 






1948—311 


1949—419, 424, 


478, 


548, 


Bay, Howard 


557, 688 






1948 — 96, 132, 162, 189, 


1951 — 53, 56, 57, 58 


, 59, 


328, 378 


250, 251, 


255, 


264, 


1949—448, 449, 480, 488, 


268, 272, 


275, 


281 


499, 501, 503, 515, 


1955—383, 387, 


422 




517, 521, 522, 527, 


Bass, Elbert 






531, 534, 537 


1948 — 184 






Bay, Paula 


1949 — 561 






1948 — 356 


Bass, Xaomi 






Bayer, Theodore 


1955 — 3S6, 391 






1943 — 119, 120 


Bass, Saul 






1948—323 


1955 — 387 






1949 — 538 


Bassett, W. J. 






Bazazowski, Hank 


1947 — 48, 49, 50. 51. 


52, 


1943—149 


192 






Beach, Ethel 


Bassett, W. K. 






1948 — 227 


1943__150 






Beach, Prof. Joseph Warren 


1948 — 341 






1948—271 


1949 — 397 






1949 — 468 


Basshe, Emjo 






Beal, Fred 


1945 — H9 






1959 — 122, 123 


1948 — 270, 273, 


278 




Beal, Fred E. 


1949 — 47i 






1949 — 178, 182 


Bassman, George 






Beal, John 


1948 — 314 






1948 — 211 


Bassman, Melvin 






Beals, Carlton 


1948 — 179 






1949 — 244, 245 


Bassols, Narcisso 
1951 — 273 






Beals, Ralph 

1947 — 71, 95, 258 


Bath, Cyril 
1949 — 538 






1948—171 
1949 — 422, 688 


Batiste, Calvin 






1951 — 53 


1948 — 215, 220 






Bear, The 

1948—96 
Beard, Charles A. 


Batt, Hon. William L. 
1948 — 323 




Battaglini, Rene 

1948 — 358 

1949 — 688 
Batten, L.W. 

1949 — 601 






1947 — 363 

1948 — 199, 330 
Beard, Mary 

1948 — 199 
Beardsley, Helen (Mrs. 
John) 


Battle, George Gordon 




1948 — 109, 110 


1948 — 248 






Beardsley, Judge John 


Bauer 






1949 — 184, 201 


1953 — 9 






Beasley, Robert 


Bauer, Catherine 






1948 — 375 


1947 — 202, 209 






Beattie, Ruth Priscilla 


1948 — 151 






1955 — 424, 425 



234 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



Beaudry, Lee 

1948 — 179 
Beaver, William 

1951—229 
Beaverman, Harry 

1947 — 239 
Beavers, George A. 

1953—79, 80, 82, S3, 121 
Beavers, Louise 

1948 — 185 
Bebritz, Louis 

1949 — 182 
Becerril, Edward 

1948 — 259 
Becher, Johannes 

1949 — 413 
Beck, Dave 

1959 — 108 
Beck, Edward 

1951—162, 163 
Beck, Jean R. 

1948—226, 343 
Beckelman, Moses W. 

1948—375 
Becker, Mr. and Mrs. A. 

1948 — 172 
Becker, A. Soundel 

1959 — 185 
Becker, Kathryn 

1948—317 
Becker, Leon S. 

1948 — 211, 317 
Becker, Maurice 

1948 — 132 
Beckerman, Edith 

1951 — 25 
Beckerman, Harry N. 

1947 — 96 
Becket, Marjory 

1948 — 356 
Beckwith, Dr. Theodore D. 

1948 — 171 
Bedacht, Max 

1947 — 180 

1948_131, 176, 196, 200, 
265-268, 322, 323, 
328, 351, 390 

1949—158, 177, 178, 321, 
463, 464, 538, 688 

1951 — 93, 281, 287 

1953 — 131, 172, 173, 175 

1955—41 

1957 — 80 
Bedwell, Dona 

1948—277 
Beecroft, Dr. Eric 

1948—152, 255 
Beek, Joseph Allan 

1947—355, 356 
Beery, Ben S. 

1943—7, 225, 251, 257, 259, 
263, 266, 275, 276 
Beerv, Wallace 

1949—691, 695 
Beet Susrar Local 2074 8 

1949—437 
Behrendt, George S. 

1947 — 238 
Behrman, Samuel 

1948—330 
Beierelman, Dr. M. N. 

1948—171 
Bein, Albert 

1945 — 127 
Biswenger, Hugo 

1949 — 547 
Bekessy, Mr. and Mrs. 
Imre 

1947 — 96 
Bela, Nicholas 

1947—182, 185 
Beldner, Sanford S. 

1948—198 

1949 — 688 
Belester, Mrs. Alice S. 

1948—322 



Belfrage, Cedric 

1948 — 4, 152 

1949 — 688 

1955 — 112 
Belgium 

1943 — 221 
Belgrade, Sema B. 

1948 — 93 
Belino, Mattie A. 

1949 — 596 
Bell, Arthur Lowber 

1943 — 356, 359, 370, 376, 
378-382 

1945 — 32-34, 39, 40-43 
Bell, Columbus S. 

1949 — 596 
Bell, Prof. Eric T. 

1948—112 
Bell, Rev. James W. 

1948 — 338 
Bell, Ruby V. 

1943 — 381 

1945—35-38, 39-40 
Bell, Thomas 

1947 — 106 

1949 — 414, 449, 480, 489, 
499, 503, 509, 512, 
516, 525, 529, 535, 
536, 537 
Beller, George 

1947_73, 80, 189 
Beller, Prof. Irwin R. 

1949—480 
Bells Toll for Hemingway at 
Vets' Symposium 

1948—100 
Belmont High School 
(Los Angeles) 

1948—179 

1951—27, 34 
Beloff 

1949 — 31 
Belowski, John 

1948—273 
Belt, Dr. Elmer 

1948—171 
Belt, Mrs. Elmer 

1947—182, 185 
Belton 

1949—610 
Belton, Bill 

1947 — 243, 244 

1948 — 280 

1949 — 688 
Belton, Maxine 

1948—338 
Beltram, William 

1953 _27S, 282 
Bemis, Gray 

1943—217 

1945—139, 140 

1948 — 328, 351, 3,';) 
Bemis, Gregg 

1945—182 
Benault, Al 

1948 — 356 
Ben Davis Club 

1848—214 
Ben Leider Memorial Fund 

19 48 — 56 

1949—287 
Bender, Albert 

1948 — 144 
Bendich, Albert M. 

1959 — 204 
Bendiner, Elmer 

1949—480 
Bendor, Bill 

1948 — 203 
Benedaret, Bea 

1948—356 
Benedict, D. F. 

1949—436 
Benedict, E. F. 

1947 — 241 
Benedict, Ruth 

1948 — 192 



Benes, 


President 


1949- 


-111 


Benet, 


William Rose 


1948- 


-114, 132, 189, 239, 




240, 244, 262, 273, 




323, 324, 328, 3:J0, 




351, 352 


1949- 


-449, 471 


Bengou 


gh, P. R. 


1959- 


-97 


Benjam 


in, Herbert 


1948- 


-383 


1949- 


-337, 365 


Benjamin, Nora 


1945- 


-127 


Bennett 


, Bill 


19 49- 


-556 


Bennetl 


, Connie Lee 


1955- 


-387 


Bennett 


, Delay 


1948- 


-161 


Bennett 


, Eugene V. 


1948- 


-249 


Bennett 


, Gwendolyn 


1947- 


-106 


194S- 


-545 


Bennett 


Hugh 


1948- 


-251 


1949- 


-547 


Bennett 


John C. 


1948- 


-328, 351 


Bennett 


Louise 


1948- 


-233 


Bennett 


M. E. 


1947- 


-324 


Bennett 


Margaret 


1947- 


-23 8 


194S- 


-251, 254, 279 


Bennett 


Milly 


1949- 


-546 


Bennett 


Robert Russell 


1948- 


-311, 317 


Bennett 


S. K. 


1948- 


-383 


Benson, 


E. 


1948- 


-233 


Benson, 


Elmer A. 


1947- 


-184, 233 


1948- 


-113, 132, 168, 181, 




198, 202, 208, 226, 




248, 318, 327, 328, 




354 


1949- 


-449, 455, 491 


Benson, 


Frank W. 


1948- 


-330 


Benson, 


George S. 


1953- 


-133 


Benson, 


James D. 


1948- 


-141 


Bentall, 


David J. 


1948- 


-265, 331 


1949- 


-541 


Bentall, 


J. O. 


1948— 


266 


Bentley, 


Barbara 


1948- 


-210 


Bentley, 


Elizabeth 


1949- 


-2, 678 


1951- 


-81, 131, 133, 134, 




146, 148, 149, 152 


1953- 


-7 


1955- 


-401 


1959- 


-167, 183 


Bentley, 


Phyllis 


1951- 


-53 


Benzigei 


-, Otto W. 


1943— 


-60 


Bercovici, Leonardo 


1948- 


-210, 260 


Bercovitz, Nathaniel, Dr. 


1955— 


-71, 118, 119, 120, 




121, 122, 123, 124, 




125, 126, 133 



INDEX 



235 



Bercut-Richards Packing 
Corporation 

1959—134 
Berdansky, Louis 

194S — 375 
Berenholz, Anne 

1948—227 
Berenson, Bernard 

1948 — 330 
Berg, Beckie 

1948—343 
Berger, Hans (Gerhart 
Eisler) 

1949—172, 231, 444, 677 
Berger, Meta 

194S — 248 
Berger, Mrs. Victor I. 

194S — 151 
Bergh, Haakon 

1948 — 311, 314 
Bergman, Hilmer 

1947 — 72 
Bergoffen, H. 

1949 — 548 
Beria, Laventri 

1949 — 192 

1951—239 

1953—44, 45 
Berke, Dr. William 

1949 — 429, 430 
Berke, Dr. William R. 

1953 — 248, 267, 268 

1955—52 
Berkeley Democratic Club 

194S — 195 
Berkeley, Martin 

1959 — 116 
Berkeley Tennis Club 

1953 — 262 
Berkman v. Tillinghast 

1949 — 246 
Berkowitz (see Berke, 

William R.) 
Berland, Sam 

1948 — 203 

1949 — 437, 688 
Berland, Samuel 

1953 — 106, 107, 118, 124, 
125 
Berle, A. A., Jr. 

1949 — 341 
Berle, Adolph A. 

1949 — 341 

1951 — 262 
Berlin League Against 
Imperialism 

1953—223 
Berlin-Rome Axis 

1943 — 220 
Berman 

1951—56 
Berman, Averill 

1947 — 194, 195, 198, 199 

1948—219, 279, 355 

1949 — 632, 688 

1955—309, 360 
Berman, Freda 

1948—375 
Berman, Jack T, 

1947—179, 189, 238 

1948 — 355 

1949— 6SS 
Berman, Lionel 

194S — 340, 377 

1949 — 484 

1955—366 
Bernales, Humberto Lillo 

1949 — 181 
Bernard, Bern 

1948 — 250, 255 
Bernard, John T. 

1948—95, 109, 310, 386 



Berne, Louis Alan 
1945—147 
1947 — 201-204, 209, 214, 

216, 219 
1948—114, 151, 163, 176, 

211, 351 
1949 — 44S, 449, 68S 
1951 — 56, 59, 92, 93 
1953—63, 171, 172, 176, 
177, 280, 281 
Berneri, Camillo 

1951 — 273 
Bernfeld, William 

1948 — 15 
Bernhard, Arthur 

1949 — 549 
Bernstein, Mr. and Mrs. 

1951—267 

Bernstein, Aline 

1945 — 127 

1948 — 189 

1949 — 480, 499, 503, 504, 
505, 509, 512, 515, 
517, 530, 533 
Bernstein, Harry 

1948 — 374 
Bernstein, Leonard 
1948—210, 392 
1949—480, 484, 489, 494, 
499, 501, 502, 503, 
505, 506, 509, 512, 
513, 514, 515, 516, 
517, 521, 523, 532, 
543 
Bernstein, Maurice 

1948 — 375 
Bernstein, Samuel 

1951 — 153 
Bernstein, Sanford 

1949 — 428, 434 
Bernstein, Victor 

1949—480, 483, 499, 503, 

516, 519 
Bernstein, Walter 

1948 — 378 

1949 — 480, 489, 499, 514, 

517, 525, 529, 535, 
536, 537, 557 

Berrish 

1948 — 285 
Berry, Abner 

1948 — 213, 233, 343 

1949—189, 545, 547 
Berry, John 

1948 — 97, 179 
Berry, Rosalie 

1949 — 547 
Berry Sisters 

1949—542 
Berry, Wallace 

1948 — 280, 338 

1949—691, 695 
Bersin, Harry 

1948 — 205 
Bertholon, George 

1943 — 129 

1948—152 
Berton, Victor 

1948 — 311, 312 
Besig, Ernest 

1948 — 4, 5, 6, 111, 112 
Bessie, Alvah 

1947 — 70, 72, 106 

194S — 97-103, 105, 136, 
170, 176, 183, 189, 
192, 239, 261, 328, 
340, 360 

1949 — 421, 478, 545, 688 

1951 — 57, 59, 60, 268 

1953 — 139, 279, 280, 281 
Best, Raymond 

1945—55, 56 



Beth Israel Hospital 

1955 — 221 
Bethune Branch of the 
Communist Party 
1948—215 
Bethune, Dr. 
1949—555 
Bethune, Mary McLeod 
1948—114, 131, 151, 181, 
186, 201, 227, 228, 
262, 318, 319, 323, 
324, 327, 328, 334, 
350, 351, 353, 390 
1949 — 449, 456, 457, 538, 
562 
Better Business Bureau 

1949 — 653 
Bettington, Mrs. Blanche 
1947 — 115-120, 122, 124- 
126, 128, 129, 131, 
132, 134, 135, 137, 
138, 139, 238, 369 
Beverly, Helen 

1948 — 356 
Beverly Hills High School 
1953—100 
1959—212 
Beverly Hills Police 
Department 
1951—244, 245, 246, 249, 
254 
Beverly Hills Police 

Department, Chief 
1951—244, 245, 254 
Beverly Vista Grammar 
School 
1953 — 100 
Bevin, Foreign Minister 

1949—120 
Beware the Ex-Communist 

1959 — 11, 15 
Bey, Howard 
1947 — 238 
Beyea, Frank 

1948 — 161 
Bhagat Singh 

1953 — 223 
Bhala Singh 
1953—218 
Bhan Singh 
1953—219 
Bianco, Joseph 
1948 — 94 
1949 — 554 
Bibby, Dr. Henry Lambert 
1948 — 271, 322 
1949—468 
Biber, Harry 
1955 — 392 
Biber, Henry 
1955 — 392 
Biberman, Edward 
1943 — 129 

1947 — 70, 96, 189, 238 
1948 — 183, 231, 355 
1949 — 421, 478, 688 
1955 — 306, 315, 387 
Biberman, Gale 
Sondergaard 
1955 — 315 
Biberman, Herbert 
1943—93, 124, 129 
1947 — 70, 72, 73, 188 
1948 — 106, 154, 160, 162, 
164-168, 175, 193, 
226, 239, 250, 251, 
255-257, 267, 276, 
310, 328, 346, 360, 
373, 374 
1949 — 421, 478, 480, 4S8, 
499, 504, 506, 508, 
509, 512, 513, 516, 
517, 519, 520, 523, 
530, 537, 6S8 



236 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



Biberman, Herbert — 
Continued 
1951—57, 58, 59, 60, 92, 
255, 268, 271, 280 
1953—139 

1955—112, 294, 306, 315, 
346, 387, 450 
Biberman, Sonja Dahl 

1955—315, 387 
Bibily, Paul 

1943 — 284, 293 
Bibir, Stella 
1955 — 391 
Bibliography on the Soviet 
Union 
1947—114 
Bibliography on Women, 
Child Care and the 
Family in the U. S. S. R. 
1947 — 114 
Bick, Leon 
1947 — 90 
Biddle, Attorney General 
Francis 
1945—30, 134 
1947 — 68 

1948 — 98, 99, 103, 106, 
110, 117, 118, 121, 
122, 124, 126, 133, 
134, 135, 154-158, 
165-167, 191, 192, 
265, 274, 331, 362, 
364, 366-368, 383 
1949—251, 257, 265, 268, 
274, 277, 278, 279, 
280, 281, 284, 291, 
298, 300, 307, 319, 
320, 321, 328, 332, 
335, 339, 341, 342, 
348, 353, 363, 364, 
368, 371, 373, 393, 
394, 398, 407, 408, 
419, 439, 440, 446, 
487, 540 
1959 — 139 
Biddle, George 

1948—248, 386 
Bidien, Charles 

1949—549 
Bidner, William 
1947—60, 61, 62 
1948—202, 203, 206, 207, 

208, 220, 221 
1949—688 
1951 — 255 
1953 — 102 
Biendenkapp, Fred 

1948—266 
Bielawski, Eugene 
1947 — 89, 91 
1948 — 425 
Bienz, Senator Thomas H. 
1949—600, 601, 602, 603, 
605, 606, 607, 608, 
609, 637 
Bierut, Boleslaw 
1949—101, 119 
Big Union 

1948 — 342 
Bigelman, Dr. Leo 
1943 — 127, 143 
1947 — 71, 72, 73 
1948—223, 224 
1949—422 

1955 — 112, 272, 287, 367 
Bignami, Arthur 

1943 — 310 
Bilan, Alexander 

1949 — 177 
Bill of Rights 
1943—247 
1948 — 61, 391 
1949— 50S, 566, 579 
1959—189, 211 
Bill of Rights Conference 
1951 — 41, 280, 281 
1953—247 



Billboard 

1948 — 147 
Billing, Dr. Harvey E. 

1948 — 171 
Billings, Marcus 

1953—278, 282 
Billings, Warren K. 

1947 — 78, 79 

1948 — 163, 201 

1949 — 424, 448 
Bills, Walter 

1949—546 
Bingham, Alfred M. 

1948 — 244 
Binswanger, Clara G. 

1948 — 265 
Bioff, Willie 

1959 — 111 
Bio-Lab Union, Local 225 

1955—48, 49, 65 
Bird, Dick 

1945—175 
Bird, W. H. 

1955 — 394 
Birge, Prof. Raymond T. 

1948—112, 328, 351, 352 

1953 ^73 

Birkhoff, Prof. George D. 

1948—322 
Birmingham School of 
Medicine 

1951 — 164 
Biro-Bidjan 

1948 — 196 

1949 — 288, 317 
Bishop, George 

1948—377 
Bishop, Isabel 

1948—330 
Bishop, Father Shelton Hale 

1949—480, 483 
Bisno, Herb 

1955 — 318 
Bissell, Doc 

1948 — 94 

1949 — 554 
Bissel, Dr. Franklin 

1955 — 206, 207, 288, 374 
Bissell, Whit 

1948—356 
Bisson, T. A. 

1948—144, 151, 198 

1959 — 175 
Bisson, Thomas A. 

1953—176 
Bittleman 

1949—658 
Bittleman, Alexander 

1948 — 142, 196, 213 

1949—157, 166, 175, 177, 
178, 188, 189, 304, 
545, 546, 625 

1953—51, 173, 174, 230 

1957 — 80 
Bittner, Van A. 

1948 — 181 
Bjoze, Jack 

1949—556 
Black, Algernon 

1948 — 179, 193 

1949—480, 499, 504-507, 
509, 512, 513, 515, 
517, 522, 531, 532 
Black and White 

1948—46, 49, 172, 193, 224 

1949—382 

1951 — 235 
Black and White Press, Inc. 

1948 — 224 
Black v. Cutter Laboratories 

1955 — 384 
Black Dragon Society 

1943—325, 345 



Black, Elaine 

1948 — 266 

1951 — 259 

1953 — 175 
Black Hand 

1949 — 26 
Black, Justice 

1953—180, 181 

1959 — 189 
Black Legion 

1948 — 117 
Black Lists 

1943 — 79 
Black Pit 

1948 — 128 
Black Shirts 

1959 — 45 
Blackiston, William 

1947 — 180, 181 
Blackman, Mrs. Phyllis 

1948 — 355 
Blackmer, Jane 

1947—91 
Blackwell, Aline Stone 

1948—266 
Blackwell, Juanita 

1945—15 

1948 — 146, 149 
Blackwell, Nita 

1953 — 121 
Blai, Boris 

1949—480 
Blain, Anne 

1948—334 
Blair, Aubrey 

1943 — 61, 82 
Blair, Betsy 

1948 — 356 

1949 — 480, 489 
Blair, Fred 

1948—212 
Blair, Helen 

1955—387 
Blair, Nan 

1951 — 266 
Blake, Ben 

1948 — 278 
Blake, George 

1948 — 213 
Blake, Melissa 

1948 — 343 
Blake, William 

194S — 95, 103, 276 
Blanchard, Dr. Frederic T. 

1948 — 171 
Blanchard, Helen 

1948 — 227 
Blanchard, Myron B. 

1948 — 375 
Bland, John L. 

1948 — 15 
Blankford, Gerald 

1947—72 
Blankfort, Henry 

1947 — 185, 238 

1948—251, 355 

1949 — 480, 484, 489, 688 

1951 — 271 

1955—383 
Blankfort, Henry, Jr. 

1949—509 
Blankfort, Mrs. Henry 

1955 — 383 
Blankfort, Laurie 

1948—278 
Blankfort, Michael 

1945—126 

1947 — 238 

1948 — 163, 198, 202, 274, 
278, 279, 343, 355 

1949—471, 4S0, 499, 516, 
688 

1951 — 271 
Blankfort, Mrs. M. 

1948—97 



237 



Blankfort, Sylvia 

1948 — 278 
Blass, Dorothy 

1948 — 356 
Blass, Lambert 

1948 — 356 
Blatch, Harriet Stanton 

1948—248 
Blatniak, Anna 

1949 — 414 
Blau, Milton 

1947 — 106 

1948—545 
Blaustein, Julian 

1947 — 238 
Blazer, Julia 

1959 — 174 
Blazer, Julia Older 

1959—172, 174, 176 
Bledsoe, William 

1948 — 360 
Bleucher, Marshall 

1949—104 
Blewett, John H., Jr. 

1951 — 102, 104 
Blinken, Samuel M. 

1948—332 

1949 — 541 
Bliss, George H. 

1949 — 602 
Bliss, Ted 

1948 — 254 
Blitzstein, Madelin 

1948 — 277 
Blitzstein, Marc 

1948 — 103, 162, 311, 378, 
392 

1949 — 480, 488, 489, 494, 
499, 501, 503, 504, 
506, 508, 509, 510, 
511, 512, 513, 515, 
516, 517, 518, 519, 
520, 521, 523, 524, 
525, 527, 528, 529, 
532, 534, 535, 536, 
537, 543 
Bliven, Bruce 

1948 — 96, 151, 179, 333, 
377 

1953 — 171, 174, 176 
Blix, Lew C. G. 

1943 — 82 
Bloc, Jean-Richard 

1947 — 106 
Bloch, Ernest 

1948 — 330 
Bloch, Dr. Joshua 

1949 — 480 
Bloch, Leon 

1948 — 278 
Bloch, Dr. Louis 

1951—231, 232 
Bloch, Mrs. Louis 

194S— 322 
Block, Anita 

1948 — 278, 322 
Block, Joe 

1949 — 548 
Blockade 

1948—372 
Blodgett, Dave 

1948 — 343 
"Bloody Thursday" Parade 

1943 — 99 
Bloom, Aaron 

1948—268 

1949 — 464 
Bloom, Dr. Leonard 

1947 — 71, 72, 95, 257 

1948 — 309 

1949—422 

1951 — 53, 109, 255 
Bloom, Sophie 

1948—281 



Bloomgarden, Kermit 

1948—240 

1949— 4S0, 484, 489, 503 
Bloomgarden, Lawrence 

1949 — 694 
Bloor, Mother Ella Reeve 

1948 — 56, 151, 176, 228, 
266 

1949 — 157, 177, 329, 355, 
361, 377, 452, 454, 
455, 457, 520 
Blow That Whistle 

1948 — 264 
Blowitz, Bill 

1945—116 

1948 — 254, 279, 355 
Blue, Ben 

1951 — 267 
Blue Network 

1947 — 364 
Blueprint for World 
Conquest 

1949—653 
Bluestone, Dr. E. M. 

1949— 4S0, 499, 510 
Bluhm, William 

1945 — 148 
Blum, Edwin 

1948—251, 254 
Blum, Hanah 

1955 — 318 
Blum, Leon 

1948 — 191 
Blum, M. 

1955 — 389 
Blumberg, A. M. 

1948 — 15 
Blumberg-, Al 

1948 — 213 
Blumberg - , Albert E. 

1957 — 78 
Blumberg, Prof. Henry 

1949— 4S0, 499, 517 
Blumenfeld, Hans 

1949 — 480 
Blumer, Dr. George 

1948—328, 351 
Blumstein, Dr. Albert 

1951 — 267 
Blumstein, Alex 

1948—200 
Blythe, Ann 

1948 — 183 
B'nai B'rith Youth 
Organization 

1948—16 

1951—25 
Boalt Hall of Law 

1951 — 264 
Board of Economic Admin- 
istration and Foreign 
Economic Administra- 
tion 

19 cq 173 

Board of Education, City of 
New York 

1953 — 148, 149 
Board of Education v. 
Jewett 

1949 — 574 
Board of Ediicalion v. 
Wilkinson 

1955—60, 66 
Board of Prison Terms and 
Paroles 

1943 — 192 
Boardman, Helen 

1947 — 238 

1948 — 355 
Boardman, Samuel 

1948 — 144 
Boardman, Thelma 

194S — 170 
Boardman, True 

1947 — 238 

1955—463, 464 



Boas, Ernest 
1955 — 107 
Boas, Ernest P. 

1948—244, 262, 328 
1949 — 4S0, 484, 496, 499, 
501, 506, 510, 512, 
513, 526 
Boas, Prof. Franz 

1948 — 109, 112, 114, 141, 
151, 163, 200, 211, 
226, 239, 270, 327, 
350, 351, 358, 377, 

1949 — 688 

1951 — 92, 93 

1953 — 131, 139, 171, 172, 
176, 177, 280, 281, 
282 
Bobrovskaya, C. 

1949 — 193 
Bock, Phil 

1948 — 214, 348, 389 

1951 — 22, 23, 24, 26, 28, 
29 
Bock, Zelda 

1955 — 389 
Bodansky, Dr. Aaron 

194S — 114, 169, 170 

1949 — 412 
Boddy, Manchester 

1943 — 54-56 
Bodeen, DeWitt 

1948 — 210 

1955 — 461 
Bodenheim, Maxwell 

1945—121, 126 

1948 — 274 

1949 — 472 
Boder, Elena 

1948—171 
Bodian, Clara 

194S — 228 

1949 — 458 
Bodin, Ida 

1948 — 185 

1949 — 561 
Bodkin, B. A. 

1948—392 
Bodkin, Helen 

1948—214 
Bodkin, Wesley 

1948 — 214, 343 
Bodlander, Walter 

1948—355 
Bodle, Georg-e E. 

1943 — 60, 94, 176, 197 

1955—448, 449, 450, 451, 
452 
Boehm, Jeff 

1948 — 355 
Boehm, Sidney 

1948 — 372 
Bogart, Humphrey 

1947 — 238 

1948—210, 211, 255 
Bog-danov, Nicholas 

1949—181 
Bogdanovich, M. A. 

1949 — 414 
Bo<;i,qian, Elenore 

1943—159, 163 

1947 — (see Ellenore 
Abowitz) 

1949 — 421 
Bogosian, E. 

1947—89 
Bohm, Dr. David Joseph 

1951 — 78, 79, 80, 228, 230, 
233, 234 
Bolmen, Roman 

1948—14, 97, 104, 105, 129, 
159, 276, 356 

1949—688 

1951—57, 59 
Bohrod, Aaron 

1949 — 480, 499 



238 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



Boilermakers (Union) 

1949 — 437 
Bola Singh 

1953 — 218 
Boldt, Howard 

1949 — 545 
Bolshevism 

1945 — 83 

1949—229 

1951—44, 143, 169, 172 
Bombardier, Mrs. Delor 

1948 — 15 

1949 — 602 
Bombay Legislative 
Committee 

1953 — 230 
Bombay Municipal 
Corporation 

1953—231 
Bombay Provincial 
Committee 

1953 — 231 
Bonaparte, Joseph 

1948—375 
Bond, Ward 

1959 — 113 
Bonelli, Richard 

1948 — 317 
Bonetti v. Rogers 

1959 — 194 
Bonney, Holbrook 

1947 — 89 

1949 — 425 
Bono, Pietro 

1943—312 
Bonte, Plorimonds 

1949 — 181 
Book and Magazine Guild 

1948—130 

19 5 g 94 

Book Find Club 

1948 — 49, 120, 392 

1949 — 287, 463 
Book-of-the-Month Club 

1948 — 193 
Book Shop Association, The 

1949 — 370 
Book Union 

1948 — 194, 369, 370 

1949—287, 492 
Book Union Bulletin 

1948—224 

1949—382 
Booknega 

1943 — 126 
Books Available in Class 
Library 

1948—199 
Boor, Jan 

1949—497 
Booth, G. Raymond 

1948 — 308, 309 
Booth, Louis 

1948—375 
Booth, Marlowe 

1955 — 391 
Bor, General 

1949 — 52 
Borace, Borice Z. 

1947—204 
Borchard, Prof. Edwin M. 

1948 — 109, 247 
Bordoni, Irene 

1948—114 
Borensteen, P. 

1955—389 
Boretz, Allen 

1948 — 328, 351 
Borgen, Rasmus 

1948—386 
Borgese, Prof. G. A. 

1948 — 271 

1949—468 
Borich, Frank 

1948 — 244 
Borisov, Alexander 

1953—234 



Born, Kenneth 

1948 — 151 
Borodin, Michael 

1949—104 
Boroff, David 

1959—15, 54 
Borough, Reuben W. 
1943 — 60, 91, 92 
1947—47, 96, 97, 183, 185, 
186, 239, 240, 241, 
243, 244, 249, 295 
1948 — 109, 110, 116, 183- 
185, 239, 244, 248, 
255, 257, 267, 272, 
346, 355, 375, 376 
1949 — 147, 435, 436, 470, 
478, 688 
Borowski, Irene 

1949—549 
Borz, George V. 

1948 — 374 
Bosant Singh 

1953—218 
Bose, Ras Bari 

1953—214 
Bose, Subhas Chandra 

1953 — 214, 215, 221 
Bosse, A. G. 

19 49 179 

Boston Communist Party 
1948 — 326 
1949—322, 375 
Boston Chronicle 
1948—224 
1949—547 
Boston School of Social 
Science 
1949 — 287 
Boston University 

1948 — 264 
Boswell, Charles 

1948—356 
Boswell, Rev. Hamilton 

194S— 106, 160 _ 
Botkin, B. A. (Benjamin A.) 
194 9_480, 488, 489, 499, 
509, 513, 516, 525, 
529, 534, 535, 537, 
543 
Bouche, Louis 

1948 — 262 
Boucher, Anthony 
1948—342 
1949—429, 432, 688 
Boudin, Leonard B. 

1948 — 377 
Boudin, Louis B. 

19 4 S ^_114, 151, 196, 270, 
328, 331 
Boulanger, Nadia 

1948—317 
Bourk-White, Margaret 

1948—199, 238 
Boutte, Oliver 

1947—96 
Bowden, Marie 

1955—388, 391 
Bowen, Mildred 

1947 — 279, 2S0, 307 
1948—214 
Bowers, Max 
19 48—9 4 
1949 — 554 
Bowie, Jean L. 
1948 — 271, 328 
1949 — 468 
Bowie, W. Russell 
1948— 248, 327, 351 
1949—449 
Bowman, Henry 
1947—324, 331 
Bowman, J. Herbert 

1953—153 
Bowman, Leroy E. 
194S— 333 



Bowron, Mayor Fletcher 
1943—106, 109 
1947 — 51, 57, 58, 250 
1948—260, 261 
1949 — 695 
1951 — 25 
1953 — 132 
Boy Scouts of America 
1948 — 180 
1951—9 
Boyce High School 

1959 — 54 
Boyce, Howard 

1947 — 71 
Boycott Japanese Goods 
Conference 
1948—96, 147 
Boyd, Roger 
1955—390 
Boyd, Rose 

1943 — 152, 154, 155, 166 
1955 — 111, 112, 193, 194, 
195, 196, 197, 198 
Boyd, Thomas 

1945 — 121 
Bovd, Vischner 

1955—193 
Bovd, Visscher 

1955 — 193, 194 
Boyer, Charles 

1948 — 211, 255 
Bover, Ravmond 
1949 — 495, 496 
Boyer, Richard O. 
1948—340 

1949—480, 483, 489, 491, 
492, 493, 495, 496, 
499, 501, 504, 512, 
516, 517, 519, 521, 
524, 525, 527, 529, 
535, 536, 537, 6S8 
Boyer, Sophia Ames 

1948 — 278 
Boyle, Kay 

1949 — 480, 499, 509, 537 
Boyles, Paul 
1947—163 

1948 — 282-287. 289, 290, 
303, 307 
Boynton, Ray 

1948 — 248 
Bozzani, Amerigo 

1947 — 96 
Braber, Peter 

1957—28 
Braden, Dr. M. H. 

1943 — 127 
Bradford, Ann 
1948 — 228-230 
1949—457 
Bradley, Rev. Dwight 

1948—328 
Bradley, George 
1945 — 137 
1947—67, 105 
1949—419, 549 
Bradley, Dr. Harold 

1948 — 171 
Bradley, Prof. Lyman R. 
1947 — 267 

1948 — 269, 350, 353, 376 
1949 — 449 
Bradley, General Omar 

1947—105 
Bradshaw, Allan J. 

194S— 15 
Bradsher, Mary 

1948 — 215 
Bradv, Anna Mae 

1948—95 
Brady, Bernard 

1953 — 129 
Brady, Robert A. 
1947—78, 79 
1948—4. 6, 144, 151, 176, 

193, 249, 310 
1949 — 424 






INDEX 



239 



Brasin, J. George 
1948—104 

Brainin, Joseph 

1949 — 480, 491 
Brameld, Prof. Theodore 
1949—480, 484, 4S8, 499, 
508, 524, 527, 535 
Bramson, Mary McCall 

1955 — 436, 444, 445, 446 
Bramstedt 

1949 — 24 
Branch v. Cahill 

1949 — 246 

1943 — 114 
Branch, James 

1943 — 114 
Branchi, Camille 

1943—306 
Brand, Millen 

1945 — 127 

1947 — 106, 141 

1948 — 132, 162, 163, 208, 
357 389 

1949— 480! 4S4, 488, 489, 
499, 501, 502, 503, 
504, 505, 508, 509, 
511, 512, 513, 517, 
520, 522, 524, 525, 
527, 528, 530, 534, 
536, 537 
Brand, Phoebe 

194S — 97, 104, 356 
Brandeis, Justice 

1949—568 
Brandeis University 

1953—200 
Brandhove, William P. M. 

1947 — 150. 161, 167 

1948—8, 281 

1949 — 68?, 696, 697 
Brando, Jos°lyn 

1949 — 480 
Brando, Marlon 

1949 — 480, 499, 529 
Brandon. Henry 

1948—356 
Brandt, Janet 

1948 — 356 
Branham, Lucy G. 

1948 — 357 
Brannan, Eleanor 

194S — 151, 333 
Branson, Clive 

1949—555 
Bransten, Louise R. 

1943 — 60, 96. 97, 176 

1948 — 111, 163, 208, 358 

1949 — 456, 484, 547, 688 

1951—231, 235, 238, 255 

1953—207, 272 
Brant. Carl 

1943—60. 83, 135, 145-147 

1947—96 

1948 — 183 

1949—146, 688 

1955—390 
Brant. John 

1953 — 127 

1959—54 
Branton, Leo 

1957—142 
Branton, Leo, Jr. 

1953 — 92 

1955 — 187, 190, 191, 192, 
197, 198, 201, 202, 
204, 205, 331 

1959 — 185 
Brasher, Vance 

1945—169-171 
Bratsky, Vestnik 

1949 — 181 
Braus, Ann 

1948—210 
Braus, Moe 

1948—210 



Braverman, Harry 

1948—239, 35S, 375 

1949 — 435 
Braverman, Mrs. Harry 

1948 — 184 
Brav, Justice 

1959 — 206 
Break Relations With Spain 

1948 — 139 
Break Relations With Spain 
Rallv 

1948—102 
Brecher, Irving 

1947 — 239 

1948 — 251, 255 
Breckenridge, Sophronisba 
P. 

1948 — 113, 114, 151, 201, 
322, 328, 350, 351 

1949—688 

1953 — 175, 177, 280, 281 
Breeden, Wilmer 

1943 — 60 
Brecroff, Betty 

1948 — 179 
Breiman, Leo 

1948—184 
Breines, Simon 

1948—322 
Breit, Harvey 

1943 — 152 
Breitman, George 

1957 — 113 
Brennan, Mrs. Alice 

1947—313 
Bressler, Joseph 

1959 — 55 
Bretton, Woods 

1949—75 
Breuer, Bessie 

1945 — 127 
Brewer, James L. 

1948—271 

1949 — 449, 468 
Brewer, Roy 

1955—383 

1959 — 113 
Brewer, Roy M. 

1948 — 15 
Brewster, Dorothy 

1945 — 127 

1949 — 480, 483, 489, 499, 
502, 503, 504, 508, 
509, 512, 514, 516, 
517, 519, 520, 521, 
524, 525, 527, 528, 
529, 530, 531, 532, 
534, 536, 537, 545 

195 9 — 185 
Bricker, Al 

1955—391 
Bricker, Dotty 

1955 — 391 
Bridges Defense Committee 

1948 — 34, 55, 61, 248 

1949—290 
Bridges, B. W. 

1948—94 

1949—554 
Bridges, Harry R. 

1943—100, 197, 225, 234, 

284, 294, 296, 297 
1945—147, 195, 196 
1947—09, 101, 163, 170 

189, 190, 202, 210, 
219 
1948 — 62, 117, 118, 122, 
133, 176, 216, 219, 

285, 324, 332, 363, 
365, 375, 383 

1949—90, 105, 146, 251, 
265, 268, 277, 279, 
284, 289, 290, 314, 
342, 349, 363, 364, 
407, 420, 451, 452, 



458, 454, 455, 470, 
504, 541, 633, 634, 
688 
1951 — 179, 260, 263, 281, 

1953 — 63, 131, 175, 190, 
259, 272 

1955 — 130, 135, 418 

1959 — 96, 108, 109, 195 
Bridges, Lloyd 

1948 — 97, 104, 127, 356 
Bridges v. California 

1949—568 

1953 — 181 
Bridges v. Wixon 

1949 — 245 
Bridges Victory Committee 

1948—34, 54 

1949 — 290 
Bridgman, Prof. Olga 

1948—112 
Brief on Communism 

1955 — 143 
Briehl, Marie 

1949 — 428, 432 
Brier, J. 

1948—268 

1949 — 464 
Briggs, A. Stafford 

1948 — 358 
Briggs, Cyril 

1948 — 266, 333 

1949 — 279, 548 
Briggs, Marian 

1948 — 211 
Bright, John 

1943 — 207, 210, 217 

1945—182, 193 

1948—215, 256, 375 
Bright, Josephine 

1945 — 193 
Brill, Goldie 

1948 — 179 
Brin, Mrs. Arthur 

1948 — 320 
Brinton, Dr. Christian 

1948 — 248 
Brisbane, D. Harding 

1959—185 
Brisker, Sidney H. 

1955—391 
Brissenden, Prof. Paul P. 

1948—109, 265, 377 
British Communist Party 

1949—172, 173 
British Empire Communist 
Party Conference 

1953 — 232 
British Labor Party 

1949 — 692 

1951 — 279 
British Liberal Party 

1951—279 
British Reds 

1948—326 
British Royal Commission 

1955 — 393, 394 
Britton, Gertrude Howe 

1948—375 
Brockway, Harold 

1948 — 383 
Brockwav, Howard 

1948 — 330 
Brod, Mrs. Leon 

1948 — 146 
Brodetsky, Julian 

1948—171, 317 
Brodeur, Dr. Arthur G. 

1947 — 7S, 79, 88, 93 

1948—144, 185, 216 

1949 — 424, 425 

1953 — 259 
Brodeur, Mrs. 

1953 — 252 
Brodie, William H. 

1947—96 



240 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



Brodin, Virginia 

1953 — 104 
Brodsky, John R. 

1948 — 390 
Brodsky, Joseph R. 

1948 — 151, 167, 194, 196, 
265, 26S, 328, 33 1, 

1949—449! 450, 464, 520, 
540, 688 

1951 — 93, 260, 261 
Brodsky, Merle 

1947—75 

194S — 214, 343 

1955 — 407, 408 
Brodsky, Vera 

1948 — 311 
Brody, Alter 

1948 — 270 
Brodv, Samuel 

1948 — 270, 278 
Brody, William 

1959 — 99 
Broekman, David 

194S — 311 
Brogden, Samuel L. 

1943—253, 275, 281 
Brogan, Colm 

1959 — 11, 15 
Bromberg, J. Edward 

1943—148 

1947 — 191 

194S — 14, 104-106, 356 

1949 — 480, 489, 499, 501, 
503, 508, 509, 510, 
513, 516, 517, 528, 

1951— 5S, 59, 271 
Bromfield, Louis 

1945 — 127 

1947 — 288 

1948—234, 271, 276, 322 
Broms, Allan S. 

1948 — 142 
Bronfman, Harry 

1955 — 389 
Bronfman, Sema 

1955 — 389 
Bronner, James 

1948 — 375 
Bronson, Howard 

1948 — 317 
Bronson, Dr. Oliver H. 

1948 — 109, 110, 352 
Bronstein, Lev 

1953 — 28 
Bronsten, Sedov 

1943 — 150 
Bronx Victory Labor 
Committee 

1949—287 
Brook, Alexander 

1948—330 
Brookhaven National 
Laboratory 

1949 — 495 
Brooklyn College 

1948 — 339 

1951—10, 277 

1955 — 233 

1959—53, 54, 55 
Brooklyn Communist Party 

1947 — 191 
Brooks, Alfred J. 

1949 — 179 
Brooks, David 

1948 — 240 
Brooks, Dorothy 

1948—179 
Brooks, Geraldine 

1948 — 210 
Brooks, Gwendolyn 

1947—106 
Brooks, Katie 

1948—62 

1949—470 



Brooks, Miriam — see also 
Sherman, Miriam 
Brooks 
1943—164 
1948—230, 315, 316 
1949—459 
Brooks, Richard 

1948—210, 211, 241 
Brooks, Van Wyck 
1945 — 126, 127 
194S — 109, 113, 114, 179, 
248, 262, 323, 324, 
327, 328, 330, 352, 
354, 389, 391 
1951—56, 92, 93 
Broom, The 
1943 — 240 
Brophy, John 

1948—107 
Brostoff, Jack L. 

1947 — 180 
Brotherhood of Locomotive 
Engineers 
1949 — 437 
Brotherhood of Locomotive 
Engineers Auxiliary 
1949 — 437 
Brotherhood of Locomotive 
Firemen and Engineers 
1947—90, 101, 241 
1949 — 437, 438 
Brotherhood of Locomotive 
Firemen and Engine- 
men Auxiliary 
1949 — 437 
Brotherhood of Man 

1948 — 192 
Brotherhood of Painters, 
Decorators and Paper- 
hangers of America 
1948 — 214 
Brotherhood of Railroad 
Trainmen Auxiliary 
1949—437 
Brotherhood of Railway 
Carmen 
1949 — 437 
Brotherhood of Railway 
Trainmen 
1947 — 233 
1949 — 437 
Brotsky, Allan 

1956 — 402 
Broun, Heywood 

1948—181, 239, 244, 351' 
Browder, Carl 

1945 — 121, 136, 155 
Browder, Earl 

1943 — 13, 19, 21, 25, 32, 

35, 91, 121, 122 
1945 — 123, 154 
1947 — 8-10, 20, 21, 24-32, 
36-38, 46, 63, 64, 
68, 71, 83, 222, 
225-228, 368 
1948 — 7, 9, 29, 33, 91, 94, 
99, 104, 118, 122, 
125, 136, 148, 151, 
153, 155, 157, 163, 

176, ISO, 214, 234, 
244, 245, 266, 273, 
333, 337, 351, 364, 
379, 385 

1949—62, 94, 95, 96, 97, 
99, 129, 157, 159, 
160, 165, 168, 170, 
171, 173, 174, 176, 

177, 178, 179, 185, 
199, 201, 219, 224, 
267, 274, 278, 279, 
284, 291, 295, 340, 
342, 347, 368, 370, 
406, 416, 417, 420, 
422, 440, 449, 451, 
452, 453, 454, 455, 



465, 467, 471, 520, 
521, 553, 556, 613, 
688, 693, 705 

1951 — 13, 59, 94, 260, 262 

1953—58, 59, 60, 61, 63, 
69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 
136, 137, 172, 174, 
175, 208, 227, 238 

1955—195, 279, 280, 399, 
450 

1957—80, 91 

1959— IS, 23, 126, 148 
Browder, Mrs. Earl 

1953—241 
Browder, Raisa Irene 

1949 — 173, 452 
Browder-Shachtman debate 

1957 — 76 
Brower, Dr. Arthur 

1947 — 239 
Brown, Dr. Adelaide 

1948—144 
Brown, Archie 

1943—60, 75, 76, 176, 284, 
294, 295 

1947 — 294, 305 

194S — 94, 213, 343 

1949 — 554, 688, 692 

1951 — 24 
Brown, Arthur 

1948 — 94 

1949—554 
Brown, Barney 

1943—145, 147, 159, 164 

1951—83 
Brown, Benjamin 

1948—94 

1949—554 
Brown, Bob 

1945 — 121 

1948 — 274 

1949—472 
Brown, Charles 

1947—179 

1948 — 383 

1949 — 491 
Brown, Charlotte Hawkins 

1948 — 186, 198, 208, 227, 
228, 230, 328, 351, 
352 

1949 — 449, 455-458, 562 
Brown, Cleophas 

1947 — 304 
Brown, Cleophus 

1953 — 261 

1955—320, 388, 390, 391 
Brown, Constantine 

1949—118 
Brown, David 

1955 — 343, 385, 386 
Brown, Edgar G. 

1947 — 293, 294 
Brown, Edmund G. 

1953 — 78, 79 

1959 — 31, 39, 204, 207 
Brown, Eloise Steele 

1953—248, 262, 263, 282 
Brown, Essie 

1955—422 
Brown, Eugene Wadsworth, 
Dr. 

1943 — 356, 361, 382 
Brown, Fred 

1949 — 173 
Brown, Giles 

1951 — 229 
Brown, Grace 

1943 — 158 
Brown, Gus O. 

1947 — 96 

1948—221 
Brown, Prof. Harold C. 

1948 — 226, 248, 271, 322, 
328, 358, 377 

1949 — 468, 622 



INDEX 



241 



Brown, Harry 

1947 — 71, 244 

1949 — 422 

1955—459 
Brown, Harry P. M. 

1955—459 
Brown, Herman 

1948 — 383 
Brown, Hy 

1948 — 94 

1949—554 
Brown, I. 

1959 — 97 
Brown, Prof. J. F. 

1948 — 271 

1949 — 468 
Brown, James 

1947—155 
Brown, John 

1948—356 
Brown, Major Jose Prez 

1947 — 340, 342, 352 
Brown, L. B. 

1948 — 198 
Brown, L. E. 

1948 — 15 
Brown, Lee D. 

1948 — 259 
Brown, Lucy 

1949 — 480 
Brown, Martin T. 

1948 — 233 
Brown, Mavme 

1949 — 546 
Brown, Paul 

1948—338 
Brown, Phil 

1948 — 97, 104, 356 
Brown, Dr. S. S. 

1955—391 
Brown Shirts 

1948 — 206 
Brown, Sterling 

1945—126 

1948—274 

1949—471 
Brown, Warren 

1948 — 186 

1949—562 
Brown, William B. 

1957 — 149 
Brown, Bishop William 
Montgomery 

1948 — 244, 245, 265 

1949—688 
Brownell, Attorney General 

1959 — 139, 142, 195 
Brownell, Robert 

1943—150, 168-171 
Brownlow, Geraldine 

1948 — 184 

1949—561 
Brownstein, George 

1948 — 164 
Browsky, Joseph R. 

1953 — 174, 175 
Broy, John 

1948—280, 339 

1949 — 343 
Brovles, Senator 

1949—603 
Broz, Josip 

1955—394 
Broz, Marshal Joseph (Tito) 

1949—124 
Bruce, Virginia 

1948 — 251 
Bruch, Bella 

1948 — 146 
Bruck, Chuck 

1948—188 

1949—563 
Bruck, Murray 

19 48 — 355 
Bruckman, Dr. Jacob S. 

1955—79, 288, 367, 374 



Bruckman, Sidney 

1955—289 
Brudney, Goodman 

1951—280 

1953—252, 256, 257 
Brudney, Ruth 

1953—255, 256, 257 
Brueck, Karl C. 

1948 — 15 
Brum, Henry 

1948 — 211 
Brumbaugh, Rev. 
Thoburn T. 

1949 — 480, 499, 507, 512 
Bruner, Lucile 

1949—480 
Brunin, Saul 

1948 — 163 
Bruschera, Mrs. Carola 

1943 — 284, 297, 314 
Bryan, Al 

1943—140, 141, 159 

1947—65 

1949 — 418 
Bryan, Ella 

1948 — 15 
Bryan, Helen R. 

1948 — 151, 152, 168, 270, 
350, 376 

1949 — 468 
Bryan, Julian 

1948 — 244 
Bryant, Drayton 

1953—105, 106 
Bryant, Jean 

1953—259 
Brvce, Cornelia 

1948 — see Mrs. GilTord 
Pinchot 
Brvson, Hugh 

1947 — 149, 151, 1G0, 
163-166 

1948—62, 185, 200, 281, 
288, 289-291, 298, 
307, 308, 343, 351 

1949 — 146, 470, 688 

1951—57, 264, 272, 275, 
276, 278, 280, 281 

1955 — 2, 5, 14, 46 

1959 — 30, 34, 96, 97, 133 
Buaken, Manuel 

1948—114 
Buchanan, Charles P. 

1949 — 548 
Buchanan, David W. 

1948—185 
Buchanan. Larry 

1943 — 160 
Bucharin, N. 

1949 — 234, 235 
Buchman, Harold 

1948 — 244 
Buchman, Sidney 

1945 — 116, 117, 127 

1948—97. 105, 171, 189, 
211, 251, 254, 258, 
310, 358 

1951 — 53 

1953 — 172 
Buchman, Mrs. Sidnev 

1948—250, 255 
Buchwald, Nathaniel 

194S — 278 
Buck, Jessie 

1949—429, 431 
Buck, Jessie Elliott 

1947—89, 91 

1949 — 425 
Buck, Pearl S. 

194S— 198, 324, 358 

1949—688 
Buck, Dr. Phillip W. 

194S— 185 
Buckman, Alfred L. 

1948 — 146, 149 
Buckman, Beatrice 

1948 — 250 



Buckman, David 

1947 — 227 
Buckman, Harold 

1948 — 257, 372 
Buckmaster, Henrietta 

1948—113, 114, 168, 227, 
228, 230, 270 

1949 — 456, 457, 458, 480, 
484, 489, 499, 501, 
503, 505, 506, 509, 
512, 513, 514, 515, 
516, 517, 521, 522, 
525, 526, 529, 530, 
531, 534, 536, 537, 
547, 688 
Budenz, Lewis F. 

1951—55, 262, 268, 282, 
283 
Budenz, Louis 

1947 — 31 

1948 — 176 

1949—2, 62, 96, 231, 451, 
484, 678 

1953 — 140, 174, 175 
Budenz, Louis F. 

1955—43, 366, 438 

1959—27, 126, 183 
Budiselick, Ann 

1948 — 113 
Buerkle, John G. 

1943 — 240 
Bufano, Benjamino 

1948 — 144, 389 
Bufano, Reno 

1948—378 
Building a Neio Life 

1957 — 135 
Building America 

1948 — 326 

1949 — 539, 540 
Building America Series 

1953—150, 151 
Building Service Employees 
International Union 

1947—67 

1949 — 419 
Building Trades Council 

1947 — 80 
Buja Singh 

1953 — 218 
Bukharin, Nicholas 

1953—21, 44, 48, 53, :>7, 
156 
Bukharin, Nikolai 

1943—36 

1947—13, 21 

1949 — 162 
Bulcke, Germain (Ger- 
maine) 

1948 — 249, 268 

1949 — 464, 688 

1953—172 
Bulganin 

1953—45 

1957—96 
Bulgaria 

1951—142 
Bulgarian Agrarian Party 

1949 — 118 
Bulgarian-American 
Committee 

1949 — 414 
Tlidq-er, Mrs. Fanny 

I Tt 4 S — 194 

Bulletin. The (Chapter 25) 

II 17 — 206, 207, 209 
194S— 126 

1949 — 547 

1957 — 94 
Bulletin of Congress of 
American Women 

1948 — 224 
Hull. 'tin ou Kducation 

1948 — 224 

1949 — 549 
Bullitt, Ambassador 

1947—226 



242 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



Bunche, Dr. Ralph 

1951 — 290 
Buncheck, Zarko M. 

1948 — 113 
Bunyard, Lolita 

1948—185 
Buran, Joe 

1955 — 389 
Burbank, Elizabeth 

1948 — 278 
Burbridge, Edward 

1953—284, 285 
Burchfleld, C. E. 

1948 — 330 
Burdick, Virginia 

194S — 170 
Bureau of Cultural 

Relations (Moscow) 

1948 — 107 
Bureaus of Mankind United 

1943 — 225, 361 
Burford, James H. 

1943 — 60, 84, 138, 139, 
159, 160, 163, 182 

1948 — 62, 203 

1949 — 147, 437, 470, 688 
Burge, Frances 

1943—138 
Burgess and MacLean 

1955 — 401 
Burgess Case 

1957 — 80 
Burgess, Prof. E. W. 

1948 — 323 
Burgin, Richard 

1949—480, 489, 530 
Burgum, Edwin Berry 

1947 — 106 

1948—392 

1949 — 480, 488, 498, 502, 
504, 507, 508, 509, 
511, 512, 514, 516, 
517, 520, 521, 522, 
524, 525, 526, 527, 
528, 531, 534, 536, 
537, 549 
Burke, Bee 

1943 — 132, 145 
Burke, Bob 

1948 — 186 

1949 — 563 
Burke, Carroll 

1948—383 
Burke, E. F. 

1945—148 

1947 — 78, 151, 154, 164 

1949 — 424 

1953 — 64 
Burke, Ed 

1948—289 
Burke, Fielding 

1945 — 121, 126 

1948 — 194, 248, 273, 389 

1949 — 471 
Burke, Frieda 

1948—266 
Burke, J. Frank 

1943 — 61, 151, 382 
Burke, J. Vernon 

1948 — 185, 249 

1953 — 93 
Burke, Jack 

1947 — 180 
Burke, Kenneth 

1945—121, 126, 127 

1948 — 274 

1949 — 472 
Burke, Libby 

1951 — 206 

1955 — 387 
Burke, Paul 

1948 — (see Victor 
Berton) 
Burke, Robert 

1948—178 



Burke, Robert E. 

1959—18 
Burke, Senator 

1948 — 257 
Burke, Sid 

1943 — 134, 136, 141, 154 

1947 — 73, 74, 75 

1948 — 213, 342, 343 

1949 — 545, 688 
Burke, Sidney 

1953 — 95 
Burke-Wadsworth Con- 
scription Bill 

1948 — 160, 332 

1949 — 541 
Burks, Genola 

1953—279, 282 
Burlap, Anne 

1948 — 244 
Burlin, Paul 

1949 — 480, 499, 503, 537 
Burlingame, Richard G. 

1949 — 480 
Burlingham, C. C. 

1948—357 
Burliuk, David 

1949 — 480, 489, 499, 522, 
527, 531, 533, 535, 
537 
Burnham, Grace 

1948 — 196 
Burnham, Louis E. 

1948 — 113, 188, 201, 338 

1949 — 449, 563 
Burns, Eimle 

1949 — 78, 191 

1953 — 241 
Burns, Eveline M. 

1948 — 198 
Burns, George 

1948 — 255 
Burns, Hugh M. 

1943 — 5, 6 

1945—5 

1947—4, 372 

1948—3, 4, 13 

1949—1, 7, 8, 603 

1951 — 1 

1959—156, 168, 203 
Burns, James B. 

1948 — 381 
Burns, Leola 

1948 — 203 
Burns, Mary 

1953 — 20 
Burns. Milt 

1948 — 95 
Burns. Patrick 

1953 — 79, 111, 114, 115 

1955—454 
Burns, Robert, Jr. 

1948 — 356 
Bums v. United States 

1949—572 
Burnshaw, Stanley 

1948 — 274 

1949—471 
Buroki, Ben 

1948 — 378 

1949—557 
Burr, Anne 

1948 — 132 
Burr, Jane 

1948—328 
Burr, Raymond 

1948 — 181 
Burrige, Eddie 

1951 — 25 

1953—284 
Burrill, Alexander 

1949—202 
Burrough, Reuben 

1955 — 112, 327 
Burroughs, Abram 

1947 — 72 

1948—261 



Burroughs, Williana 

1949 — 179 
Burrows, Abe 

1947 — 239 

1948 — 254, 255, 355 
Bursler, Norman 

1 95 9 -172 

Burstein, Rabbi Elliot M. 

1947 — 241 

1948 — 216, 358 

1949—436 
Burt, Betty 

1955 — 391 
Burt, Mrs. Charles D. 

1948—15 

1949—602 
Burt, Sam 

1949—448 
Burt, Struthers 

1948—330 
Burt, Yetta 

1955 — 391 
Burton, Bernard 

1948—233 

1955—460 
Burton, Charles W. 

1948 — 151 
Burton, Justice 

1959—141 
Burton, Roma 

1948—210 
Burton, Val 

1947—73, 96 
Burtt, Prof. E. A. (Edwin 
A.) 

1949—480, 499, 504, 510, 
512, 517, 521 
Bury The Dead 

1943—138 

1948 — 96 
Busbey, Congressman Fred 
E. 

1948—380 
Busch, Adolph 

1949 — 480, 499, 503 
Busch, Benjamin 

1948 — 151 
Bushido 

1945—49, 52 
Bushnell, Donna 

1953 — 259 
Bushnell, Jack 

1953—259 
Bussell, J. E. 

1949—437 
Bussio, Margaret 

1948 — 375 
Butkovich, John D. 

1948—151 

1949—413, 414 
Butler, Dr. Alan 

1955 — 107 
Butler, Dr. Allan M. 

1949 — 4S0, 483, 489, 499, 
507, 509, 513, 531 
Butler, B. 

1955 — 389 
Butler, Charles 

1948—338 
Butler, Hugo 

1948—372 
Butler, J. P. 

1948 — 15 
Butler, Rev. W. Fay 

1948 — 358, 377 
Butte County Grand Jury 

1947 — 350, 353 
Buttenweiser, Helen 

1948 — 375 
Butterman, Ernest 

194S — 356 
Butterworth, Joseph 

1953 — 139, 201, 303, 206 

1957 — 10, 11 
Buttrick, George A. 

1948—320 



INDEX 



243 



Buzzell, J. W. 

1943 — 61 
Byelo 

194S — 177 
Byers, A. 

1955—389 
Bynner, Witter 

1948 — 389 

1949 — 480 

1951 — 271, 281 
Byrd, Rear Admiral Rich- 
ard E. 

1957—34 
Byrne, James T. 

1948 — 164 
Bvrne, Norman 

1943 — 96, 144, 157, 158 

1948—164 

1949 — 6S8 
Byrnes, James F. 

1947—155, 198, 268, 274 

1949—28, 40, 42, 43, 65 
73, 122 

1957—112 



C. I. O. — See also Congress 
of Industrial Organiza- 
tions 
C. I. O. Council 

1959 — 20 
C. I. O. Industrial Council 
of Baltimore 
1959 — 94 
C. I. O. Industrial Council 
of Bridgeport 
j 95 9 94 

C. I. O. Industrial Council 
of Chicago 
1959 — 94 
C. I. O. Industrial Council 
of Cleveland 
1959—94 
C. I. O. Industrial Council 
of Greater New York 
1959 — 94 
C. I. O. Industrial Council 
of Los Angeles 
1959 — 94, 98 
C. I. O. Industrial Council 
of Milwaukee 
1959 — 94 
C. I. O. Industrial Council 
of Portland 
1959—94 
C. I. O. Industrial Council 
of Queens 
1959—94 
C. I. O. Industrial Council 
of San Francisco 
1959 — 94 
C. I. O. Industrial Council 
of Seattle 
1 g 5 9 9 4 

C. I. O. State Industrial 
Council of California 
1959 94 

C. I. O. State Industrial 
Council of Connecticut 
1959—94 
C. I. O. State Industrial 
Council of Texas 
1959 — 94 
C. I. O. State Industrial 
Council of Washington 
1959 — 94 
C. I. O. State Industrial 
Council of Wisconsin 
1959 — 94 
C. P. U. S. A.— See Com- 
munist Party, United 
States 



Cabot, Dr. Hugh 

1948 — 322 
Cabral, Manuel 

1943—60, 176, 188 
Cabrera, Martin 

1945 — 205-207 
Cacchione, Peter V. 

1948—196, 226, 386 

1949 — 624 
Cadden, Joseph 

1948—114, 151, 162, 163, 

Cadel, David 

1953 — 257 
Cadillac Cabinet 

1957 — 78 
Cagney, James 

1948 — 23S, 244, 262 
Cahiers Du Communisme 

1949 — 174 

1957 — 91, 96 
Cahill, Herbert 

1948 — 356 

1949—246 
Cahn, Dr. Ephraim 

1959 — 185 
Cain, Jim 

1947— 2S8 

1948 — 189, 372 
Calahan, Pat 

1943 — 144 
Calcutta Telephone 
Exchange 

1953—237 
Calcutta University 

1953 — 231 
Caldecott, Rev. Ernest 

1945 — 143 

1947 — 185 

1948—115, 184, 350 

1949 — 634, 688 

1951 — 276 

1955 — 3S3 
Calder, Viola 

1948 — 193 
Caldor, Peter 

1951 — 287 
Caldwell, Erskine 

1948 — 194, 238, 273, 326, 
330 

1949 — 471, 540 
Caldwell, Frank 

1948 — 320 
Caldwell, Josephine 

1948—356 
Caldwell, Malcolm 

1948 — 161 
Caldwell, Orville 

1948 — 309 

1949 — 691, 695 
Calhern, Louis 

1948 — 216, 262 
California Action Confer- 
ence for Civil Rights 

1947—190, 191 

1948 — 191 
California American 

"Veteran's Committee 

1951—288 
California Association of 
Colored Women 

1953 — 284 
California Association of 
Colored Women's Clubs 

1949—438 

1951— 2S9 
California Assn. of Private 
Investigators, Inc. 

1948—16 
California Association of 
School Administrators 

1953—211 
California Attorney General 

1951 — 75 



California Chiropractic 
Assn. 
1948 — 18 
California Civil Defense 
Agency 
1955 — 147, 14S 
California Committee for 
Equal Employment Op- 
portunities 
1957 — 124 
California Committee for 
Political Unity 
1949—288 
California Committee for 
Radio Freedom 
1947—186, 190 
California Committee of 
Bar Examiners 
1959 — 192 
California Committee of 
One Hundred for Po- 
litical Unity 
1959—18 
California Communist 
Party 
1943 — 116 
1947 — 21, 28, 89 
1948—29, 60, 79, 104, 105, 

106 
1949 — 90, 94, 97, 138, 293, 
306, 364, 424, 425, 
549 
1951—37, 84, 161, 169, 174, 

180, 198, 209, 246 
1953—5, 75, 77, 207, 262, 

279 
1959 — 17, 18, 25, 30, 31, 
32, 33, 37, 39, 40, 
44, 154, 171, 178, 

181, 182, 209, 217 
California Communist 

Party, Chairman 
1951—37 
California Communist 
Party Committee 
1951 — 260 
California Communist 
Political Association 
1951 — 84 
California Conference for 
Democratic Action 
1947—170 
1949 — 288 
California Congress of In- 
dustrial Organization 
Council 
1947—71, 72, 92, 101, 210 
1949 — 421, 422, 424, 437, 

475 
1951 — 193, 194, 195, 196 
California Defense and 
Security Corps 
1951—3 
California Eagle, The 
1947—67, 79, 89, 93 
1948—49, 120, 137, 203, 

221, 224, 346 
1949 — 383, 419, 424, 54S 
1951—25, 250, 255, 256, 

267 
1953—284 
1955—136, 422 
California Emergency De- 
fense Committee 
1953—277, 2S2 
California Farm Bureau 
Federation 
194S— 15, 17, 19 
California Federation of 

Government Employees 
1943 — 137, 141 
California Federation of 
Teachers 
1953—272 



244 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



California Federation of 
Women's Clubs 
1953—285 
California Hospital 

1955—101 
California Housing and 
Planning Commission 
1947—209 
1948 — 195 
California Institute of 
Technology 
1949 — 477 
1951—276 
1953 — 100, 133 
1957—130 
1959 — 186 
California Insurance 
Commission 
1959 — 134 
California Joint Fact-Find- 
ing Committee on Un- 
American Activities 
1949 — 484, 489 
1959 — 130, 131 
California Junior High 
School 
1947 — 240 
California Labor Herald 

1949 — 181 
California Labor School 
1947 — 47, 64, 71, 72, 79-90, 
92, 94, 95, 99-105, 
109, 145, 154, 156, 
159, 160, 163, 210, 
211, 213, 265, 277, 
306, 369 
1948 — 8, 11, 51, 53, 56, 95, 
138, 170, 176, 195, 
217, 218, 235, 236, 
269, 325, 347 
1949 — 288, 415, 416, 422, 
423, 424, 425, 426, 
427, 428, 429, 430, 
432, 539, 543, 558, 
559, 623, 635, 705 
1951 — 28, 63, 64, 95, 133, 
161, 258, 267, 277 
1953—1, 76, 104, 105, 117, 
197, 223, 247, 250, 
251, 252, 254, 260, 
262, 266, 267, 268, 
269, 272, 274, 276, 
277 
1955—52, 88, 181, 182, 
187, 202, 203, 233, 
403, 404, 421 
1957 — 109, 133 
1959—39, 48, 132, 137, 
184, 185 
California Labor School 
Chorus 
1953 — 253 
California Labor School, 
Director of 
1951 — 64 
California Labor School, 
Oakland 
1953 — 253, 258 
California Labor School, 
Los Angeles 
1959—16, 208 
California Labor School, 
San Francisco 
1959 — 16, 184 
California Labor School, 
Southern Branch ; see 
also People's Educa- 
tional Center 
1951 — 258 
California Labor's Non- 
partisan League 
1959—17 
California Law Review 
1955 — 49 



California League of Hous- 
ing Authorities 
1953 — 83 
California Legislative 
Conference 
1948 — 38, 60, 62, 63, 195 
1949 — 288, 435, 436, 438, 

470, 629 
1951 — 253 

1953 — 1, 104, 118, 284 
1955 — 4, 453, 454 
California Legislative 
Counsel 
1949—8 
California Legislative Joint 
Fact-Finding Com- 
mittee 
1949 — 654 
California Legislature 

1959 — 9, 10, 17, 23, 27, 29, 
37, 58, 59, 71, 78, 
80, 83, 157, 199, 
219 
California Lutheran 
Hospital 
1955—98, 101 
California Manufacturers 
Assn. 
1948—18, 19 
California Newspaper 
Publishers Assn. 
1948 — 19 
California Osteopathic 
Assn. 
1948—15-18 
1955—286 
California Peace Officers 
Association 
1959 — 156 
California People's Legis- 
lative Conference 
1959 — 22, 34 
California Political Action 
Committee 
1947—101 
California Real Estate As- 
sociation 
1953 — 114 
California Relief 

Administration 
1948—157 
California Senate Commit- 
tee on Education 
1953 — 272 
California Senate Commit- 
tee on Un-American 
Activities 
1949—9, 257, 479, 675 
California Sentinel 

194S — 139 
California Staats-Zeitung 

1943 — 233, 242 
California Stage for Action 

1948-392 
California State Assembly 

1959 — 132 
California State Assn. of 
Life Underwriters, Inc. 
1948 — 16-18 
California State Bar 
Association 
1951 — 260, 261 
1955 — 144 

1959—127, 130, 135, 188 
California State Board of 
Education 
1947 — 326, 328, 330, 341, 
348, 349, 353, 371 
California State Chamber 
of Commerce 
1948 — 16-19 
California State Employees 
Association 
1951—75 



California State Federation 
of Labor 

1947 — 80, 81, 87 

1948—10 

1949—288 
California State Industrial 
Union Council 

1948 — 160, 163 
California State Medical 
Association 

1955—85, 91, 107, 115, 

128, 129, 154, 210 

California State Medical 

Association, House of 

Delegates 

1955 — 101 
California State Selective 
Service Director 

1951 — 233 
California Technical 
Institute 

1948—182 

1949—560 
California Union of 

Progressive Veterans 

1951 — 288 
California Youth 
Legislature 

1943 — 96 

1947 — 209 

1948 — 160, 195 

1949 — 288 

1955—420 

1959 — 20 
California-Washington Leg- 
islative Committees on 
Un-American Activities 

1949 — 599 
Callahan, W. E. Con- 
struction Co. 

1945 — 18 
Callan, Bill 

1955—36 
Callbeck, Helen 

194S — 279, 280 
Callender, Frank 

1948—210 
Caller, Fay 

1948 — 186 

1949 — 562 
Calloway, I. Warner 

194S — 220 
Calloway, Marie 

1948—220 
Calmer, Alan 

1945—121, 126 

1948—273 

1949 — 179, 471 
Calstate Publications 

1955 — 435, 462 
Cambridge People's Voice 

1949 — 383 
Cameron, Angus 

1949 — 480, 489, 491, 499, 
505, 507, 512, 513, 
517, 532, 536 
Cameron, Dudley A. 

1947 — 89 

1948—201 

1949 — 425 
Cammer, Harold I. 

1948 — 272 
Camp Arcadia 

1949 — 288 
Camp Lordsburg 

1943 — 349 
Camp, Russell 

1947—58 
Campbell, Alan 

1948 — 250 
Campbell, Mayor Chas. 

1948—4, 7 
Campbell, Earl 

1947—152 



INDEX 



245 



Campbell, George 

1947—51, 54, 55, 179, 180, 
1S6, 188, 241, 260- 
262 

194S — 198, 202, 239, 251, 
255, 259, 311, 317 

1949—435, 436 
Campbell, Hugh 

1947—73 
Campbell, John A. 

1955—422,423 
Campbell, Margaret 

1948—311, 313 
Campbell, Mary 

194S— 377 
Campbell, Ruby D. 

1948 — 277, 278 
Can Our Ballots Stop 
Bullets 

1948 — 154 
Canadian Communist 
Party 

1951 — 89 
Canadian Friends of the 
Chinese People 

1948 — 144 
Canadian Institute of 
Technology 

1955 — 404 
Canadian League Against 
War and Fascism 

1943 — 93 

1948 — 150 
Canadian League for Peace 
and Democracy 

1948—150 
Canadian Royal 
Commission 

1949—496 

1955 — 394 
Canales, Gilbert 

1955— 3S8, 390 
Canario, Frank S. 

1951 — 254 
Canby, Dr. Henry Seidel 

1948 — 109, 262, 330 
Cannaday, George E. 

1951—267 
Cannady, Camille 

1948 — 356 
Cannery and Agricultural 
Workers Industrial 
Union 

1951 — 135 
Cannery Workers Union 

1959 — 134 
Canning, Prof. John B. 

1948—328 
Cannon, Antoinette 

1949—480, 499, 508, 518 
Cannon, Dr. George D. 

1949 — 480, 489, 499, 508, 
514, 519, 530, 531 
Cannon, James 

1943—36 

1948 — 242, 265, 266 

1949 — 162, 177 

1957 — 84, 85 
Cannon, James P. 

1959—121 
Cannon, Mrs. Myrtle 

1948—355 
Cannon, Sophie 

1951 — 267 
Cannon, Walter B. 

1948 — 131, 262, 271, 322, 
351 

1949—468 
Cano, Sanin 

1951 — 272 
Canoga Park High School 

1947 — 115, 117, 119, 120, 
122, 124, 126, 128, 
130, 132-134, 137, 
138, 238, 354, 369 

1953—110 



Canon, James B. 

1951—257 
Canot, Eddie 

1948—210 
Canseco, Rev. M. C. 

1948 — 375 
Cantor, Eddie 

1948 — 132, 250, 255, 262 
Cantor, Mendel 

1955—388 
Cantwell, Robert 

1945 — 121, 126 

1948 — 341 
Canuck, Johnny 

1948 — 342 
Camvell, Albert F. 

1949—601, 605, 606 
Capell, Evelyn 

1948 — 278 
Capp, David 

1948 — 392 
Capper, Hon. Arthur 

1948 — 323 
Capps, McClure 

1948 — 210 
Capital 

1949—21, 190, 191, 203 

1953—21, 22, 23, 25, 224 
Capitalism 

1945—70, 71 
Capitalist and the 

Oppressed Masses 

Caplan, Rabbi Jonah E. 

1949 — 480, 489, 499, 507, 
511, 513, 519, 524, 
527, 532 
Capture the Film 

1948 — 237 
Carabello, Joseph 

1955 — 388 
Carabello, Sonja 

1955 — 388 
Cardenas, Gen. Lazaro 

1951 — 273, 274 
Cardona, Roger 

1943 — 217 

1945—183 
Cardoza Bindery 

1943—380 
Cardoza, Rabbi D. A. 
Jessurun 

1949 — 480 
Cardoza, P. J. 

1943—356, 378, 379 
Carev, Bernice 

1948 — 343 
Carey, James B. 

1948 — 113, 151, 162, 179 
273 

1953 — 174, 176 
Carle, Teet 

1948 — 251 
Carlin, Jeanne 

1951 — 229 
Carlisle, Harry 

1945 — 126 

1948 — 389 

1949—688 

1955 — 323 
Carlson, Prof. A. J. 
(Anton J.) 

1949 — 480, 499, 502, 506, 
510, 512, 521 

1955 — 392 
Carlson, Clarence C. 

1947—239-241 

1948—62. 241, 355 

1949—435, 436, 437 
Carlson, Gen. Evans 

1953 — 139 
Carlson, Lt. Col. Evans 

1951 — 53, 264 
Carlson, Mrs. Evans 

1951—280 



Carlson, Col. Evans F. 

1947—98, 235, 290, 291, 
322 

1948—197, 201, 208, 239, 
255, 279, 318 

1949 — 289, 435 

Carlson, Brig. Gen. 

Evans F. 

1959 — 175 
Carlson, Dr. Glen 

1947 — 239, 241 

1948 — 355 

1949 — 436 
Carlson, Oliver 

1943 — 61 

1948 — 104 
Carlson, Mrs. Wilma 

1947 — 324, 332, 334, 336, 
33S, 341, 342, 344, 
347, 353, 354 
Carmer, Carl 

1949—543 
Carmon, Walter 

1945 — 104, 119 

1948 — 273 

1949—471 
Carmozzi, Marion 

1949 — 549 
Carnap, Prof. Rudolf 

1949 — 480 
Carnegie Foundation 

1953 — 207 
Carney, Jack 

1948 — 243 
Carnival in Flanders 

1948 — 373 
Carnovsky, Morris 

1948—96, 97, 104, 105, 

113, 114, 129, 151, 
159, 171, 196, 202, 
248, 328, 352, 356, 
378, 390 

1949—146, 480, 488, 489, 
499, 502, 503, 504, 
507, 508, 510, 512, 
513, 514, 515, 525, 
527, 537, 688 

1951 — 58, 59, 60, 92, 93, 
271 

1953 — 174, 176 
Caro, Jaco Bina 

1943—146, 150 

1947—72-74 

1948 — 105, 106, 348 

1949 — 688 
Carp, Sam 

1945 — 104 
Carpatho Russian-American 
Carpatho Russian- Ameri- 
can Mutual Aid Society 

1949—466 
Carpenter, Iris 

1948—185 
Carpenter's (union) 

1949 — 437, 476 
Carr, Denzel R. 

1959 — 83 
Carr, Sam 

1949 — 465 

1951 — 260 
Carr, Wm. C. 

1948 — 109 
Carrcon, Dr. Reynoldo 

1948—15 
Carrido, Dr. Luis 

1951—272 
Carrillo, Rafael 

1951 — 274 
Carrington, Jack 

1948 — 356 
Carrol, Mrs. Carrie 

1949—437 
Carroll, R. G. 

1945—33, 34, 116 
Carroll, Terry 

1948—338 



246 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



Carroll, Dr. Vincent F. 

1948—16 
Carroll, Wm. 

1948—94 

1949—554 
Carse, Robert 

1948 — 189 
Carson, Allan 

1953 — 79, 120 
Carson, Jules 

1947 — 71, 78, 89, 90, 91, 
101 

1949 — 422, 424, 425, 429, 
430, 432 
Carson, Mimi 

1948 — 358 
Carson, Saul 

1949—480, 4S6, 499, 509, 
510, 513, 515, 537 
Carter, Alan 

1949 — 480 
Carter, Dyson 

1948 — 226 

1949 — 633 
Carter, Edward C. 

1947—321 

1948—169, 170, 357 

1949 — 412 
Carter, Mrs. Edward C. 

1948 — 131 
Carter, Elmer 

1951—267 
Carter, James 

1948 — 206 
Carter, James C, Judge 

1955—298 
Carter, Justice 

1955—51 
Carter, Marvin 

1943 — 153, 164 
Cartwright, Jack 

1943 — 157 

1949 — 177 
Carus, Dr. Clayton 

1948—171 
Carvajol, Jose 

1948 — 16 
Carver Club 

1948 — 214, 259, 280 

1957 — 26 
Carver Cultural Council 

1948 — 392 
Casals, Pablo 

1948 — 311 
Casden, Norman 

1949—499 
Case and Comment 

1959—177 
Case, Clair 

1951—280 
Case, Fox 

1945 — 116 
Casetta, Mario (Boots) 

1949 — 542 
Casey, W. B. 

1949—437 
Cash. Vernon 

1948 — 16 
Caso, Alfonso 

1951—272 
Caspary, Vera 

1947—179, 189 

194S — 97 
Cassidv, Harry M. 

1948—352 
Cassidy, Mary Ann 

1948—215 
Cassil, Virginia 

1959—212 
Castelhun Dorothy 

1948 — 341 
Castle Lodge, Temple Israel 

1948—280 
Caston, Rev. J. L. 

1948 — 333 
Castro, Oscar 

1949 — 438 



Catacklill. Bessie 

1948—377 
Catholic Daughters 

194S— 15-17 
Catholic Inter-Racial 
Council 

19 48—147 
Catholic "War Veterans of 
the U. S. 

194S— 15-19 
Catlett, Elizabeth 

1949— :. 46 
Cattell, J. McKeen 

1948 — 24S 
Caughlin. John 

1951 — 263 
Cave, Jack 

19 4S— 311 
Cavett, Thomas L. 

1943 — 7, 61 
Caya, Al 

1948—257 

1949 — 688 
Cavla, Florence 

1948 — 251 
Cavton, Ethel 

1947 — 90 
Cayton, Revels 

1943— S7 

1945 — 139, 140 

1947—70, 90, 163 

194S — 162, 218, 283, 290, 
303, 305, 307, 375 

1949 — 421, 688 

1953—102 

1959—209 
Cazden, Norman 

1949—480, 508, 513, 536 
CEC 

1949 — 163 
Cedars of Lebanon Hospital 

1955 — 78, 82, 86, 98, 100, 
105, 107, 108, 114, 
127, 134, 135, 167, 
221, 223, 224, 225, 
226, 236, 308, 309, 
310, 311, 359 
Cedars' Shame 

1955—109 
Celebration of 15 Tears of 
Birobidjan 

1949 — 288 
Celebration of 15 Tears of 
Birobidjan, Soviet 
Union Colony 

1953 — 173 
Celler, Emanuel 

1947 — 247 
Celler Radio Bill 

1947 — 184 
Cena, Loco 

1943—301 
Censored 

1948—130 
Censored News 

1948—5 
Centenarv of Marxism, The 

1951 — 153 
Central Committee of the 
Communist Party 

194S— 135, 158, 385, 

1949 — 398 
Central Council of American 
Croatian Women 

1949 — 288, 289 
Central Council of American 
Women of Croatian De- 
scent 

1949—288, 289, 338 
Central Intelligence Agency 

1951 — 3 
Central Labor Council 

1947—48-50, 52, 70, 176, 
188, 192, 261 



Central Labor Council of the 
American Federation of 
Labor in Los Angeles 

1949 — 421 
Central Panchayat 

1953 — 216 
Central Plan Branch of the 
Communist Party 

1948 — 215 
Central Trades and Labor 
Council 

1953—143 
Cerda, Frank 

1947 — 91 
Cerney, Ed 

1947—89 

1949—425 
Cerney, Isobel 

1947 — S9-91 

1949 — 428 
Centro Anti-Ccmmunista 

1943 — 201 
Cervantes Fraternal Society 

1949—466 
Cestare, Frank 

194S— 1S6 

1949—562 
Chabot, Joseph 

1947 — 73 
Chadwick, John E. 

1943 — 176, 191, 192 
Chadwick, Martha B. 

1948—266 
Chaffee, Zachariah, Jr. 

1948 — 198, 320 

1953 — 175 
Chakin, Alfred 

1948—179 
Challenge 

1947 — 225 

1948—260 

1957—73 
Challenge Records 

1948 — 392 
Chairman, Dr. Robert C. 

1949 — 480, 499, 504, 507, 
512, 513, 51S, 532 
Chalmers, Mrs. Allan 
Knight 

1948—320 
Chamber of Commerce 

1948 — 171 

1949 — 613 
Chamberlain, Ernest R. 

1943—109, 110 
Chamberlain, Howard 

1948 — 356 
Chamberlain, Howland 

1943 — 135, 145, 147, 150, 
164 

1951 — 83 

1955 — 306 
Chamberlain, Rowland 

1948 — 315 
Chamberlain, Mrs. Selah 

1948 — 144 
Chamberlin, Rev. Mark A. 

1949 — 4S0 
Chambers, Pat 

1943 — 37 

1951—135 
Chambers, Tom 

1953—259 
Chambers, Whitaker 

1945—119 

1948—266 

1949 — 2, 678 

1951—90, 183 

1953 — 7, 175 

1955 — 401 

1959—167, 183 
Champion 

1949—383 

1955—88 



INDEX 



247 



Champion, Clyde 

1943—87 
Champion Labor Monthly 

1949—383 
Champion of Youth 

1948—196, 197, 224, 334, 
338 

1949 — 313 
Champion of Youth 
Publishers 

1949 — 383 
Chan, Bettv 

1948—179 
Chan, Hansu 

1948—143, 198 
Chance, Gene 

1948—6 
Chandler, Ester 

1951 — 260 
Chandler, Harry 

1943—165 
Chandler, Dr. Wm. H. 

1948—171 
Chanan Singh 

Chandra, Bipan 

1949—429, 430 

1951—131, 133, 135, 140, 
142, 145, 146, 147, 
149 

1953—221 
Chandra Byean 

1957 — 4 
Chandra, H. 

1953 — 215 
Chandra, Ram 

1953—214, 220 
Chaney, Frances 

1948 — 356 
Chaney, Prof. Ralph 

194S— 144, 160 
Chang, Mr. 

1947 — 91 
Changes in Li Village 

1957 — 135 
Changing Man 

1949—539 
Chao Shu-li 

1957 — 135 
Chapas, Dr. Esther 

1951—272 
Chapin, Katherine G. 

1945 — 127 
Chaplin, Charlie (Charles) 

1947 — 191 

1948—189, 322, 324 

1949 — 480, 491, 688 

1951—271, 272, 273, 280 

1953 — 131 
Chaplin, John R. 

1948—278 
Chaplin, Ralph 

1948—265 
Chaplin, Sidney 

1948 — 356 
Chapman, Abraham 

1951 — 278 
Chapman, Detective 

1957 — 47 
Chapman, Dr. Emmanuel 

1948 — 131, 201 
Chapman, Hon. Oscar L. 

1948 — 323 
Chapman, Ruby V. 

2945 34 35 

Chappell,' Winifred L. 

1948—246, 333 
Chari, A. S. R. 

1953 — 230 
Charles, Andrew 

194S— 179 
Charles, Lee 

1949—635 
Charn Singh 

1953—216 



Charry, Elias 

1948—320 
Chart, The 

1948 — 49, 224 

1949 — 383, 545 
Charter, Record 

1948 — 392 
Charter, Steve 

1948 — 343 
Charters, W. W. 

1953 — 151 
Chase, Allen 

1948—103, 115, 125 

1949 — 480, 499, 501, 509, 
511, 516 
Chase, Borden 

1948 — 16 

1959—113 
Chase, Rev. Don M. 

1947 — 242 

1948 — 202, 328, 352, 358, 
377 

1949—436 
Chase, Ezra P. 

1951—245, 248, 249, 253 
Chase, Murray 

1948 — 226 
Chase, Roy 

1948—196 
Chase, Russell 

1948 — 272, 328 
Chase, Stuart 

1948—198, 234, 330 

1953 — 151 
Chasin, Joseph 

1955 — 402, 404, 405 

1959 — 203 
Chasson, Jack 

1948—179 
Chasson, Jack Armand 

1955 — 419, 420 
Chatterjee, Prof. M. N. 

1949 — 480, 499, 518 
Chattopadhayaya, 
Harindranath 

1953 — 233, 234, 235 
Chavez, Carlos 

1948 — 317 
Cheatham. James R. 

1955—324 
Cheek, Dr. David Bradley 

1947—339, 340, 353 
Chekov, Anton 

1948 — 96 
Chelsea Jewish Children's 
School (Mass.) 

1949 — 289 
Chemical Workers (CIO) 

1948 — 204, 205, 206 
Chen Neng-kuan 

1957—131 
Chen, Si Lan 

1948 — 198 

1955 — 387 
Cheney, Ralph 

1948—161 
Cherbonet, Cal 

1948 — 295 
Cherin, Rose 

1943—125, 126 
Chermayeff, Serge 

1949 — 180, 483, 499, 503, 
527 

1951 — 271 
Chernenko, Lena ; see also 
Scherer, Lena and Da- 
vis, Lena 

1951—76, 200, 205 

1953—208 
Chernin, Rose 

1948 — 315, 316 

1955—279, 284, 328, 344, 

1959—123, 124, 125, 126 
Chernis, Jay 
1948—314 



Cheronis, Nicholas 

1948—168 
Chertoff, Naomi 

1948 — 187 

1949 — 563 
Chevalier, Haakon M., Prof. 

1945 — 128 

1947 — 313 

1948—4, 6, 8, 97, 144, 172, 
175, 193, 236, 237 

1949—688 

1951 — 92, 230, 231, 234, 
235, 236, 240, 241, 
242, 243 

1953—139, 174, 252, 280, 
281 

1955—432 
Chevalier, Zelda 

1953—278 
Cheyney, J. M. 

1948—383 
Cheyney, Ralph 

1948—270 
Chiang Kai-shek 

1947 — 291 

1948 — 142, 144, 197 

1949—104 

1951 — 27, 257, 278, 279 

1953—229 

1955 — 119 

1957—127, 128, 129, 132, 
133, 136 
Chiaurely, Mikhail E. 

1949 — 497 
Chicaso Action Council 

1949 — 289 
Chicago AIl-American Anti- 
Imperialist League 

1948—273 
Chicago Civil Liberties 
Committee 

1949 — 446, 447 
Chicago College of Osteop- 
athy 

1955—233 
Chicago Communist Party 

1948—95 
Chicago Conference on Race 
Relations 

1947 — 45 
Chicago Enterprise 

1947—340, 342, 344 
Chicago Herald-Tribune 

1948—102 
Chicago May Day Commit- 
tee 

1949 — 452 
Chieasro Normal College 

1953—271 
Chicago Peace Mobilization 

1948—379 
Chicago Star 

1948—224 

1949 — 383, 482, 535, 543, 
546, 586 
Chicago Star Publishing Co., 
Inc. 

1949 — 546 
Chico Board of Education 

1947—331, 346-354 
Chico High School 

1947—323, 326, 340, 342, 
3 17. 34S, 353-355, 
370 
Chico High School PTA 

1947—347 
Chico Record 

1947—344 
Chico State College 

1947 — 336, 352 
Chicareli, Michael 

1948—226 
Childress, Naomi 

1943—157 
Childs, Jack 

1951—194 



248 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



Childs, Morris 
1948—226, 343 
1949 — 180 
1 9 53 .71 

Chilton, Gordon 
1948 — 94 
1949—554 
China, Achar Singh 

1953 — 223 
China Aid Council 
1948 — 151, 319, 336 
1949 — 289, 452, 455, 505 
China Aid Council of the 
Legion for Peace and 
Democracy 
1947 — 313 
1948 — 319 
China Aid News 
1948—143 
1949—384 
China and the Asian- 
African Conference 
1957 — 139 
China-Burma-India 
Roundup 
1951—24 
China, Chinese Communist 
Eighth Route Army 
1951—53 
China, Chinese People's 

Communist Government 
1951 — 27, 89, 257, 263, 277, 
278, 279, 280, 286 
China Conference Arrange- 
ments Committee 
1948 — 197, 198 
1951 — 290, 291 
China, Land of Many 
Nationalities 
1957—136 
China Pictorial 

1957—127 
China Reconstructs 

1957—132 
China Strikes Back 

1948 — 247 
China Today 

1948—143, 144, 198, 224 
1949—384 
China Today Mass Meeting 

1948 — 147 
China's Neiv Democracy 

1953 — 238, 239 
Chinese Academy of 
Sciences 
1957—130 
Chinese-American Bureau 
of Research of Los 
Angeles 
1947 — 72 
Chinese Communist Party 
1948 — 143 
1949—103, 104, 189 
Chinese Cultural Cabaret 

1953—267 
Chinese Democratic Youth 
Chorus 
1951—277 
Chinese National Party 

1949—104 
Chinese Revolution and the 
Communist Party of 
China 
1953—238 
Chinese Student Comes 
Home 
1957 — 130 
Chinese Students 

1957 — 135 
Chinese Workers March 
Toward Socialism 
1957—133 
Chinese Workers Mutual 
Aid Association 
1953—267 
Chism, Clinton 
1951—267 



Choates, Edward 

1948 — 208, 258 
Chodorov, Edward 

1949 — 449, 455, 480, 489, 
499, 501, 502, 503, 

505, 509, 515, 521, 
522, 529, 532, 534, 
535, 537, 688 

1951 — 53, 271 
Chodorov, Jerome 
1948 — 210 
1949 — 480, 489, 499, 501, 

506, 509, 510, 513, 
515, 517, 535, 537, 
688 

1953 — 171, 172 
Chodorov, Rhea 

1948 — 228 
Chorazyna, Madam 

1949 — 120 
Chotzinoff, Sam 

1948—311 
Chou En-lai 

1953—136, 241 

1957—126, 131, 139, 140 
Chou Li-po 

1957 — 135 
Chown, Paul 

1951 — 280 

1953 — 278, 279 
Choy, N. T. 

1947—96 
Christensen, Dr. Helen 

1947—239 
Christensen, Nels Anchor 

1947 — 346-348 
Christensen, Parley Parker 

1945 — 139, 140 

1948 — 198 
Christian Century, The 

1948—246 

1955 — 185 
Christian League for Indus- 
trial Democracy 

1948—336 
Christian Labor Party 

1949 — 122 
Christian, Leo E. 

1947—89-91 
Christian Register 

1948 — 352 

1949 — 451 
Christian Register, The 

1955 — 185 
Christian Science Monitor 

1947 — 120 

1949 — 132 
Christians, Mary 

1948 — 262 
Christiansen, Dr. Helen 

1948—355 
Christianson, Leo E. 

1949 — 425, 429, 431, 432 
Christie, Lee 

1948—179 
Christopher, C. L. 

1945 — 165-167 
Christopher, Charles 

1951— 2S0 
Christophorides, D. 

1949—109 
Christs Church of the 
Golden Rule 

1945 — 33, 38, 39, 40-43 
Chudnow, Max 

194S — 355 
Chuman, Prank F. 

1948 — 355 
Chung, Dr. Margaret 

1948 — 144 
Church, Donna 

1953 — 259 
Church League for Indus- 
trial Democracy 

1948 — 318 

1949—289 



108, 



Church of the Hammer am 
Sickle 
1948 — 344 
Churchill, Henry S. 

1949 — 480, 499 
Churchill, Winston 
1947 — 20, 207 
1949—15, 17, 51, 74 

442 
1953 — 69 
Churchman, The 

1955 — 185 
Chworowsky, Rev. Karl M. 

1949 — 480 
Chyz, Yaroslaw 

1949—486 
Cikovsky, Nicolai 

1949—480, 489, 499, 505, 
536, 537 
Cikowski, N. 
1948 — 261 
Cimring, Annette 
1947—70, 299, 300 
1949 — 421 
1955 — 391 
Cimring, H., Dr. 

1951—267 
Cimring, Harry, Dr. 

1955 — 348, 383 
Cinema Bureau in Moscow 

1948 — 193 
Cinema Bureau of the In- 
ternational Union o: 
the Revolutionary The 
atre 
1948 — 237 
Citations 
1949 — 678 
1951 — 290 
Citizen Tom Paine 

1959 — 85 
Citizens Advisory 
Committee 
1948 — 14, 15 
1949 — S, 9, 602, 651, 652 
683 
Citizens Committee for 
AMTER 
1949 — 520 
Citizens Committee for 
Better Education 
1947 — 56 

1948— 19S-200, 231 
1949 — 289, 459 
Citizens Committee for 

Democratic Freedom h 
North Africa 
1949—216 
Citizens Committee for 
Harry Bridges 
1948—34, 97, 248, 363 
1949—289, 290, 504 
1951 — 60 
1955 — 88 
Citizens Committee for Rob- 
ert Thompson and Bern 
jamin J. Davis 
1949 — 522 
Citizens Committee for th< 
Defense of Mexican- 
American Youth 
1943—216, 217 
1945 — 182, 183, 184 
1947 — 45, 189 
1948 — 365, 375 
1949 — 290, 295 
1951 — 257 
Citizens Committee for the 
Election of Simon W. 
Gerson 
1949 — 524 






INDEX 



249 



Citizens Committee for the 
Motion Picture Strikers 
1947 — 188, 190, 191 
1948 — 201 
1949 — 290 
1951—57, 60 
Citizens Committee for the 
Protection of the For- 
eigm Born 
1959 — 126, 128, 129, 132, 
133, 134, 135, 144, 
214 
Citizens Committee for the 
Recall of Councilman 
McClanahan 
1947 — 55 
1949—290 
Citizens Committee for the 
Upper West Side 
1949 — 290 
Citizens Committee on 

Academic Freedom, The 
1948 — 54 
1949—290 
Citizens Committee to Aid 
the Locked-Out Hearst 
Employees 
1947 — 56, ISO, 187 
194S — 147 
1949 — 291 
Citizens Committee to De- 
fend Representative 
Government 
1949 — 524 
Citizens Committee to End 
Discrimination in Base- 
ball 
1947 — 190 
Citizens Committee to Free 
Earl Browder 
1947—210, 219 
194S — 7, 34, 55, 104, 118, 
200, 319, 329, 330, 
334-336, 351 
1949—291, 520 
Citizens Committee to Pre- 
serve American Free- 
doms 
1955—204, 309, 311, 332, 

360, 363 
1959—144, 207, 214 
Citizens Committee to Sup- 
port Labor's Right 
1947 — 187 
1949—291 
Citizens for Political Free- 
dom 
1959 — 212 
Citizens for Victory Com- 
mittee 
1948—136 
Citizens Housing- Council of 
Los Angeles 
1953 — 83 
Citizens No Foreign Wars 
Coalition 
1943—251-253 
Citron, Byron 
1948 — 179 
1953 — 103 
Citron, Ula 

1948—179 
City Action Committee 

Against the High Cost 
of Living 
1949—291 
City College 

1957 — 22 
City College of New York 
1948—178, 338 
1955—404, 410 
City Terrace Cultural Club 

1949 — 427, 434 
Civiern, Frank J. 
1948—94 
1949—554 



Civil Rights Congress 
1947—55, 70, 75, 187 
1948 — 35, 47, 48, 55, 60, 
61, 75, 122, 136, 139, 
191, 201, 206, 209, 
220, 221, 224, 230, 
231, 338, 362, 363, 

1949 — 148, 267, 291, 292, 
295, 306, 320, 332, 
340, 369, 381, 421, 
439, 442, 443, 444, 
445, 446, 447, 44S, 
449, 450, 451, 452, 
453, 454, 455, 456, 
506, 515, 517, 522, 
523, 524, 526, 542, 
543, 548, 551, 635, 
678 
1951—24, 36, 248, 253, 
254, 255, 256, 25S, 
264, 265, 266, 267, 
281, 287, 289 
1953—1, 97, 118, 247, 255, 
260, 261, 262, 277, 
282 
1955— S8, 91, 159, 175, 
182, 189, 190, 204, 
208, 231, 234, 239, 
245, 246, 262, 297, 
299, 300, 307, 327, 
328, o29, 336, 339, 
342, 343, 346, 347, 
360, 373, 385, 386, 
404, 417, 422 
1957 — 106, 107, 108, 109, 

117, 119 
1959—34, 124, 125, 126, 
127, 128, 129, 131, 
132, 133, 134, 135, 
137, 149, 208 
Civil Rights Congress, Ala- 
meda County 
195:; — 260 
Civil Rights Congress Bul- 
letin 
1955—347 
Civil Rights Congress, City 
Terrace Chapter 
1951—267 
Civil Rights Congress Com- 
mittee to Save Robert 
Wesley Wells 
1955 — 3o 5 
Civil Rights Congress for 
Texas 
1949 — 292 
Civil Rights Congress, Long 
Beach Chapter 
1951 — 267 
Civil Rights Congress, 
Milwaukee Chapter 
1949—292 
Civil Rights Congress of 
Michigan 
1949 — 2y2 
Civil Rights Congress of 
New York 
1949—346, 446, 54S 
Civil Rights Congress, 
Northern California 
1953—272 
Civil Rights Congress, 

Pacific Coast Director 
1951—264 
Civil Kignts Congress, 
San Diego 
1955 — 3 89 
Civil Rights Council of 
Northern California 
1947—209 
1948—163 
19 "J 2! 2. 348 
Civil Rights Division of -Mo- 
bilization for Democracy 
1949—292, 448 



Civil Rights Federation 
1948 — 61 

1949 292 

Civil Rights Federation in 
Detroit 
1949—446 
Civil Rights Mobilization 

1957—108 
Civil Rinhts News 
1948 — 224 
1949 — 384 
Civil Service Commission 

1959 — 139, 156, 174 
Civil War in France 

1949—190, 191 
Civil War in the United 
States, The 
1949—191 
Civinini, Joseph 

1943 — 284, 292 
Claiborne, Robert 

1948 — 392 

Claire, Bonnie 

1947—96 

1948—131 

Clansaddle, Nellie 

1948—227 
Clare, Ralnh 

1948 — 16 
Claremont College 

1953 — 133 
Clarity 

1948—49, 224 
1949 — 384 
Clark, Alden 

1947 — 152, 163 
Clark, Arnold 

1951 — 229 
Clark, Clinton 

1948 — 163 

Clark, David 

1948 — 377 

Clark, Durward 

1948—94 

1949 — 554 

Clark, Edward 

1948 — 356 
Clark, Evans 

1P49 — 670, 671 
Clark, Harold F. 

1953 — 153 
(Mark, John Gee 

1943 — 188, 189, 134 
1947—185, 186 
Clark, Joseph 

1948—213, 233, 343 
Clark, Marearete L. 
1943—149 
1947 — 239 
194S — 198 
Clark, Robert G. 

1949—601 

Clark, Susan 

1947 — 89 

19 19—425 

Clark, Tom 

1948_59, 110, 202, 204, 

206, 207 
1949__202, 224, 257, 267, 
268, 270, 271, 272, 
273, 274, 277, 278, 
280, 281, 282, 284, 
285, 286, 288, 289, 
290, 291, 292, 293, 
296 297, 298, 299, 
300, 301, 303, 304, 
305, 306, 311, 312, 
313, 314, 316, 317, 
319, 321, 323. 324, 
326, 327, 330, 332, 
335, 336, 337, 339, 
341, 344, 345, 348, 
350, 351, 352, 353, 
354, 355, 356, 357, 
358, 359, 362, 366, 
367, 369, 370, 371, 



250 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



Clark, Tom — Continued 

372, 373, 375, 378, 
402, 413, 523 

1959 — 141 
Clarke, Angela 

1948—356 
Clarke, L. J. 

1957—126, 140 
Clarke, T. E. B. 

1948—374 
Class Struggles in France 

1949 — 191 
Clawson, Archie 

1949 — 601 
Clay, Eugene 

1945 — 124, 126 

1948—274 

1949—471 
Claypool, Leslie E. 

1948—341 

1949—688 
Clavton, Revels 

1945—195, 196 
Cleary, Mrs. Betty 

1948 — 16 
Clement, Ada 

1943 — 137 

1948—185 
Clement, Grace 

1943—129 
Clement, Dr. Rufus E. 

1948 — 262, 271 

1949 — 468, 480, 484, 499, 
502, 505, 513-515, 
518 
Clement, Rufus R. 

1949 — 507 
Clewitt, Howard S. 

1947 — 345 
Clifton, John 

1943 — 144 
Clifton, Leon 

1948—146, 148 

1949—688 
Cline, Minnabell 

1943—217 

1945—182 

1948 — 375 
CUne. Paul 

1943—146, 147, 159, 167 

1945 — 143 

1947 — 170, 226, 294, 297 

1959—24 
Clinton, Clifford E. 

1943 — 343 
dinner, The 

1948 — 135, 137, 167, 224, 
246 
Cloke, Shirley 

1948—215 
Closed Communist Party 
Caucuses 

19 43 — IS 8 
Clothier, Dr. Robert C. 

1948—323 
Cloud, A. J. 

1947—88, 93 

1949 — 425 
Cluen, Reene 

1948—184 

1949 — 561 
Clugston, "W. G. 

1949 — 480, 489 
Clurman, Harold 

1945 — 126 

1948—274 

1949 — 471 
Clyde, Mrs. Ethel 

1948—170, 179 
Coakley, Frank 

1951—254 
Coast Counties Gas & 
Electric Co. 

1955 — 401, 405 



Coates, Robert 

1945 — 121 

1949—480, 489, 499, 501, 
504, 510, 512, 51S, 
521, 527, 528, 537 
Cobb, Humphrey 

1945—127 

1948—316 
Cobb, Lee 

1948—356 

1949 — 4S0, 488, 489, 499, 
508, 510, 513, 515 
Cobb, Margaret 

1949—437 
Cobb, Dr. Stanley 

1949 — 480, 517 
Cobb, Tom 

1948—377 
Cobbs, Dr. P. P. 

1947—96 

1948 — 185 
Cobbs, P. Price, Dr. 

1953—107, 109 

1955—112, 237, 238, 239, 
240, 241, 294, 305, 
312, 313, 314, 315, 
319, 320, 323, 326, 
335, 344, 346, 348, 
370, 374, 386, 390, 

1959—125 
Cobbs, P. Price, Mrs. 

1955 — 316 
Coburn, Muriel 

1948—356 
Cochran, Wm. F. 

1948—109 
Codornices Club 

1948 — 215 
Coe, Charles J. 

1949 — 546 
Coe, Frank 

1959—172, 173, 176 
Coe, Dr. George A. 

1948—151, 152, 328, 333, 
352, 358, 359, 377 

1951 — 280, 2S1 
Coe, James Everett 

1943—356, 374, 375 
Coe, Lee 

1948—343 

1953 — 282 
Coffee, John W. 

194S— 109, 116, 132, 151, 
181, 186, 208, 226, 
310, 318, 328, 351, 
375 

1949—562 
Coffin, Dr. Henry S. 

1948 — 322 
Cogel, Anna J. 

1955—389 
Cogliandro, A. M. 

1943—284, 299 
Cohee, Alice 

1947 — 179, 190 
Cohee, John 

1943—155 

1945 — 195, 196 

1947—180, 190 

1948 — 375 
Cohee, Mr. and Mrs. John 

1947—96, 97 

1948—183 
Cohee, Lester 

1945—121, 127 
Cohelan, Mrs. Jeffrey 

1948 — 194 
Cohen, Arthur 

1951 — 287 
Cohen, Betty 

1955—448 
Cohen, Elizabeth Boggs 

19 55 — 36 7 
Cohen, Rabbi Henry 

1948 — 114 
Cohen, Hyman 

1948—259 



Cohen, Rabbi J. K. 

1948 — 198 
Cohen, Rabbi J. X. 

1949 — 480, 489, 491, 499, 
502, 507, 509, 515, 
517, 524 
Cohen, Jeannette 

1948 — 179 
Cohen, Rabbi, Jehudah N. 

1948 — 146, 149 
Cohen, Joseph 

1948—196, 338 

1949 — 548 
Cohen, Dr. Julius 

1948—16 
Cohen, Leon 

1948—94 

1949 — 554 
Cohen, Lester 

1948 — 244 
Cohen, Lewis 

1948—377 
Cohen, Max R. 

1948—151 
Cohen, Morris 

1947— ISO 

1948 — 270 
Cohen, Nat 

1948 — 212 
Cohen, Rueben E. 

1948 — 266 
Cohen, Rabbi Samuel M. 

1948—152 
Cohn, Aaron 

-1055 .39 1 

Cohn, Rabbi Franklin 

1948 — 145 

1955 — 132, 307, SOS, 3S7, 
388, 390 
Cohn, Morris E. 

1948—59, 251, 255, 259, 
372, 374 

1955 — 208, 383 
Colamiris, Angela 

1959 — 167 
Colbert, DeWitt 

1948—183 
Colby, Merle 

1945 — 126 

1948 — 274 

1949—472 
Cole, Erwin 

1955 — 335, 367 
Cole, Gladys 

1948—356 
Cole, Lester „„„„„, 

194S _60, 97, 215, 239, 274, 
276, 279, 346, 372 

1949—472, 478, 4S0, 49ST) 
501, 506, 510, 511, 
513, 516, 519, 520, 
524, 527, 688 

1951 — 57, 58, 26S, 271 

1953 — 139, 174 

1955 441 

Cole, Lorenza Jordan 

1948 — 317 
Cole, Robert 

1943 — 146, 147, 14S, 197 
Cole, Dr. Sidney S. 

1959 — 185 
Cole v. Young 

1959—191 
Cole, William G. 

1949 — 596 
Coleman, David 

1948 — 16 
Coleman, Edward C. 

1953—176 
Coleman, Festus 

1948 — 167, 274 

1949 — 308 
Coleman, Dr. James C. 

1943 — 119, 120 

1948—198 



INDEX 



251 



Coleman, Dr. Le Grande 

1948 — 185 

1953 — 283 
Coleman, Lewis 

1951 — 259 
Coleman, Louis 

1949—179 
Coleman, Timothy 

1948—220 
Colen, Louise 

194S— 149 
Coles, Ann 

1948 — 270 
Collapse of the Second 
International 

1949 — 190 
College and Life 

1947 — 324 
College of Medical Evange- 
lists, School of Medi- 
cine 

1955 — 145, 367 
College of Osteopathic Phy- 
sicians and Surgeons 

1055 — 271 
College of the City of 
Xew York 

1953— S7, 127, 278 
College of the Pacific 

1953—133 
College Teachers Union, 
Local 537, A. F. of L. 

1959—94 
Collier, Nina P. 

1948 — 278 
Collins, Alexandra 

1949 — 428, 433 
Collins, Dr. C. L. 

1959 — 184 
Collins, Charles 

1948 — 114 

2949 .449 

Collins, Dorothy T. 

1948 — 377 
Collins, Frank 

1951—229 
Collins, Mrs. Frank 

1948 — 16 
Collins, George D., Jr. 

194 8—249 
Collins, James 

1947 — 202, 212 
Collins, Richard 

1945—116, 117 

1948 — 215 

1959—116 
Collins, Jr., Harry 

1959—175 
Collins, Jr., Henry 

1959 — 172, 173, 175 
Collins, Jr., Major Henry 

1959 — 175 
Colliver, George H. 

1959 — 185 
Colman, Edward C. 

1948—329 
Colman, Louis 

1948 — 93, 202, 266, 328, 
352 

1949—447, 449, 450 
Colombia University, 
President of 

1951—67 
Colomis, George 

1947—239 
Columbia Broadcasting Co. 

1947 — 364 

1948 — 313 
Columbia Foundation 

1955 — 221 
Columbia Motion Picture 
Studio 

1943 — 83 

1947 — 364 



Columbia University 

1948 — 337, 338, 352, 390, 
391 

1949 — 451 

1953 — 87, 194, 271 

1955—221, 410, 421 

1957—93 

1959—45, 54, 176 
Columbus Peace Association 

1949 — 292 
Colver v. Skeffington 

1949—246, 255 
Combs, R. E. 

1943 — 7 

1945 — 6, 147-159 

1947 — 58-60, 99-102, 108, 
110, 111, 116-118, 
120, 124, 127-129, 
146, 147, 150, 153, 
171, 172, 192, 194, 
19S, 199, 201, 21S, 
222, 245, 247, 248, 
250, 251, 255-258, 

264, 265, 273, 275, 
277, 278, 281-283, 
289, 294, 299, 302- 
306, 309, 324, 326, 
329, 331, 332, 335, 
336, 338-342, 345- 
349 

1948 — 8-14, 111, 173, 175, 

219-221, 235, 258, 

282, 292, 298, 299, 

308, 346, 349 

1949 — 601, 602, 609, 612, 

613, 629, 634 
1951 — 1, 4 
1959 — 156, 204 
Comey, Marge 

1943 — 134 
Coming of Age 

1947 — 324, 331, 336-339, 
344, 353 
Coming Struggle for Power, 
The 
1943 — 118 
Comingore, Dorothy 
1943 — 217 
1945 — 182 
1948 — 97, 375 
Cominform 

1949—20, 32, 33, 35, 58, 
60, 101, 102, 106, 

107, 110, 111, 127, 
130, 193, 202, 230, 

265, 298, 388, 490, 
617 

1951—40, 130 

1957 — 92, 93, 96 
Cominform Bulletin 

1953—239 

1957 — 8, 82 
Cominform Manifesto 

1949— 16, 34 
Comintern 

1943—39, 40, 93 

1945 — 83, 85, 146, 153 

1947 — 8, 9, 20, 26, 29, 30, 
36, 38, 44, 67, 78, 

108, 216, 219, 310 
1948 — 9, 10, 33, 35, 65, 73, 

75, 79, 81, 83, 106, 
107, 113, 118, 122, 
124, 133, 142, 143, 
149, 166, 178, 190, 
191, 232, 233, 242, 
243, 265, 267, 362, 
363, 383, 384 
1949 — 16, 20, 32, 34, 47, 
60, 85, 88, 101, 103, 
135, 161, 162, 163, 
167, 168, 169, 170, 
171, 172, 173, 174, 
175, 176, 178, 179, 



180, 182, 195, 197, 

229, 230, 231, 233, 
234, 235, 236, 237, 
238, 239, 240, 241, 
243, 244, 363, 364, 
374, 413, 415, 478, 
615, 656, 680 

1951—7, 8, 42, 54, 65, 86, 
180, 181, 182, 185, 
186, 236, 257 

1953—7, 17, 24, 47, 48, 
54, 70, 71, 136, 138, 
139, 152, 157, 226, 

230, 245 
1955—385 

1957 — 82, 92, 105, 106 
1959—89, 95, 110, 111, 
115, 119, 121, 137, 
170, 171, 183 
Comintern, Executive 
Committee 
1951 — 185, 257 
1953—71 
1959 — 121 
Comintern, International 
Red Aid Section 
1951 — 259, 260, 261 
Comintern Seventh Con- 
gress 
1959—93 
Comite Co-ordinator Pro 
Republican Espanola 
1949 — 292 
Comite Defensor del 
Pueblo Mexicano 
1955 — 388, 390 
Commentary Magazine 

1951 — 50 
Commercial Telegraphers 
Union 
1959—104 
Commissar for Heavy 
Industry 
1959 — 109, 110 
Commission of Inquiry 

Into the Moscow Trials 
1951 — 38 
Commission on Government 
Security 
1959—96, 138, 142, 200, 
201 
Committee Against War 
Propaganda 
1949 — 292 
Committee for a Boycott 
Against Japanese 
Aggression 
1947—202 
1948—147, 319, 335 
1949—293 
1953—176 
Committee for a Far 
Eastern Policy 
1955—292 
Committee for a Demo- 
cratic Far Eastern 
Policy 
1948 — 168. 169, 197, 19S, 

208, 218 
1949—105, 294, 454, 455, 

505 
1951 — 276, 277, 278, 2S0, 

289 
1953 — 1, 247, 266, 2G7, 277 
1955 — 293, 350 
Committee for A. F. of L. 
Participation in World 
Federation of Trade 
Unions 
1949—548 
Committee for Amalgama- 
tion 
1955—296, 315, 350 



252 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



Committee for Citizens 
Rights 
1948 — 122, 358 
1949 — 293, 440, 452, 454, 
455 
Committee for Civil Rights 
for Communists 
1948—34 
1949 — 293, 440 
Committee for Concerted 
Peace Efforts 
1949—293 
Committee for 

Correspondence 
1948—12, 13 
1951 — 173, 174 
Committee for Cultural 
Freedom 
1948—102, 121-125, 128, 
129, 135, 166, 168, 
191, 365, 366, 370, 
371 
1951—38 
Committee for Defense of 
Joint Anti-Fascist Ref- 
ugee Committee 
1948 — 55 
1949—294 
Committee for Defense 
of Mexican-American 
Youth 
1959—137 
Committee for Defense of 
Public Education 
1948 — 381, 392 
1949 — 294 
Committee for Democracy 
and Intellectual Free- 
dom 
1951—238 
Committee for Democratic 
Action 
1949 — 295 
Committee for Democratic 
Far Eastern Policy, 
San Francisco Chapter 
1953—267 
Committee for Democratic 
Rights 
1949 — 295 
Committee for Free Polit- 
ical Advocacy 
1949 — 146, 527 
Committee for Industrial 
Organization 
1953 — 52 
Committee for Medical 
Freedom 
1955 — 109, 167, 310 
Committee for Peace 
Through World 
Cooperation 
1948—67, 335 
1949 — 294 
Committee for Peaceful 
Alternatives 
1951 — 275, 289 
1955—182 
Committee for Peaceful Al- 
ternatives to the Atlan- 
tic Pact 
1953—247 
Committee for the Care of 
Young Children in "War 
Time 
1948 — 168 
1949—295 
Committee for the Defense 
of Foreign Born 
1955—387 



Committee for the Defense 
of Mexican-American 
Youth 
1945 — 184, 185, 193, 195 
1947—97 
1949 — 295 
Committee for the Election 
of Robinson and Hit- 
telman 
1955 — 373 
Committee for the First 
Amendment 
1948—35, 55, 61, 211 
1949 — 295, 630 
1951 — 290, 291 
1955 — 455, 456, 457, 458, 
459, 460, 461, 462, 
463 
Committee for the Release 
of Earl Browder 
1948 — 253 
Committee for the Support 
of S. W. Gerson 
1947—210 
1949 — 295 
Committee Honoring 
Georgi Dimitrov 
1947 — 210, 219 
Committee of Action for 
Peace and Democracy 
1949—458 
Committee of Cultural Or- 
ganizations to Defeat 
the Mundt-Nixon Bill 
1949 — 294 
Committee of Jewish Writ- 
ers, Artists and Scien- 
tists, Inc. 
1949 — 394 
Committee of One Hundred 
for Political Unity 
1959 — 18 
Committee of Professional 
Groups for Browder 
and Ford 
1948 — 153 
1949 — 295, 521 
Committee of Students for 
Academic Freedom 
1953 — 194 
Committee of "Women 

1948 — 227, 323 
Committee on Academic 
Freedom 
1959 — 82 
Committee on American 
Citizenship 
1955 — 142, 143 
Committee on Election 
Rights 
1948—112, 381 
1949 — 296 
Committee on Japanese Ac- 
tivities in California 
1943 — 322 
Committee on One Thousand 
1948 — 35, 55 
1949 — 295 
Committee on One Thousand 
Home Buyers 
1953—103 
Committee on Privilege 
and Tenure 
1951—74 
Committee on Un-American 
Activities 
1949 — 439, 441, 447, 501, 
502, 503, 504, 505, 
506, 507, 508, 509, 
510, 511, 512, 513, 
514, 516, 532, 533, 
534, 536, 538 



Committee on Un-American 
Activities, House of 
Representatives 
1947 — 81-83, 141, 201, 236, 

313 

1948 — 97-99, 102, 104, 118- 
126, 134, 135, 165, 
166, 217, 250, 266, 
274, 277, 328, 330- 
333, 361-371, 380, 
386 
Committee Protesting At- 
tacks Against the Abra- 
ham Lincoln Brigade 
1947 — 210 
1949 — 296 
Committee to Aid Chinese 
Trade Unions 
1948—143, 211 
1949 — 296 
Committee to Aid the 
Fighting South 
1949—296 
Committee to Defend Amer- 
ica by Keeping Out of 
War 
1947 — 202 
194S— 67, 115, 149, 150, 

211, 342, 351 
1949 — 296, 451, 453-455 
1953 — 2S0 
Committee to Defend 
Angelo Herndon 
1948 — 34 
19 4H—296 
Committee to Defend 
Don West 
1949 — 526 
Committee to Defend 
the Rosenbergs 
1953— 2S3 
Committee to Re-elect Vito 
Marcantonio to Con- 
gress 
1947 — 219 
Committee to Reverse the 
Smith Act 
1959—149 
Committee to Save Foreign 
Language Broadcasts 
1949 — 297 
Committee to Save Spain 
and China 
1948 — 147, 335 
1949 — 297 
Committee to Secure Justice 
for the Rosenbergs 
1953— 2S2 
Committee to Win the Peace 
1948—197, 19S 
1951 — 276 
Commons, Natalie 

1948—278 
Commonwealth Club of 
California 
1959 — 215, 218 
Commonwealth College 
1948—145 
1949 — 297 
Commonwealth of Oceana 

1945—71 
Commonwealth \. Rhoads 

1949—254 
Communication Workers of 
America, CIO 
1955 — 418 
Communism and Academic 
Freedom, The Record 
of the Tenure Cases at 
University of Washing 
ton 
1953 — 201 
1957 — 8, 11 









INDEX 



253 



Communism in Action 
1947—314, 315, 317, 319 
1949 — 67, 654 
Communique 
1948 — 190 
Communist — See Communist 
Party or particular sub- 
division 
Communist Book Store 

1957 — 127 
Communist County Central 
Committee 
1947 — 139 
Communist Infiltration in 
the U. S. 
1949 — 654 
Communist Information Bu- 
reau — See also Comin- 
form 
1949 — 32, 101, 106, 110, 
183, 222, 224, 297 
Communist International — 
See also Comintern 
1943—39, 40, 93 
1947 — 9 

1948—120, 150, 163 
1949—32, 85, 86, 100, 101, 
103, 107, 110, 117, 
119, 127, 128, 131, 
135, 155, 156, 157, 
158, 159, 160, 161, 
162, 163, 164, 166, 
167, 168, 169, 170, 
172, 173, 174, 175, 
176, 177, 179, 180, 
181, 182, 183, 185, 
193, 195, 197, 199, 
202, 206, 207, 223, 
229, 230, 231, 232, 
233, 234, 235, 236, 
237, 238, 239, 240, 
242, 243, 245, 247, 
248, 252, 258, 259, 
265, 272, 278, 279, 
297, 298, 300, 310, 
318, 321, 352, 354, 
358, 363, 368, 373, 
374, 376, 377, 385, 
390, 420, 423, 439, 
440, 446, 463, 464, 
488, 490, 522, 550, 
555, 563, 617, 677 
1951—8, 11, 48, 181 
1953 — 195 
1957 — 92 
1959—21, 89 
Communist International, 
Executive Committee 
1953 — 231 
Communist International, 
Sixth World Congress 
1957—85, 116 
Communist International 
Union of Revolutionary 
"Writers 
1949 — 374 
Communist Intrigue 

1943 — 80, 81 
Communist Labor Party 
1949 — 157, 159, 177, 298 
1953—58 
Communist Labor Party of 
America 
1949 — 157, 162, 193 
Communist Labor Party of 
California 
1949—571 
Communist League 
1949 — 14 

1953—12, 17, 18, 19 
Communist Legal Subver- 
sion 
1959 — 135 
Communist Manifesto 
1943—19, 21, 26 
1945—80-82 



1948—14, 16, 25, 34, 



L95, 217, 233 
3, 76, 80, 128, 
152, 188, 190, 
203, 205, 616, 



191, 
1949—36, 6 
141, 
193, 
617 
1951 — 177 

1953—7, 10, 11, 12, 16, 
17, 19, 20, 25, 27, 
31, 50, 190 
1955—88, 89, 379, 413 
1957 — 146 
Communist National Com- 
mittee of the United 
States 
1955—43 
Communist Notebooks 

1957 — 91 
Communist on State 
Pay Roll 
1943—116 
Communist Party — See also 
various subdivisions of 
the party 
1943—12-198, 256, 383 
1945 — 5, 6, 59, 66-210 
1947 — 10-362 
1948 — 20-393 
1949 — 13-588 
1951—1-291 

1957—1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 
10, 11, 13, 21, 26, 
29, 31, 33, 57, 62, 
74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 
79, 80, 81, 83, 85, 
88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 
95, 96, 98, 101, 
102, 105, 108, 114, 
115, 117, 118, 119, 
120, 124, 143, 144, 

145, 146, 148, 151, 
152, 153, 155, 156, 
157 

1959—9-13, 18-27, 30, 
34, 38, 39, 41, 42, 
43, 47, 49, 50, 51, 
52, 55, 56, 57, 58, 
81, 84, 85, 90, 91, 
92, 96, 98, 99, 
101, 102, 105, 106, 
109, 110, 111, 112, 
115, 117, 118, 119, 
120, 121, 122, 123, 
124, 125, 126, 127, 
128, 129, 130, 131, 
132, 133, 134, 135, 
136, 139, 143, 145, 

146, 148, 149, 151, 
154, 155, 157, 158- 
166, 167, 168, 169, 
170, 171, 172, 176, 
177, 180, 181, 184, 
186, 187, 188, 189, 
190, 192, 193, 194, 
195, 196, 202, 203, 
206, 208, 209, 210, 
211, 214, 215, 216, 
217, 218 

Alameda County (see 
also Alameda County 
Communist Party) 
1953—5, 74, 256, 257, 

261, 263 
1955—386 
American 

1953 — 50, 51, 52, 57, 58, 
60, 69, 75, 165, 
190 
As agent of a Foreign 
Power 
1949 — 654 
Book Stores in California 

1948—224 
British 

1949—172, 173 
1953—231, 232 



British International 
Committee 
1953—231 
California (see also Cali- 
fornia Communist 
Party) 
1955 — 14, 21, 41, 404 
1959 — 18, 25, 33, 37, 39, 
44, 154, 171, 178, 
217 
California, Arizona, and 
Nevada District 
1957—1 
California, Northern Dis- 
trict 
1959—30, 32 
California, Political Com- 
mission 
1959 — 17 
California, Southern Dis- 
trict 
1959—31, 40, 181, 182, 
209 
Central Committee 

1959 — 23 
Central Executive Com- 
mittee 
1947 — 316 
1949—88, 93 
1951—49, 82, 185, 190, 
191, 199 
Cultural Commission 

1959 — 86, 113 
China 

1953—232, 236, 239 
1955—118 
Committee, New York 
State 
1953 — 141 
Conference, British 
Empire 
1953 — 232 
Congress 

1953—34 
Congress, French 

1953—232 
Control Commission 
1943—74 

1951 — 185, 190, 191 
Control Commission 
Chairman 
1951—185 
Conventions 

1943—73 
County Bureaus 

1951 — 206 

Czechoslovakia 

1957 — 94 

1959 — 159 

Disciplinary Commission 

1959—118 
District 13 

1951 — 36, 172, 176, 178, 
179, 180, 186, 187, 
191, 202, 208, 259 
1953 — 13, 77, 279 
District 13, Bureau 

1951—185, 186, 1S7, 188, 
189, 191, 196, 203, 
228 
District 13, Committee 
1951—187, 189, 190, 209, 
210, 217, 235 
15th National Convention 

1953 — 140, 141 
France 
1955—309 

1957—76, 90, 91, 92, 95, 
96, 97 
Germany 
1949 — 172 
1955 — 180 
1959—203 



254 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



Communist Party — 




Soviet Union 


Continued 




1953 — 38, 54, 65, 195 


India 




1955—413 


1953—223, 224, 226, 


227, 


1959 — 136, 178, 183, 


230, 231, 236, 


237, 


195 


238, 239 




Soviet Union, Central 


India Central Committee 


Committee 


1953 — 225, 230 




1953 — 34, 35, 36, 39 


India, Politburo 




Soviet Union, Politburo 


1953 — 230 




1953 — 195 


Italy 




Soviet Union, Twentieth 


1959 — 161 




Congress 


Labor Commission 




1959—35, 38, 144 


1959 — 195 




Soviet Union, Twenty- 


Little Theatre 




first Convention 


1947 — 73, 74 




1959 — 194 


Los Angeles — 




State Committee 


1953 — 101 




1959—130 


1955 — 292, 410, 411 


, 420 


State Trade Director 


Los Angeles County 




1951—24 


1953 — 78, 89, 102, 


106, 


Textbook 


107, 110, 111 


124, 


1945—97, 154, 155 


125, 173 




Trade Union Department 


1955—109, 181, 214 


220, 


1951 — 191 


273, 285, 414 


420, 


Twentieth Congress 


421 




1957 — 30, 72, 82, 93, 94, 


1957 — 97 




97, 127 


1959—27, 110, 111, 


208 


United States 


Los Angeles County, Po- 


1949 — 157, 193, 194, 


litical Commission 


233, 298, 


1959 — 20, 26 




1953 — 5, 32, 67, 70, 73, 


Los Angeles County, Pro- 


74, 77, 139, 140, 


fessional Section 




141, 158, 173, 


1959 — 118 




174, 195, 198, 


Manual 




203, 205, 20G, 


1943 — 65 




241, 257 


National Chairman 




1955—41, 80, 195, 267, 


1951 — 24 




279, 280, 382 


National Committee 




1957 — 76, 77, 80, 85, 95 


1947 — 153, 222 




1959 — 11, 24, 90, 100, 


1951 — 15, 19, 21, 28, 37, 


101, 102, 120, 


124, 134, 


161, 


124, 126, 141, 


178, 185, 


236, 


147, 148, 149, 


262, 281 




151, 153, 156, 


National Review 




167, 170, 171, 


Commission 




183, 188, 192, 


1953 — 174 




195, 199, 210 


New York 




United States, Adminis- 


1953 — 278 




trative Committee 


1959 — 176 




1959 — 42 


New York State District 


United States Central 


1953—141 




Committee 


New York State Election 


1953—173, 174 


Committee 




United States, National 


1951 — 100 




Committee 


Party Committee 




1953—140, 141, 185, 


1959—158-166 




189 


Pennsylvania 




1957 — 3, 11 


1959 — 191 




1959—16, 24, 30, 40, 


Poland 




41, 42, 43, 85, 


1957—94 




101, 102, 109, 


Political Commission 




119, 124. 146, 


1959 — 19, 21, 22 




149, 181, 188, 


Professional Section 




210 


1959—17, 117 




United States, Secretariat 


Publications 
1948 — 224 




1959 — 42, 43 
United States, Women's 
Commission 


Punjab 




1959 — 124 


1953 — 231 




Yugoslavia 


Reorganization 




1959 — 36 


Commission 




Communist Party Discus- 


1953 — 231 




sion Section — Towards 


San Francisco 
1953 — 267 
1955—404 




a United Party of 
Socialism 
1957 — 82 
Communist Party v. Peek 


School, San Francisco — 


1949 — 577 


See also California 


Communist Party v. Sub- 


Labor School or 


Tom 


versive Activities Con- 


Mooney Labor School 


trol Board 


1951 — 95, 231, 234 


235, 


1959—191 


240, 254 




Communist Political Assn. 


Seventh Congress 




1945 — 102, 103 


1957 — 89, 90, 91, 


105, 


1947 — 8, 21-24, 27, 31 


106 




1948 — 33, 214 



1949—97, 157, 158, 159, 
166, 169, 171, 174, 
193, 299, 419, 440, 
613 
1951 — 13, 250 
1953 — 70, 71, 98, 118, 257 
1955 — 14, 84, 85, 105, 117, 
124, 12S, 133, 139, 
157, 173, 207, 230, 
235, 240, 250, 259, 
262, 264, 368, 420, 
447, 450, 452 
1959—148 
Communist Political Asso- 
ciation, Alameda 
County 
1953—257 
Communist School, Los 
Angeles 
1959—10, 114, 208 
Communist School, Oakland 

1955 — 50 
Communist School, San 
Francisco 
1959 — 134 
Communist State Central 
Committee 
1949 — 418 
Communist, The 

1947—11, 18, 21, 24, 31, 
27, 227, 229, 233, 
246 
1948—182, 196, 224, 225, 
246, 252, 267, 302, 
338, 381, 384 
1953 — 51, 60, 62, 63, 70, 

71, 136, 137 
1955—73, 74, 382 
1959—170 
Comnnmist, The, excerpts 
from 
1943 — 28, 104-106, 115, 

116 
1945 — 98, 157 
1949 — 88, 96, 157, 158, 
160, 164, 165, 173, 
176, ISO, 188, 205, 
216, 217, 219, 231, 
243, 259, 368, 384, 
399, 416, 463, 535, 
545, 560 
1959 — 24, 25 
Communist Trade Union 
Trickery Exposed 
1949 — 654 
Communist Underground, 
The 
1959 — 167 
Communist Veterans of 
World War II 
1951—24, 28, 29 
Communist Violence in 
India 
1953 — 236 
Communist Women's Day 

1949 — 458 
Communist Workers 
School 
1947—67, 70, 74 
Communist World Congress 

1953—37 
Coynmunists Within the 
Government 
1949 — 654 
Communists Within the 
Labor Movement 
1949—654 
Community Chest 
1948 — 72 
1949 — 610, 673 
Community Conference for 
Democratic Action 
1949 — 627 



255 



Communique of Conference 

of Nine Communist 

Parties in Poland 

1949 — 33 

Community Medical Center 

1955 — 110, 111, 112, 134, 

135, 137, 138, 190, 

191, 201, 202, 203, 

230, 235, 236, 240, 

242, 243, 244, 245, 

254, 268, 269, 270, 
285, 287, 306, 307, 
309, 312, 316, 317, 
318, 319, 320, 322, 
325, 333, 335, 363, 
367, 375, 391, 393 

Community Medical Foun- 
dation 
1955 — 110, 111, 112, 113, 

255, 334, 335, 337, 
367, 391 

Compac 

1943—167, 168 
1948 — 316 
Compass Record Co. 

1948 — 392 
Compinsky, Manuel 

1947—317 
Compinskv, Sarah 

1948—317 
Compton, Dr. Carl Taylir 

1948—322 
Compton Club, Independent 
Progressive Party 
1955 — 391 
Compulsory Military 
Service 
1943 — 220 
Comrade, The 

1948—225 
Conant, James B. 

(President, Harvard) 
1951—43 
1959 — 52 
Concepcion M. De Gracia 

1948 — 198 
Condition of the Working 
Class in England in 
18U 
1949 — 191 
Condon, Robert L. 
1955—49, 50 
1959—132 
Confederation of Latin 
American Workers 
1959—96 
Conference for Democratic 
Action 
1947 — 247 
1948 — 159 

1949 299 

1951—248, 252, 255, 256 
Conference for Democratic 
Par Eastern Policy 
1951 — 290, 291 
Conference for Peace 

1955 — 182 
Conference for Progressive 
Political Action 
1959 — 27 
Conference for Social 
Legislation 
1949—299 
Conference of American 
Revolutionary Writers 
1948—52, 126, 158 
Conference of Civic Organi- 
zations 
1949 — 637 
Conference of Foreign 

Ministers 
; 1949 — 43 

Conference of Solidarity 
With the Spanish People 
1948—216 



Conference of State Chief 
Justices 
1959 — 188, 197 
Conference of Studio Unions 
1947—173, 176, 370 
1949—459, 636, 706 
1959 — 115 
Conference of Women of the 
U. S. A. and the U. S. 
S. R. 
1948 — 227 
1949 — 456 
Conference on American- 
Russian Cultural Ex- 
change 
1947 — 191 
1948 — 170 
1951 — 59, 60 
Conference on China and 
the Far East 
1949 — 105 
Conference on Civil Rights 

1951 — 248, 252 
Conference on Constitutional 
Liberties in America 
1948—121, 165, 166, 226, 

342 
1949—300 
Conference on Economic 
Rights for Negro 
Women 
1955 — 391 
Conference on Pan-Ameri- 
can Democracy 
1948 — 66, 147 
1949 — 300, 303, 454 
Conference on Peaceful Al- 
ternatives to the Atlan- 
tic Pact 
1951 — 275 
Conference on Thought 
Control in Southern 
California 
1948—59 
1951 — 59 
Conference to Defend the 
Rights of Foreign Born 
Americans 
1955 — 363, 389 
Conference to Lift the 
Embargo 
1949 — 507 
Confessional 
1948 — 140 
Congress 

1959 — 29, 138, 188, 193, 
195, 196, 201 
Conaress 

1949 — 385 
Congress for Peace and 
Culture 
1949 — 491 
Congress for Social and Un- 
employment Insurance 
1951—264 
Congress in Defense of 
Peace 
1949 — 491 
Congress of American- 
Soviet Friendship 
1947—190 

1948—35, 65, 226, 321, 
324 
Congress of American 

Revolutionary Writers 
1949 — 300 
Congress of American 
Women 
1948 — 35, 47, 77, 177, 192, 
201, 225, 226. 229, 
230, 231, 232 
1949—301, 318, 319, 408, 
450, 455, 456, 458, 
459, 460, 505, 542, 
546, 547 
1951—264, 280, 284, 2S6 
1953—101, 247 



Congress of American Wom- 
en, Los Angeles Chapter 
1953—104 
Congress of Industrial 
Organizations 
1943 — 89 

1947—47, 52, 53, 67, 145, 

161, 162, 169, 192, 

194, 203, 206, 219, 

227, 228, 230, 233, 

303 

1948 — 36-43, 63, 64, 88, 

115, 116, 142, 212 

1949 — 90, 93, 109, 264, 

277, 341, 391, 438, 

443, 461, 470, 472, 

475, 542, 610, 647, 

648, 657 

1951—41, 193, 194, 205, 

229, 233 
1953 — 4, 60, 63, 65, 67, 
125, 127, 130, 132, 
140, 148, 187, 190, 
259 
1959—20, 23, 24, 28, 29, 
30, 33, 37, 55, 93, 
94, 96, 97, 98, 99, 
132 
Congress of Industrial Or- 
ganizations (C. I. O.) 
1955—4, 49, 68, 330, 399 
Congress of Industrial Or- 
ganization Council 
1951—193, 194, 195, 196 
CIO Building 

1949 — 427, 434 
CIO Maritime Union 

1949 — 706 
CIO National Executive 
Board 
1945 — 147 
CIO News 

1948—247 
CIO Newspaper of the Air 

1949 — 419 
CIO Newspaper Guild 

1949 — 542 
CIO Political Action 
Committee 
1945 — 147-159 
1947 — 33, 47, 52, 78, 163, 
186, 227, 236, 262 
1948 — 259, 318 
1949—424, 692 
1953 — 63 
CIO State Council 

1947 — 240 
CIO State Executive Board 

1955 — 53 
CIO Women's Auxiliary 

1949 — 458 
Congress of Intellectuals 

1949—476, 487 
Congress of Spanish 
Speaking People 
1951—264 
Congress of the Mexican 
and Spanish-American 
Peoples of the U. S. 
1947 — 45, 210 
Congress (First) of the Mex- 
ican and Spanish-Amer- 
ican Peoples of the U. S. 
1949—301 
Congress, Views 
1948—49 
1949—385, 546 
Congress of Youth 
1948—115, 334 
1949 — 451 
1953 — 172 
Congressional Committee on 
Un-American Activities 
1949 — 257, 267, 285. 288, 
291, 293, 294, 297, 
298, 299, 303, 306, 
310, 311, 313. 320, 



256 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



Congressional Committee on 
Un-American Activi- 
ties — Continued 

321, 331, 332, 333, 
335, 338, 339, 345, 
346, 35S, 359, 361, 
379, 381, 384, 385, 
388, 390, 398, 399, 
403, 407, 409, 426, 
459, 460, 461. 465, 
478, 538, 554, 619, 
631, 640, 649, 654, 
656, 657, 677 
1951—25, 51, 65, 78, 85, 
88, 92, 93, 94, 98, 
207, 221, 232, 233, 
241, 262, 263, 268, 
281, 285, 288, 290 
1953 — 200, 211, 270 
Congressional Committee on 
Un-American Activities, 
Research Director 
1951 — 98 
Congressional Record 
1949 — 451 
1955 — 438 
Congressional Investigative 
Committees 
1959—175 
Conkling, Roscoe S. 

1948—320 
Conlan, Frank 

1948 — 356 
Conley, John 

1951 — 22, 26, 30, 31 
Conliff, Fred 
1948 — 107 
Connecticut State Youth 
Conference 
1949—301 
Connecticut Writers' 
Conference 
1947—189 
Connelly, Dorothy 
1945 — 139 
1948 — 230 
1949—458 
1959 99 

Connelly, Dorothy Healey 

1959 — 185, 209 
Connelly, John 

1951—29 
Connelly, Marc 

1945—115, 116, 130, 131 

1948—97, 239, 241, 251, 
255, 258, 262, 330, 

1953—172, 176 
Connelly, Phillip 

1943 — 50, 60, 80, 154, 207, 
210, 212, 213, 217 

1945—137, 148, 182, 184 

1947—51, 54, 55, 67, 96, 
97, 179, 182, 185, 
186, 188, 210, 239, 
242 

1948—62-64, 106, 116, 146, 
148, 160, 163, 182- 
185, 198, 200-202, 
205, 206, 209, 211, 
221, 222, 241, 249, 
257, 267, 272, 309, 
330, 346, 351, 359, 
375 

1949 — 93, 146, 147, 419, 
436, 448, 449, 470. 
475, 478, 560, 610, 
631, 632, 688 
Connelly, Philip M. 

1951—93, 255, 264 

1953 — 76, 102, 172, 208, 
280 

1955 — 417, 418, 419 

1959—98-99, 100, 101, 181 
Connelly, Philip N. 

1951—57, 58, 59, 60 



Connelly, Thomas E. 

1945—7, 18 
Conner, Ramsey, King and 
Wallace 

1943—177-199 
Conner, V. J. 

1948 — 163 
Connick, Louis 

1948 — 170 
Connolly, Eugene P. 

1949 — 448, 449 
Connor, Frank 

1943—150, 176, 177, 180, 
185, 186, 192 
Conover, Harry 

1948—341 
Conroy, Jack 

1945—119, 121, 125, 126 

1948—95, 97, 194, 196, 
266, 273 

1949 — 471 
Conscription News 

1948—319 
Conser, Eugene 

1953 — 114 
Consolidated Aircraft 
Company 

1955 — 428, 430 
Constance, Lincoln 

1948—328, 352 
Constitution of the Commu- 
nist Partv of the U. S. 

1943 — 19 

1949—345 
Consul General for Yugosla- 
via v. Andrexo Artukovic 

1959—194 
Consumer-Farmer Milk 
Cooperative, Inc. 

1948 — 336 
Consumers Emergency 
Council 

1949 — 302 
Consumers National 
Federation 

1948—77, 342 

1949—301, 302 

1953 — 174 
Consumers Union 

1943 — 102 

1948 — 167 

1949 — 302, 454, 506 

1951 — 238 
Consumers Unions and 
Leagues 

1943 — 100 
Consumers Union Reports 

1948—167 
Constitution of U. S. S. R. 

1943—29 
Consumer Movement 

1943 — 101 
Consumers' Emergency 

Council and Consumers' 
National Federation 

1943 — 102, 103 

1947—210 
Contact 

1949 — 618, 620 
Conte, Richard 

1948 — 97, 210, 211 
Contemporary Publishers 

1949 — 548 
Contemporary Publishing 
Association 

1949 — 234, 235 
Contemporarv Theatre 

1943 — 130, 134 

194S — 392 

1949—302 
Contemporary Writers 

1949 — 302, 506 
Continental Book Store 

1943—241 
Contra Costa CIO Council 

1947—92 



Contra Costa County 
Communist Party 

1947 — 279, 310 
Contra Costa County Junior 
College, West Campus 

1955 — 432 
Contra Costa County 
School System 

1955 — 433 
Contreras, Carlos — See also 
Vidale, Vittorio 

1951 — 273 
Contreras, George 

1945 — 162, 183, 184, 188 
Conway, Bert and Curt 

1948—356 
Conway, Jerry 

1945 — 148 
Conway, Morris 

1949 — 554 
Conway, Morris and Maurice 

1948—94 

1949 — 554 
Cook, Chester Cleveland 

1943 — 356, 364-366 
Cook, Clyde 

1947 — 89, 93 
Cook, Fannie 

1948 — 278 

1949—480, 4S9, 499, 509, 
516 
Cook, Fred J. 

1959 — 209, 210 
Cook, Lawrence 

1943 — 382 
Cook, O. W. E. 

1945—137 

1948—67 

1949—419 
Cook, Mrs. Theda 

1949—437 
Cooke, Edmund W. 

1948 — 109, 110, 170 
Cooke, Morris L. 

1948 — 109, 262 
Cooks, Pastry Cooks and 
Assistants Union, Local 
44 

1947 — 242 
Coolidge, Albert Sprague 

1948 — 179, 201, 327, 334, 
335 
Coombs, Nathan F. 

1951 — 1 

1959—203 
Coon, Beulah 

1947—324 
Coon, John C. 

1948 — 94 

1949 — 554 
Coons, Arthur G. 

1953—133 
"Cooper" 

1947 — 203 

1951 — 212 
Cooper, Mrs. Bessie 

1948 — 16 
Cooper, Esther 

1948 — 187 

1949—563 
Cooper, Fran 

1948 — 356 
Cooper, Kent 

1949 — 67 
Cooper, Leo 

1948 — 186 

1949—562 
Cooper, Lou 

1948—317 
Cooper, Mitzi 

1948—179 

1953 — 259 
Cooper, Rose 

1948—356 



257 



Cooper, Sandra 

1953 — 249 
Cooperman, Harold 

1955—348 
Cooperstock, Henry 

1948—186 

1949—562 
Coordinating Committee on 
Civil Liberties 

1949—526 
Coordinating- Committee to 
Lift the Embargo 

1948 — 147, 270, 319, 334, 

1951 — 56, 93 

1953 — 172 

1955—88 
Coordinating- Committee to 
Lift the Spanish Em- 
bargo 

1947 — 202, 210 

1949 — 302, 468, 506, 507, 
510 
Coordinator of Information 

1959 — 174 
Coordinator of Inter-Ameri- 
can Affairs 

1959 — 174 
Cope, Bernice G. 

1948—375 
Cope, Rev. J. Raymond 

1949 — 146 
Copeland, Aaron 

194S— 113, 114, 248, 262, 
316, 317, 330, 377, 
392 

1949—480, 483, 484, 4SS, 
489, 494, 499, 501, 
502, 503, 504, 508, 
511, 512, 513, 516, 
518, 519, 521, 523, 
524, 525, 530, 531, 
532, 537, 543 
Copeland, Peter 

1949 — 480 
Copes, Wilson B. 

1955—459 
Copic, Vladimir 

1949 — 179 
Coplon, Judith 

1959 — 172 
Coppelman, Abraham 

1948 — 266 
Coppersmiths Local 438 

1947 — 80 
Copstein, Seymour 

1948 — 179 
Coragliotti, V. F. 

1948—343 
Corbell, Margaret 

1948 — 179 
Corbett, Harvey "Wiley 

1948—323 

1949—538 
Corboff, Katie 

1948—184, 185 

1949—561 
Corbv, Henry 

1948 — 146 
Corelli, Alan 

1948—240 
Corey, Jeff 

1948—356 
Corey, Paul 

1949 — 480 
Corley, James H. (Control- 
ler, University of Calif. ) 

1943—113 

1947 — 107 

1948—258 

1951—68, 69 
Cornell, Charles 

1943—39 
Cornell University 

1948 — 330 

1949 — 495 
9— L-4361 



Cornog, Robert 




1947—102 




Corona, Bert 




1943 — 210, 217 




1945 — 182 




1947— 65 




1949—417 




Corona, Frank 




1945 — 139 




1948 — 375 




Correspondence of Karl 


Marx and Frederick 


Engels 




1949 — 191 




Corsi, Edward 




1948 — 198 




1953—151 




Corwin, Catherine 




1949 — 4S6 




Corwin, Emil 




1947 — 179, 185, 186, 


190, 


Corwin, Norman 




1947 — 98, 235, 237 




1948 — 59, 60, 183, 


201, 


208, 210, 241, 


255, 


262, 264, 318, 


323, 


354, 357, 358, 


392 


1949 — 449, 455, 480, 


484, 


486, 489, 499, 


501, 


503, 505, 509, 


510, 


513, 515, 516, 


519, 


520, 525, 526, 


528, 


530, 533, 543, 


688 


1951—53, 264, 268, 


271 



1953—131, 172 
Cosgrove, Clair, Dr. 

1955—77 
Cosgrove, P. Pascal 

1948—114 
Cosmopolitan Magazine 

1947 — 214 
Costello, John 

1945—159 

1948—251 
Costello, Dr. Joseph 

1948—16 
Costigan, Howard 

1951 — 159 

1953 — 171, 172, 175, 176, 
206 
Costigan, Howard P. 

194S — 109, 226, 328, 
Costigan, Mrs. Howard 

1953 — 172 
Costrell, Hyman I. 

1949 — 464 
Costumers, Local 705 

1947 — 177 
Cot, Pierre 

1953—275 
Cotten, Joseph 

1948—255, 375 
Cotton, Mme. Eugenie 

1948 — 228 

1949—318, 319, 457 
Cotton, J. E. 

1948 — 352 
Cotton, Dr. J. Harry 

1948 — 353 
Coudert, Senator Frederick 
R., Jr. 

1948—96 
Coudert, Senator (New 
York State) 

1953—144 
Coughlin, Father 

1953—52 
Coulter, J. C. 

1948—249 
< 'oulouris, George 

1947—179 

1948—97, 356 
Council for African Affairs 

1949—627 



Council for American-Soviet 
Relations 
1953 — 256 
Council for Civil Unity in 
Los Angeles 
1951 — 289 
Council for Inalienable 
Rights 
1949 — 466 
Council for Pan-American 
Democracy 
1951 — 280 
1953 — 280 
1955 — 88 
Council for Russian Relief 

1949—467 
Council for the Advance- 
ment of the Americas 
1949 — 303 
Council of American-Soviet 
Friendship 
1947—72 
Council of Americans of 
Croation Descent 
1949—414 
Council of Arts, Sciences 
and Professions 
1951 — 267, 268 
Council of Foreign Ministers 

1949—81 
Council of People's 
Commissars 
1949—32 
Council of Student and 
Youth Clubs of the 
Communist Party of 
San Francisco County 
1951 — 19 
Council of U. S. Veterans, 
Inc. 
194S — 320, 342, 386 
1949—303, 368 
Council of Veterans 
Organizations 
1949—673 
Council of Women Shoppers 

1949 — 437 
Council of Young 
Southerners 
1948 — 319, 334, 335, 336 
1949—303, 329 
Councils of the Unemployed 

1949 — 3 03 
Council on African Affairs 
1948 — 66, 101, 168, 320 
1949—303, 31S, 453, 455, 

548 
1951 — 280 
1959—195 
Counsellor Academy in 
Vienna 
1957 — 89 
Counter Attach 

1949 — 9, 646, 654 
Counterfeit 

1943—103, 104 
Counter-intelligence Corps 
of the Army 
1951 — 3 
Counts, Frederick A. 
1948 — 328, 352 
1949 — 4S0 
Counts, Prof. George S. 
1948—109, 170, 179, 244 
1949 — 494 
County Crusade Council 

1948—160, 161 
• ounty Hospital, 
Los Angeles 
19.-,.-,— 251, 272, 324 
County Social Workers 

Local 558, of the AFL 
19 IS — 60 



258 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



Course of the Cadres of 
the Shock Brigade 

1953—236 
Courses for Publishing 
Employees 

1948 — 130 
Cousins, Kay 

1948 — 356 
Cousins, Norman 

1949 — 494 

1951 — 270 
Couveras, Costa 

1948 — 168 
Covette, Thomas L. 

1945—6 
Covington, Floyd C. 

1947 — 96, 97 

1948—109, 110, 132, 152, 
183 
Covington, Mrs. Floyd 

1948—278 
Covington, Mrs. Oliver 

1948 — 277 
Covner (Kovner), Fay 

1953 — 79 
Cowan, Prof. Alexander 

1948 — 172 
Cowan, Claire Biglow 

1948—386 
Cowan, Warren 

1948 — 210 
Cowell, Henry 

1948—317 
Cowgill, John S. 

1947—353 
Cowherd, Yelverton 

1948 — 386 
Cowl, Margaret 

1948 — 333 
Cowley, Malcolm 

1945 — 121, 126, 127 

1948—96, 97, 113, 151, 
194, 244, 248, 270, 
273, 333, 338, 385, 
391 

1949—471 
Cowling, Donald J. 

1948—320 
Cox, Mrs. Allen 

1948 — 281 
Cox, Ivan Francis 

1948 — 152 
Cox, Nancy 

1948 — 151 
Cox, Prof. Richard T. 

1948 — 271 

1949 — 468 
Coy, Harold 

1948 — 248 
Coyle, Grace L. 

1948 — 375 
Craig, Agnes 

1955 — 389 
Craig, Earl C. 

1943 — 253, 275 
Craig, Frank L. 

1955—389, 391 
Craig, W. E. 

19 49 — 601 
Cramer, Genevieve 

1948 — 16 

1949 — 602 
Cramer, Max 

1948 — 259 
Crane, Irving 

1948 — 266 
Crane, John O. 

1948 — 323 

1949 — 538 
Crane, Rose 

1949 — 179 
Craven, Thomas 

1948—262 



Crawford, Chery 

1948 — 210, 240, 241 
Crawford, John 

1948—356 
Crawford, Kenneth 

1948 — 199 
Crawford, Dr. M. H. 

1947 — 77 

1949—423 
Crawford, Matt 

1948 — 148, 194 
Crawford, Merritt 

1948 — 238, 386 
Crawford, Ruth E. 

1959 — 176 
Creanza 

1957—58, 59 
Creed, Tom 

1955 — 321, 391 
Creed, Mrs. Tom 

1955—391 
Creighton, Thomas H. 

1949 — 480, 499, 517, 525 
Crespi, Pachita 

1948 — 114 
Crichton, Kyle (alias 
Robert Forsythe) 

1948 — 97, 114, 129, 141, 
151, 159, 168, 189, 
234, 244, 248, 271, 
273, 310, 353, 370, 
389, 390 

1949—468, 471, 480, 488, 
489, 499, 501, 502, 
503, 509, 510, 511, 
512, 517, 519, 521, 
527, 528, 533 

1951—271 

1953 — 171, 173, 174 
Criminal Syndicalism 

1943 — 38, 39 

1948 — 147, 223, 349 

1949—255, 571 
Crippen, Harlan R. 

1948—193 
Cripps, John 

1948—377 
Crisis 

1948—224 

1949 — 546 
Crisis 

1957—117 
Criterion 

1948—15 
"Critique of the Gotha 
Programme" 

1949—191 
Critser, Loren 

1948—16 
Croatian Benevolent Fra- 
ternity of America 

1949 — 466 
Croatian Educational Club 

1949 — 303 
Croatian Fraternal Union 

1949 — 127, 413, 414 
Croft, Mary Jane 

1948 — 356 
Cromwell, John 

1947—96, 9S, 179, 190, 
235-239, 241, 242 

1948 — 59, 193, 239, 241, 
251-254, 257, 279, 
354, 355, 357 

1949—435, 436, 688 

1951—280 

1955 — 365 
Cromwell, Deta 

1949 — 486 
Cronbach, Dr. Abraham 

1948 — 162, 320 

1949—480 
Cronback, Robert 

1948—189 



Cronin, Kathleen 

1948—343 
Cronin, Morton 

1959 — 47, 48 
Cronyn, Hume 

1948 — 97, 164 
Crooks, Jimmie 

1948 — 94 

1949—554 
Crosbie, Paul 

1948 — 386 

1949 — 456 
Crosby, Aliph 

1948 — 277 
Crosby, George W. 

1948—292, 296, 298 
Crosby, Jack 

1949 — 177 
Crosbv, Willis K. 

1948 — 377 
Cross, Adelyne 

1947 — 89, 91 

1949 — 425 
Cross and the Arrow 

1948—120, 129 
Cross, Dennis 

1948—356 
Cross, Helen 

1943 — 137, 138 
Cross, Ira B. 

1959 — 184 
Cross, Samuel H. 

194S — 169 

1949 — 412 
Crouch, Miss 

1947 — 330 
Crouch, D. H. 

1949—437 
Crouch, Paul 

1948—106, 107, 266 

1951—50, 177, 179, 180, 
182, 183, 184, 185, 
186, 187, 18S, 193, 
194, 195, 196, 197, 
199, 201, 202, 203, 
204, 205, 206, 207, 
208, 209, 210, 211, 

212, 213, 216, 217, 

218, 219, 220, 222, 
224, 225, 226, 227, 
228, 232, 239, 241, 
242, 243 

1953 — 5, 74, 175, 256, 257, 

1959 — 101, 119-120, 176 
Crouch, Mrs. Paul 

1959 — 119-120 
Crouch, Sylvia 

1951 — 209, 210, 211, 212, 

213, 216, 217, 218, 

219, 220, 221, 222, 
226, 227, 228, 242 

Crouse, E. J. 

1945 — 11 
Crouse, Russell 

1948 — 262 
Crow, Carl 

1948—199 
Crow, James Francis 

1943 — 155, 157 
Crowe, Muriel 

1955—391 
Crowl, Verne C, Dr. 

1955—76 
Crowley, Dr. Ralph 

1949 — 480 
Crown Heights Committee 
to Aid Spanish Democ- 
racy 

1949 — 511 
Crown, John R. 

1948 — 171 
Crozier, Helen 

1948—356 
Crum, Bartley 

1953—259 



INDEX 



259 



Crura, Bartley C. 

1947—79, 89, 93, 9S, 103, 

1S6, 235 

194S — 115, 116, 182, 185, 

198, 239, 262, 309, 

318, 332, 354, 383 

1949—309, 435, 542, 560, 

688 
1951 — 263 
Crump, Frank 
1948 — IS 4 
1949 — 561 
Crusade Against Govern- 
ment Investigating 
Agencies, The 
1959 — 208, 209 
Crutcher, Norval 
1947 — 301, 302 
1948—251, 252, 255, 257 
Cruz, Ladisloa 

1955—388 
Cry Is Peace, The 

1953 — 140 
Cuaron, Ralph 

1955—388, 390 
Cuhl, Calvin 

1947 — 179, 185, 187, 196 
Culinary Union 

1949 — 476 
Culinary Workers Union 

1959 — 20 
Cullen, Countee 

194S — 113, 248, 273, 375, 

389, 391 
1949—471 
Cullen, Tom 
1943—153 

1948 — 155, 164, 193 
Cultural and Professional 
Projects Association 
1943 — 149 
1951 — 83 
Cultural and Scientific Con- 
ference for World Peace 
1949 — 476, 479 
1953 — 285 
Cultural and Scientific 

Conference Chairman 
1951—270 
Cultural Commission 

1953 — 173 
Cultural Commission of the 
Communist Party of the 
United States 
1949 — 88 
Cultural Conference for 



1949—147 
Cultural Folk Dance Group 

1948 — 392 

1949 — 543 
Culture and Democracy 

1948—310 
Culture and the Crisis 

1948 — 153 
Culver City Hospital 

1955—98 
Cumming, Gordon R. 

1955 — 367 
Cummings, Constance 

1948 — 378 
Cunningham, Rosalie 

1948 — 356 
Curaj, Emily 

1948—259 
Curie, Frederic Joliot 

1953 — 275 
Curie, Joliot 

1955 — 308, 309 
Curland, David 

1951—24 
Curran, Joseph 

1945—148 

1948—114, 115, 132, 151 
162, 198, 202, 211 



296, 323, 324, 328, 




223, 228, 234, 235, 


351, 352 








238, 240, 247, 248, 


1949 — 448, 449 








251, 252, 253, 255, 


1953 — 64 








256, 261, 262, 265, 


Current Book House 








266, 277 


1953 — 229 






1953- 


-73, 75, 101, 102, 


Currie, Laughlin 








103, 104, 223, 254, 


1959 — 173, 174 








255, 256, 257, 260, 


Curtis, Diana 








263, 264, 266, 269, 


194S — 16 








277, 278, 284 


Curtis, Eva 






1955- 


-10, 11, 13, 14, 21, 


1948 — 266 








22, 29, 39, 40, 43, 


Curtis, Louis W. 








44, 45, 46, 49, 67, 


1948—317 








96, 134, 135, 136, 


Cush, Pat 








137, 175, 181, 182, 


1948 — 226 








195, 203, 231, 269, 


Cushing, Edward 








282, 29S, 353, 355, 


1948 — 311 








369, 373, 385, 389, 


Cushing, G. J. 








402, 404, 405, 409, 


1959—97 








411, 412, 414, 416, 


Cushing, Hazel M. 








417, 422, 439, 440, 


194S — 352 








463 


Cushman, Bishop Ralph 




1957- 


-1, 8, 20, 77, 79, 122, 


1948 — 132, 181 








125, 146 


Cutler, Emma 






1959- 


-28, 99, 130, 134 


1943 — 159 
1947—74, 77 
1949 — 423 
Cutler, Mrs. Sydney 






Daily People's World, 






Editor-in-Chief 
1951 — 238 


1948 — 146 






Daily Recorder (Chicago) 


Cutler Victor 






1948- 


-224 


1948 — 278 






Daily Worker 


Cutter Laboratories, 


Inc 




1943- 


-100 


1955 — 48, 49, 50, 


51, 


64, 


1945- 


-133 


65, 68 






1947- 


-25-27, 31, 36, 47, 


1959 — 132, 134 








61, 68-70, 81, 83, 


Cvetich, Matthew 








97, 109, 117, 136, 


1951 — 22 








138, 170, 189-191, 


Cykler, Dr. Edmond 








201, 202, 222, 229, 


1948 — 171 








231, 369 


Czech Nationalist Socialist 


1948- 


-9, 35, 49, 56, 86, 


Party 








93. 94, 96, 99-104, 


1949 — 110 








108, 117-121, 123, 


Czerniawski, Albin 








125-128, 130-133, 


1955 — 2, 3, 5, 6, 7 


'. 8, 


13, 




135-139, 145, 153, 


15, 17, 18, 


19, 


20, 




156, 158, 159, 162, 


22, 23, 26, 


27, 


28, 




165-167, 176, 181, 


29, 30, 31, 


32, 


34, 




185, 188, 191, 192, 


38, 39, 40, 


41, 


42, 




196, 200, 207, 208, 


43, 46, 47 








212, 224, 225, 232, 
237, 242, 244, 245, 


D 








251, 260, 267, 273- 


Daggett, Charles 
1959 — H6 








275, 338, 362-366, 
370, 371, 376, 377, 


Dahl, Ingolf 








385, 391 


1948 — 317 






1949- 


—96, 99, 104, 105, 


1949 — 698 








107, 108, 109, 112, 


Dahl, Vivian 








113, 116, 117, 119, 


1947 — 89 








124, 126, 160, 164, 


1949 — 425 








165, 171, 175, 178, 


Da hi berg, Edward 








181, 182, 196, 197, 


1945 — 121, 126 








200, 202, 205, 224, 


1948 — 244, 273, 274 






231, 262, 263, 276, 


1949 — 471 








302, 327, 328, 360, 


Dahlsten, Leonard 








365, 378, 385, 388, 


1955 — 391 








404, 420. 421, 442, 


Daily Bruin, The 








444, 446, 447, 448, 


1949 — 559 








450, 452, 454, 460, 


1957 — 5, 6, 12, 13 


, 14, 


17, 




461, 467, 471, 484, 


18, 20, 21, 


22, 


24, 




513, 535, 543, 545, 


25, 26, 27, 


28, 


29, 




553, 561, 619, 620, 



226, 248, 294, 



71, 77, 103 
Daily Californian 

1957—2 
Daily Herald 

1951 — 279 

Daily News 

1948 — 172 

1955—244 

Daily Neios Release 

1957 — 140 
Daily People's World 

1951 — 24, 25, 26, 28, 29, 
31, 50, 78, 84, 92, 
151, 169, 170, 172, 



1951—9, 11, 52, 9S, 170, 
179, 182, 201, 261, 
262, 263, 268, 269, 
276, 282 

1953—69, 71, 73, 140, 
230, 231, 232 

1955 — 366 

1957—3, 8, 79, 91, 107, 
146 

1959 — 13, 35, 85, 109, 
126, 146, 180 
Daily Worker, Editor 

1951—269 



260 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



Daily Worker, 

Foreign Editor 

1951—269 
Daily Worker Publishing 
Co. 

1949 — 303 
Daily Variety 

1948—138 
Daku Singh 

1953 — 218 
Dale, Thelma 

1948 — 228, 230 

1949—450, 457, 458, 546 
Daley, Allyn 

1948—356 
Dalin, David 

1953—232 
Dalip Singh 

1953—217 
Dallas, John G. 

1947 — 99 
Dallet, Joe 

1948 — 94 

1949—179, 553 
Dallin 

1957 — 62 
Dallin, David 

1959—45 
Dallob, Samuel 

194S— 375 
Dalrymple, Sherman 

1945—148 

1948—151, 248 
Daly's Theatre (New York 
City) 

1948—188 
Damas, M. F. 

1949 — 437 
Damon, Anna 

1948 — 266 

1949 — 179 
Damon, Frances 

1948—187, 228 

1949 — 458, 563 
Dana, H. W. L. 

1948 — 189, 194, 244, 266, 
325, 326, 338, 377 

1949—491, 539 
Dana, Malcolm Boyd 

1948 — 334 
Dance Committee 

1948—323 
Danchenko, Memirovich 

1953 — 234 
Dange, Shripat Amrit 

1953 — 230 
Danger of a Third World 
War 

1948—218 
Daniel, Urcel 

1943 — 153 
Daniels, Mr. 

1949—611 
Daniels, Harry 

1948 — 157, 214 
Daniels, Ursula 

1948 — 188, 250 

1949—382 
Danskin, et al. v. Han Diego 

Unified School District 

1949—576 
Dante Alighieri Society 

1943 — 287, 303 
Darby, Louise 

1947 — 242 

1949 — 436 
Darby, Raymond "V. 

1948 — 60 

1949 — 595 
Darcy, Sam 

1943 — 37, 98, 114 

1947 — 77 

1948—7, 12, 118, 121, 134, 
148, 166, 330, 358, 
359, 362, 391, 



1949—174, 177, 339, 355, 
356, 423, 440, 451- 
454, 521 
Dark Side of the Moon 

1949 — 654 
Darling, Charlotte 

1943 — 167 
Darr, Rev. John 

1948—338 

1949 — 489, 513, 526 

1951 — 278 
Darr, John W. 

1949—507, 508, 523, 526, 

530, 531 
Darr, Dr. John W., Jr. 

1949 — 480, 499, 502, 503, 
505, 506, 513, 531, 
535 
Darrow, Clarence 

1948 — 273 

1957—62 
Dart, Van 

1948 — 185 
Darvin, Martin 

1949 — 546 
Dasakis, George 

1951 — 247 
da Silva, Howard 

1948—62, 355, 356 

1949 — 146, 480, 489, 499, 

501, 502, 503, 506, 

509, 512, 513, 515, 

521, 527, 632, 68S 

Da Silva, Howard 

1951 — 25, 271 
Da Silva, Joseph 

1948 — 241 
Das Kapital 

1943 — 19, 21 
Dassin, Jules 

1948—97, 129. 159 

1949 — 480, 499, 503 

1951 — 221 
Dasunda Singh 

1953—218 
Daugherty, James 

1945 — 139, 140 

1948 — 62, 233 

1949 — 470 
Daughertv, Jane 

1955 — 329 
Daugherty, John 

1959 — 99 
Daughters of the American 
Depression 

1948—73, 334 

1949—304 
Daughters of the American 
Revolution 

1949 — 305 

1959 — 213 
Daunic, Gilbert 

1949—429, 431 
Davenport, Ed. J. 
(Councilman) 

1947—193 

1949—609, 610, 612, 614 
Davenport, Marcia 

1948—262 
Davenport, Mary 

1948 — 356 
Daves, Delmer 

1948—210 
Daves, Delmer L. 

1955 — 456 
Davidman, Joy 

1947 — 106 

1948 — 340 
Davidoff, Dr. Leo M. 

1949 — 480, 484, 489, 499, 
507, 509, 513, 522, 

531, 532 
Davidoff, Leon 

1949—535 



Davidson, Dr. (Dean, 
UCLA) 

1951—112, 113, 114, 115 
Davidson, Dr. Edward W. 

1948 — 16 
Davidson, Florence 

1949—486 
Davidson, Jo 

1947 — 98, 233-235, 237 

1948 — 131, 262, 318, 323 
324, 330, 354 

1949 — 480, 484, 485, 4S6 
489, 499, 505, 509 
513, 515, 517, 518 
519, 522, 524, 525 
526, 530, 531, 532 
537 
Davidson, Mrs. Jo 

1948 — 227, 228 

1949 — 456, 457 
Davidson, Prof. Percy E. 

1948—359 
Davidson, Sid (Martin) 

1948 — 268 

1949—464 

1951 — 83 
Davies, Donald 

1948 — 210 
Davies, Edgar 

1947 — 124, 125 
Davies, Joseph E. 

19 43 — 18 

1947 — 115, 116 

1948 — 323 

1949—92 
Davies, Mrs. Joseph E. 

1948—228 

1949—456, 457 
Davies, Lester 

1948 — 378 

1949 — 557 
Davies, Marjorie Post 

1948 — 227 

1949 — 456 
Davies, Spencer 

1948 — 210 
Davies, Valentine 

1948—372 
Davis, Ben 

1957 — 124 

1959—151 
Davis, Benjamin J., Jr. 

1947—153, 154, 227 

194S— 151, 212, 266, 352 

1949 — 108, 109, 144, 451 






453-455, 521, 


522 


545, 557, 625 




1951 — 281 




1953—173 




Davis, Bette 




1917 — 182, 185 




1948 — 254, 262, 378 




1949—557 




Davis, Clarence 




1947 — 90 




Davis, Charlotte 




1951—232 




Davis, David 




1948—213 




Davis, Donald 




1948 — 210 




Davis, Emma Lou 




1947 — 72, 73 




Davis, Dr. Frank C. 




1945—137 




1947 — 67, 70-73, 96, 


97, 


129, 253, 263, 


264, 


266 




1918— 1S3, 186, 248, 


249, 


279, 309, 328, 


346, 


349, 352, 375, 


382 


1949 — 419, 421, 422, 


688 


1951 — 59, 60 




Davis, Frank Marshall 




1949—546, 562 





INDEX 



261 



Davis, Hallie Flanagar 


i 


1948—106, 160, 161, 


183, 


1949 — 480 




185, 249, 267, 


279, 


1951 — 271 




344, 358, 359 




Davis, Herbert 




1949—421 




1949 — 530, 532, 538, 


539 


Dawson, Mrs. Ernest 




Davis, Dr. Herbert Joh 


n 


1948 — 277, 278 




1948 — 322, 323, 325 




Dawson, Harry 




1949—483, 502, 503, 


534 


1949—179 




Davis, Dr. Howard 




Dawson, Jane 




1948—344 




1955—316, 323, 337, 


339, 


Davis, Jerome 




340, 341, 342, 


349, 


1948—97, 113, 151, 


178, 


356, 383, 384, 


385 


179, 181, 196, 


211, 


Dawson, Joseph Martin 


i 


244, 320, 327, 


341, 


1948—320, 321 




351, 352 




Dawson, Dr. Percy M. 




1949 — 369, 480, 488, 


498, 


1949 — 480 




501, 502, 506, 


508, 


1959—184 




510, 512, 516, 


519, 


Dawson, Sadie Roberts 




520, 527, 528, 


530, 


1948 — 358, 359 




534, 537 




Day, Mrs. George 




1953 — 282 




1948 — 277, 278 




Davis, John Herbert 




Dav, Prof. George M. 




1949—499 




1948—109, 110, 152, 


170, 


Davis, John P. 




171, 178, 233, 


241 


1948—93, 151, 162, 


181, 


Dav, John Warren 




265, 266, 331, 


333, 


1945 — 195 




351 




1948 — 375 




1949 — 341, 541, 547 




Dayal, Har 




Davis, Lena — see 


also 


1953 — 213, 214, 215, 


220 


Chernenko, Lena 


and 


Dayton v. Dulles 




Scherer, Lena 




1959—194 




1947 — 201 




D'Azevedo, Warren 




1948 — 236 




1947 — 89 




1951 — 76, 200, 205 




1949 — 425 




Davis, Dr. Mike 




Deadline for Action 




1951—255 




19^3 — 188 




Davis, Morris 




Deak, Zoltan 




1951—278 




1949 — 626 




Davis, Owen 




Deakin, A. 




1948—330 




1959 — 97 




Davis, Dr. Percy L. 




Dealers in Death 




1948—171 




1943 — 359, 365, 379, 


380 


Davis, Phillip Hunt 




Dean, Francis H. 




1951 — 154, 155, 156 




1955 — 321, 391 




Davis, Ralph E. 




Dean, Joseph 




1948—16 




1948—114 




Davis, Ralph L. 




Dean, Vera Micheles 




1949 — 596 




1948 — 248, 326 




Davis, Robert A. 




1949—540 




1948 — 356 




Dean William T. 




Davis, Robert R. 




1949 — 601, 608, 609 




1951 — 232, 233 




Deane, Hugh, Jr. 




Davis, S. P. 




1948 — 198 




1951—154, 155, 156 




Deane, General John R 




Davis, Shirlee 




1949 — 39, 52 




1947 — 211, 212 




De Angelis, S. W. 




1951 — 77, 229, 230 




1955—389 




Davis, Sid 




De A. Reid, Dr. Ira 




1948—356 




1948—114, 201, 334, 


336 


Davis, Spencer 




de Aryan, C. Leon 




1948—210 




1943 — 240, 249, 250, 


259, 


Davis, Stuart 




266, 268, 269 




1948—189, 261, 310 




Deblin, Oswald 




Davis, Tess Slesinger 




1948 — 329 




1943 — 124, 125 




De Boer, John 




Davis, Virginia 
1951 — 129, 130 




1948 — 162 

1949 — 480, 483, 488, 
499, 502, 508, 


489, 
513, 


Davis, Willard B. 




518, 530 




1948—16 




De Boer, Prof. John J. 




Davison, Jacobina 




1955—392 




1949—688 




de Bright, Mrs. Josephine 


Davison, Sidney 




Vi43— 207, 210, 217 
L948— 375 
Debs, Euaene V. 




1943—128, 164, 165, 

173, 175 
1947 — 72, 73, 74 
1948— 105, 177, 178, 

347, 348 
1949—688 


172, 




346, 


1948 — 163 
Debs, Theodore 

1948 — 107 
Decade System 

1943 — 329 




Dawlcy, C. L. 




De Caux, Len 




1949—601, 608 




1948—318 




Dawson, Ernest 




Decker, Albert 




1943 — 126 




1947—98, 101, 183, 


186, 


1945—139, 140 




235-237, 239, 


242, 


1947—70, 96 




249, 296 





1948—183, 201, 231, 251, 
253-255, 308, 309, 
346, 355 
1949 — 436, 561, 688 
Decker, Mrs. Albert 

1949—460 
Decker, Caroline 
1943—37, 38 
1951—135 
Decker, Frances 

1943 — 60 
Decker, W. J. 

1948 — 328, 352 
Declaration of Independence 

1945 — 69 
Deep Are the Roots 

1948—105 
Deering, Olive 

1948—356 
Dee Scriven, Frank 

1948 — 18 
Defeat in Victory 

1949 — 654 
Defender, The 

1955 — 343, 385 
Defense Committee for 
Alexander Bittelman 
1948 — 55 
1949 — 304 
Defense Committee for 
Claudia Jones 
1948—55 
1949 — 304 
Defense Committee for 
Eugene Dennis 
194S — 55 
1049—304, 305 
Defense Committee for 
Gerhardt Eisler 
1P4S — 55 
1949 — 304, 306 
Defense Committee for 
Hans Eisler 
1948 — 35, 55 
1949 — 305 
Defense Committee for 
John Williamson 
194S — 55 
1949—305 
De Frantz, Bob 

1948—338 
De Haviland, Olivia 

1948—251, 255, 279 
Dehn, Adolph 
194S— 141 

1949—448, 480, 488, 499, 
501, 505, 508, 509, 
510, 513, 517, 518, 
519, 521, 525, 533, 
534, 536, 537 
Deirup, Anne Weymouth 

1953—254, 258, 259 
Deirup, Torben 

1953 — 248, 254, 255, 256, 
257, 25S, 259, 260, 
279 
De Jonge v. Oregon 

1949—565, 571, 579 
DeJourn, Jim 

1951 — 229, 230 
DeKerze 

1957 — 96 
Dekker, Albert 

1955 — 365, 445 
De Koven, Roger 

1949 — 4S0 
de Krulf, Paul 
19 is— 248, 327 
-131 
De Lacy, Dr. Hugh 

1948—59, 113, 114, 131, 
162, 168, 198, 200, 
208, 248, 249, 318, 
323, 328, 350, 351, 



262 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



De Lacy, Dr. Hugh — 
Continued 

352, 357, 448, 449, 
451, 459 
1951 — 92, 93, 159, 160, 
275, 278, 2S0, 281, 
287 
1953 — 131, 280, 281 
De Lamarter, Eric 

1948 — 330 
Delaney (Local 1798) 

1951 — 194 
De Lap, T. H. 

1943 — 5, 6 
De Lappe, W. R. 

1953 — 279 
de la Silva, Solomon 

1948 — 152 
Delatour, G. S. 

1949 — 486 
Del Carlo, Daniel 

1948 — 185 
Delcol 

1948 — 283 

Delehante, Margaret 

1948 — 186 

1949 — 562 

Delgado, John 

1953—257 
Delhi Book Centre 

1953 — 229 
De Lima, Peter 

1947 — 71, 141, 180, 181, 

183, 184 
1948 — 116 
1949 — 422 
Dell, Floyd 

1948 — 244 

Dell, Russell 

1948 — 94 

1949 — 554 

Dellums, C. L. 

1948—249 
Dellums, Mrs. C. L. 

1948 — 194 
Del Mar, Lileta 

1948 — 356 
De Long, Frank 

1947 — 256 
de los Reyes, Dr. Joseph 
Manuel 
1955 — 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 
97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 
102, 103, 104, 169, 
211, 223 
del Rio, Dolores 

1951—273 
Delson, Max 
1948 — 334 
De Luca, Rev. Theodore 
1948 — 271 
1949 — 468 
De Lue, Donald 

1948—330 
De Maestri, R. 

1948—382 
De Maio, Ernest 
1948 — 95 
1949—546 
Demarest, C. H. 

1949—596 
De Mille, Agnes 

1948—210, 240, 262, 263 
1949 — 538 
De Mille, Katherine 

1948—97 
Democracy 
1943 — 9, 10 
1945 — 69, 70 
Democracy and Social 
Change 
1948 — 246 
Democrat Socialist Party 
1949 — 46 



Democratic Centralism 
1943—37 
1945—90 
Democratic County Central 
Committee 
1947 — 226 
1949 — 969 
Democratic Front, The 

1943 — 91 
Democratic Party 
1943—158, 160, 161 
1949—470 

1959—17, 18, 19, 29, 31, 
33 
Democratic Youth 
Federation 
1943 — 161 
Democrats for McCormick 

1948 — 215 
Democrats for Wallace 

1959 — 28 
Dempsey Deportation Bill 

ly48 — 327 
Demuth, Helene 

1953 — 19, 20, 24 
Dengel, Philipp 

1949—172 
Denmark 

1943 — 221 
Denn, Adolph 

1948—248 
Dennes, William R. 
1947 — 88, 93 
1948 — 194 
1949 — 425 
Dennett, Eugene V. 

1949 — 549 
Dennis Defense Committee 

1949—304, 305 
Dennis, Eugene 
194 7 — 227 
1948—35, 139, 212, 226, 

362 
1949—99, 107, 129, 134, 
135, 144, 1S6, 188, 
189, 191, 224, 304, 
305, 344, 399, 441, 
447, 451, 462, 487, 
522, 616, 617, 631, 
632, 678 
1951 — 22, 205 
1953 — 241 
1957 — 82, 83, 93 
1959 — 42, 43, 102, 149, 
150, 151, 152, 153, 
158, 168, 181 
Dennis, Peggy 

1948 — 342 
Dennis v. United States 

1955—60, 61, 64 
Denver University 

1953 — 94 
Department of Agriculture 

1959 — 24, 101, 172 
Department of Commerce 

1959 — 173 
Department of Defense 

1959 — 103 
Department of Education, 
Division of Readjust- 
ment Education 
1947—87 
Department of Education, 
Institute 
1959—212 
Department of Employment 

1959—27 
Department of Immigration 
and Naturalization 
1948 — 223 
Department of Institutions 

1943 — 111 
Department of Interior 
1948—108 



Department of Justice 
194S— 93, 120 
1949—444 
1951 — 4 

1959—128, 140, 150, 172, 
196 
Department of Justice, Div. 
of Internal Security 
1959 — 183 
Department of Labor 
1943 — 111 

1959—24, 27, 41, 128, 173, 
181 
Department of Public 
Works 
1959—24 
Department of Relief 

1959 — 24 
Department of Social 
Welfare 
1959—24, 27 
Department of State 

1959 — 129, 172, 191, 192, 
194, 195, 196, 203 
Department of Welfare 

1943—111 
de Patta, Margaret 
1947 — 89, 91 
1949—425 
Deputy State Labor 
Commissioner 
1943 — 111 
Der Arbeiter 
1948 — 224 
Derry, John R. 

1955 — 367 
de Rycke, Dr. Laurence 

1948 — 171 
Desa Singh 
1953 — 221 
Descendants of the 

American Revolution 
1945 — 350 
1948 — 336 
Deschin, Jacob ' 

1949 — 480 
De Schwienitz Sr., Karl 

1959 — 185 
Deseu, Petrus 
1948—268 
1949—464 
De Shelter, Irwin 
1947—239, 241 
1949—475 
De Shishmareff, Paquita 
Louise 
1943—259 
Deshmukh, Professor 

1953 — 233 
De Silva, Howard 
1947—239 
1949 — 470 
de Silva, Howard 

1955 — 387 
Desky, Howard H. 

1948 — 16 
Desmond, Earl D. 
1951—1 
1959—204 
De Soos, Andor 

1949 — 429, 431 
Despol, John 

1955 — 330, 331, 361 
Destepterea 
1949 — 3S5 
de Toledano, Ralph 

1959—157 
de Touloff, Serge 

1948 — 393 
Detroit Bakery 

1951—267 
Detroit Bill of Rights 
Defense Committee 
1949—306, 440 



263 



Detroit City Council 

1948—246 
Detroit Youth Assembly 

1949 — 306 
Detzer, Dorothy 
1948 — 181, 333 
Deuteh, Gertrude 

1955—389 
Deuteh, Stephen 

1949—480 

Deutsch, Adolph 

1948—316, 317 

Deutsch, Albert 

1948—375 

1949 — 480, 489, 499, 503, 
507, 509, 510, 513, 
514, 515, 516, 524, 
526, 527, 536 
Deutsch, Mrs. Armand 
1947—239 
1948—210 
Deutsch, Babette 

194S — 389 
Deutsch, Helen 

1948 — 260 
Deutsch, Dr. Monroe E. 

1948 — 194, 322 
Development of Japan 

1943—324 

Devine, John 

1948—94 

1949 — 554 

Devio, Pierre 

1957 — 96 
Devlin, Marian 

1948 — 279 
De Voto, Bernard 

194S — 330 
De Wees, Benjamin L. 

1948 — 353 
Dewey, Prof. John 

1948 — 102, 121-123, 125, 
128, 129, 135, 159, 
166, 168, 191, 365, 
366, 370, 371 
1949 — 92 
1951—38, 47 
Dewey, Governor Thomas E. 
1948 — 118, 352, 363 
1951 — 251 
De Witt, John L. 

1945—45 
De Witt, Rev. Dale 

1948 — 151, 319 
Dexter, Mrs. Elliott 

1948 — 355 
d'Ponseca, Lydia 

1951 — 280 
Dhami, Nagani Ram 

1953—219 
Dialectical and Historical 
Materialism, 
1949 — 192 
Dialectics of Nature 

1949 — 191 
Diament, Henrich 

1948 — 278 
Diamond, Beverly 

1948 — 375 
Diamond, Mrs. Flor 

1948 — 146 
Diamond, I. A. L. 
1948 — 210, 374 
1955 — 459 
Diamond, Dr. Moses 

1948 — 262 
Diamond, Muni 

1948—210 
Diaz, Jose 

1943—121 
Dibner, Charles 

1948—278 
Dickerson, Earl P. 
1948 — 198 

1949—146, 449, 480, 489 
499, 502, 506, 508 



509, 512, 519, 520, 
521, 522, 523, 525, 
527, 537 
Dickey, Harry 

1948 — 233 
Dickey, Randall F. 
1945 — 5 
1947 — 4, 146, 147, 276, 

278, 307, 372 
1951—1 
Dickinson, Mrs. LaFell 

1948 — 227 

Dicks, Walter 

1948 — 94 

1949 — 554 

Dickson, Mrs. Virgil E. 

1948 — 194 
Dickstein, Eva 

1947 — 72 
"Dictatorship and Political 
Police" 
1949—24 
Diebel, Hans 

1943 — 225-227 
Die-Casters Association 

^959 93 

Diefenbach, Dr. Albert C. 

1949 — 480, 499 
Die Internationale 

1948 — 242 
Dies Committee 

1948—96, 103, 104, 112, 
178, 180, 320, 328, 
330, 351, 390 
1953 — 145 
1959 — 201 
Dies, Martin 

1947 — 184, 202, 206, 214 
1948 — 103, 232, 268 
1951—48 
1959 — 139 
Dieterle, Mrs. Charlotte 

1948 — 355 
Dieterle, William 

1948 — 170, 171, 279 
Dieterle, Mrs. William 
1947 — 185, 235, 239 
Di Fiore, Joseph 
1948—311, 314 
Digg, Charles 

1948 — 163 
Di Giorgio Farms 

1948 — 223, 336, 337 
Dilcourt, John 

1948 — 375 
Dillon, George 

1945 — 127 
Dillon, William 

1947—155 
Dihoorth Act 
1957 — 154 
1959—207 
Dilworth, Nelson S. 
1943 — 6 
1945—5 
1947_4, 123, 294, 372 



041 



1948 — 3, 8, 

1949 — 1, 7 

605, 

637, 

1951—1 

Di Misner 

1948 — 203 

Dimitroff, Georgi 

(Dimitrov) 

1943—121, 133, 

1948—66, 124, 

367 

1949 — 12. ir,r,, 

244 
1951—257 
Dimitroff, Kondo 
1948—205 



9, 10, 219 
599, 601-603. 



611, 

648 



161 
133, 



Dimitrov 

j g 43 21 

1949—87, 162, 555 
Dimitrov, George 

1947—44 

1948—32 

1949 — 164, 451-455, 617 
Dimitrov, George M. 

1949 — 118 
Dimitrov, Georgi 
(Dimitroff) 

1949 — 100, 117, 118, 119, 
354, 522 

1953 — 53, 54, 59, 136, 226 

1957 — 79, 89, 90, 91, 102, 
105, 106 

1959 — 19, 90 
Dimock, Edward, Judge 

1 9 53 1^3 

Dimock, Dr. Hedley S. 

1949 — 480, 499, 504, 512 
Dimock, Marshall 
1948 — 354 

1949 — 480, 483, 489, 502, 
514 
Dimondstein, Morton 

1949 — 428, 435 
Dimonstein, Morton 

1959 — 185 
Dimsdale, Howard 

1948—374 
Diner, Sam 
1947—77 
1949 — 423 
Dinkin, Miriam 

1943—197 
Dionisio 

1951 — 274 
Dippel, Mrs. Ann H. 

1948 — 16 
Direction 

1948 — 126, 224, 368 
1949 — 385 
Disabled American "Veterans 

1948 — 41, 43, 386 
Discussion Club, 44834 

1943 — 379, 380 
Diskind, Louis 

1948—213 
Dispatcher 

1948 — 218 
Dispy, Colonel 

1949 — 555 
District Champion 
1948 — 224 
1949—386, 546 
District of Columbia 
Communist Party 
1949—371 
Dituri, Frank 

1948 — 179 
Divine, Captain Lester J. 

1948—16 
Division of Immigration 
and Housing 
1948 — 235 
Dixon, Dean 
1948 — 198 
Dixon, Mrs. Joseph 

1948—146 

Diberzinsky 

1947 — 292 

Djilas, Miloran 

1949 — 124 

1959 — 36, 147, 180, 1S1 
Dmytrishn, A. 

1949 — 414 
Dmytryk, Edward 

1947_70, 72, 73, 96, 97 
1948—97, 129, 159, 171, 
183, 185, 190, 239, 
251, 252, 276, 277, 
279, 373, 374 
1949 — 421, 688 
1951 — 53, 268, 271 



264 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



Dmytryk, Richard 






Donaldson Printing Co. 


1959—116 






1943 — 380 


Dobb, Maurice 






Donath, Ludwig 


1949 — 191 






1948 — 356 


Dobb, Morris 






Donchin, Samuel 


1951 — 153 






1953 — 72 


Dobbs, Ben 






Dondo, Dr. Mathurin 


1955—176, 314, 


315 




1948 — 185 


Dobbins, William 






Dong, Dr. Collin 


1949 — 549 






194S — 144 


Dobbs, Ben 






Doniger, Walter 


1948 — 213 






1948—210 


1951 — 28 






Donnelly, Roy M. 


Dobbs, Rev. Malcolm 




194S — 152, 249, 358, 359 


1948—163 






Donnini, Ambrogio 


Dobrzynska, Jetka 




1949 — 128 


1949 — 546 






Donovan, Major Gen. 


Doctor Zhivago 






William J. 


1959 — 147 






1959—174 


Doctrine of the Separation 


Doose, C. L. 


of Powers and Its 




1943—176, 191 


Present Day Signifi- 


Doriane, Charles 


cance 






1948 — 162 


1959—206 






Doran, D. A. 


Documentary Film & 




1948—255 


Morale, The 






Doran, Dave 


1951 — 54 






1943 — 120 


Dodd, Dr. 






1948 — 196, 251 


1959 — 85, 86 






Doran, Sadie 


Dodd, Dr. Bella V 






1948 — 268 


194S — 163, 196, 


212, 


227, 


1949 — 464 


228, 229, 


270, 


328, 


Dorf, Artur 


340, 352, 


391, 


392 


1949 — 555 


1949—448, 449, 


456, 


458 


Dorfman, Zelda 


1951 — 286 






1948 — 37S 


1953 — 141, 142, 


143, 


144, 


Dorias, Leon 


146, 147, 


148, 


149, 


1943 — 150 


164, 167, 


174, 


175, 


Dorland, Norman E. 


177, 2S0, 


281 




1948 — 94 


1959—51 






1949 — 554 


Dodd, Martha 






Dorner, Hannah 


1948 — 113, 114, 


1S9, 


203, 


194S — 262, 354 


234, 244, 


271, 


353, 


19 4 9 — 547 


391 






Dos Passos, John 


1949 — 468, 480, 


499, 


502, 


1945 — 119, 121 


504, 505, 


50S, 


509, 


1949 — 4S5 


510, 511, 


517, 


519, 


Douglas Aircraft 


527, 534 






1943—134 


1951—272 






Dougherty, James P. 


Dodd, Paul 






1947—96 


1947 — 239 






Douglas, Prof. Dorothy 


Dodd, William E., 


Jr. 




1948—323 


1948 — 141, 151, 


163, 


215, 


1949—480, 488, 489, 499, 


239, 248, 


350 




502, 505, 509, 527, 


Dodge, Eleanor 






528, 530, 532, 53S 


1955 — 409 






Douglas, Fred T. 


Dohan, William 






1948—107 


1948—164 






Douglas, Dr. Harl R. 


Doho 






1948 — 113 


1959—20 






1949 — 480, 499, 502, 51S 


Doho, Sha 






1951—281 


1943 — 337 






Douglas, Helen Gahagan 


Doidge, Major General 




1947 — 101, 183, 186 


Monroe 






1948 — 132, 277 


1947—102 






1949 — 688 


Dolgin, Rabbi Simon A 




1951 — 120 


194S— 198 






1959 — 34 


Dolin, .Anton 






Douglas, Kirk 


1949—480, 499, 


501, 


521, 


1948 — 210, 211 


534 






Douglas, Melvin 


Dolla, Jacob 






1955—445 


1948 — 265 






Douglas, Melvyn 


Dollfuss, Englebert 




1943 — 161 


1947 — 6 






1947—209, 239 


1951 — 47 






1948—109, 135, 151, 152, 


Dombrowski, James 




256, 257, 310, 375 


1948 — 113, 226 






Douglas, Paul H. 


Dombrowski Medal 




1948—247, 327 


1948 — 100 






Douglas, William O. 


Dombrowski, Thomas 




1949 — 252 


1949 — 545 






1959—156, 1S9 



Domei News Agency 

1953 — 215 
Donaghue, Henry 

1948—162 



Douglas, Mrs. William O. 

1948 — 278 
Dowden, Bishop Tarkington 

1943—275, 277, 278 



Dowling, F. W. 

1959 — 97 
Dowling, Richard A. 

1948— 2G5 
Downes, Olin 

1948—262, 311, 317, 
1949 — 4S0, 483, 4S4, 4S9, 
491, 494, 499, 501, 
502, 504, 506, 507, 
509, 510, 512, 514, 
516, 517, 513, 521, 
529, 531, 532 
1951—272 
1955 — 392 
Downey, Sheridan 

1947 — 79, 89, 93, 183 
Downs, Jane 
1953 — 107 
Downtown "Forum," 
Los Angeles 
1948 — 147, 148 
1949 — 306 

1951— S3, 248, 252, 255, 
256, 265 
Downtown Kiwanis Club 
of Los Angeles 
1949 — 671 
Downtown Shopping Xcws 
(Los Angeles) 
1948 — 126 
Doyle, Bernadette 
1951—79, SO, 202 
1953—76, 256 
1955—108, 128 
Doyle, Charles 

194S — 204-206, 209 
Dozenberg, Nicholas 

1949 — 179 
Dozier, William 

1945—116 
Drader, Ruth, Mrs. 

1935—71, 290, 291, 292, 
293, 294, 295, 296, 
297, 298, 299, 300, 
301, 302, 303, 304, 
305, 308, 307, 308, 
309, 310, 311, 312, 
313, 314, 315, 316, 
317, 31S, 319, 320, 
321, 322, 323, 324, 
325. 326, 327, 32S, 
329, 330, 331, 332, 
333, 334, 335, 336, 
337, 33S, 339, 340, 
341, 342, 343, 344, 
345, 346, 347, 348, 

349, 350, 351, 352, 
353, 354, 355, 356, 
357, 358, 359, 360, 
361, 362, 363, 364, 

350, 3S3, 3S5, 387, 
388, 389, 391 

Dragoicheva, Tsola 

1949 — 354 
Dragon Beard Di f ch, a Play 

1957 — 135 
Dragun, Kusma 

1948 — 259 
Drake, Alfred 

1948 — 254 
Drake, Victor 

1948—356 
Dramatic Work Shop 

1948—392 

1949 — 306 
Dramatist Guild 

1947 — 287 
Draper 

1957—60 
Draper, Muriel 

1945—127 

1948—97, 113, 114, 151, 
163, 189, 208, 227- 
230, 244, 248, 271, 
323, 328, 350, 352, 
353, 390 



INDEX 



m 



'19, 



499. 
509, 



Draper, Muriel — Continued 

1949—456, 457, 458, 468, 

480, 488, 489, 491, 

498, 501, 502, 503, 

504, 505, 50S, 509, 

510, 512, 513, 517, 

520, 521, 523, 526, 

527, 528, 529, 530, 

531, 532, 533, 534, 

536, 537, 538, 546, 



1951 — 58, 60, 271, 

275, 286 
1953—131, 171, 172, 
Draper, Paul 

1948 — 59, 210, 378 
1949 — 480, 484, 489, 
501, 503, 505, 
514, 515, 532, 
534, 688 
1951 — 272 
Draper, Theodore 
1948—198, 377 
Drasnin, Charles 
1948— 215 
1951—226, 228 
1953—282 
Dratler, Jay 

194S — 210, 279 
Drazick, Mary Lagun 

1955—390 
Dreher, Rose 

1943—124 
Dreis, Edward J. 

1947 — 89, 93 
Dreiser, Theodore 
1943—93 
1945—119, 
1947—106 
1948 — 109, 
162, 
239, 
310, 



121, 139, 141 



160, 
211, 



114, 151, 
171, 201, 
258, 267, 273, 
328, 338, 344, 
351, 352, 357. 3 In, 
359, 377, 390, 391 

1949 — 362, 471 
Dreyfus, Benjamin 

1947—241 

1948—216 

1949 — 436, 437 

1955—329 
Driesen, Daniel 

1948 — 141 
Drozdoff, Leo 

1959—172, 174, 176 
Drucker, Hannah 

1948—215 
Drum, Mrs. Jack 

1948 — 146 
Drummond, Andrew 

1948 — 198 
Drummond, Roscoe 

1949—132 
Drury, Dr. Douglas R. 

1948 — 171 
Drury, James 

1947 — 90 
Drydock, Marine Waysmen, 
Stage Riggers and Help- 
ers Local 2116 

1947—80 
Dryer, Sherman 

1948—196 
Dual Citizenship 

1943—287, 323 
Dul.in, Harry N. 

1948—338 
Dubin, Sidney 

1948—356 
Dubinsky, David 

1949—631, 632 
Dubonoff, Bella 

1951—286 

;. Mrs. Belle 

1948—170, 177, 178 



Dubonoff, Paul 

1948 — 177 
Dubois, Dr. 
1957 — 83 
(Hi Bois, Guy Pene 

1948 — 262, 330 
Dubois, Marcel 

1948—343 
Du Bois, Rachel 

1948—227 
DuBois, W. C. 

1955 — 112 
Du Bois, W. E. B. 

1948—107, 113, 151, 198, 
201, 208, 233, 248 
1949 — 480, 183, 489, 491, 
499, 502, 503, 504, 
505, 506, 508, 514, 
515, 516, 518, 519, 
520, 523, 524, 525, 
526, 527, 530, 531, 
532, 533, 534, 536 
1951—271, 272, 275, 276, 

281 
1953—175 
1955 — 392 
1959—185, 195 
Du Bridge, Lee A. 

1953—133 
Dubrowsky, D. H. 

1948—142 

Duchon, Paul 

1948 — 268 

1949 — 464 

Duclos, Jacques 

1947 — 8, 25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 

01 q n q o 

1949 — 60! 94', 95, 97, 158, 
170, 171, 174 

1953 — 71, 72, 224 

1955 — 279, 280, 284 

1957—91 

1959 — 14S 
Dudintsev 

1959 _36, 147, 180, 181 
Dudish, Jr., Mike 

1955 — 391 
Dudley, Jane 

1948 — 378 

4949 — 480, 48S, 499, 50S, 
515, 519 
Dudrov, Paul 

1948—184 

1949—561 
Duel, Henry 

1948 — 273 
Duff, Howard 

1948—210, 356 
Duffv, Clinton T. 

1943— 112, 176, 190 
Dugan, James 

1948—338 

194 9_480, 489, 499, 508, 
510, 514, 517, 519, 
535, 537 
Duergan, Laurence 

1959—172 
Duke, Rev. Baxter Carroll 

1955—383 
Dula, John 

1948 — 375 
Dull, Jor> 

1949—556 
Dulles, John Foster 

1959 — 88, 169 
Dumas, Leopold 

1948—184 
Dumke, Dr. Glenn S. 

1948—171 
Du Mond, F. V. 
Dumont, Cole 

1949—179 
Duncan, ( !leo 

1948 — 94 

1949—554 

194S— 330 



Duncan, Gregor 

1948 — 196 
Duncan, Lowell 

1948—94 

1949 — 554 
Dunfee, Marjorie 

1948 — 356 
Dunham, Harrison M. 

1945—33 
Dunkirk 

1943—221 
Dunks, Judy 

1943 — 60 
Dunlevy, Harold 

1947 — 94 
Dunn, Betty 

1955 — 448 
Dunn, Prof. L. C. 

1948—323, 324 

1949—533 
Dunn, Phillip 

1955 — 445 
Dunn, Ray 

1947 — 211 

1951 — 77, 229, 230 
Dunn, Robert W. 

1947 — 202 

1948 — 107, 143, 151, 194, 
201, 247, 265, 266, 
270, 328, 357, 359 

1949—326, 449, 461, 545, 
547, 632 

1953—174, 175 

1959 — 185 
Dunn, Dr. Thomas 

1948 — 94 

1949—554 
Dunn, William F. 

1949—197 

1951 — 172 
Dunne et al v. United 
States 

1949 — 248 
Dunne, Mrs. Finley Peter 

1948 — 277 
Dunne, Father George 

1947 — 237 
Dunne, PMlip 

1943 — 160, 161 

1945 — 127 

4947 — 239 

1948—4, 135, 210, 256, 
310, 372, 373 
Dunne, William F. 

1945—156 

194S— 107, 266 

1949 — 177, 178, 196, 197 

1953—175 
DuPangher, Jack 

1951 — 229 
Dupont 

1947—364 
Dupont, Zeara 

1948 — 248, 351 
Durant, Kenneth 

1948 — 247 
Duranty, Walter 

1948—326, 357 

1949 — 164, 540 
Durham, Willard H. 

1947—88, 93 

1948 — 194 

1949—425 
Durkin, James 

1951—278 
Durning, Etta 

1943 — 124 
Durr, Clifford J. 

1949—483, 486 

1951 — 263, 281 
Durr, Virginia 

1949 — 18 
Dushane, Donald 

1!' I : -262 
! »'Uss< .in. Armand 

1949—489 



266 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



D'Usseau, Arnaud 

1947 — 106 

1949—480, 499, 501, 503, 

506, 510, 512, 514, 

515, 517, 522, 529, 

530, 534, 537, 545 

Dutt, Rajani Palme 

1948—194, 340 

1949 — 192 

1953—224, 228, 231, 241 
Dutto, Frank 

1949 — 448 
Duty, Frankie 

1948 — 383 
Duvivier, Julien 

1948—271 

1949 — 468 
Dvorin, Irving' 

1947 — 151, 163 
Dyakov, A. M. 

1953 — 226, 227 
Dyer, Dr. Brainerd 

1948 — 171 
Dyer-Bennett, Richard 

1949 — 480, 4S9 
Dykstra, Dr. Clarence 
Addison 

1947—263, 322 

1948 — 112, 113, 132, 170, 
171, 324 
Dykstra, Dr. Clarence M. 

1951—55, 59, 92, 286 
Dykstra, Matthew 

1948 — 94 

1949—554 
Dymtryk, Edward 

1949—478, 480 

1951—57, 5S 
Dynamo 

1951—235 
Dzenit, John 

1948—328, 352 
Dzugashvili, Josef 
Vissarionovich 

1953 — 28, 29 



'1949—163, 174, 176, 182 

1959 — 158 
E.P.I.C. 

1959—17 
Eagle Rock Council for 
Civil Unity 

1948—353 
Earl, Helen 

1955 — 391 
Earl, Howard 

1948—94 

1949 — 554 
Earl, Robert (see Earl 
Robinson) 

1949—452 
Earle, Edward Meade 

1948—247 
Earnshaw, Catherine 

1948 — 226, 228 
Earnshaw, Mrs. Katherine 

1949—456, 458 
East and West Association 

1949 — 539 
East Bay Arrangements 
Committee 

1953 — 259 
East Bay Arts, Sciences 

and Professions Council 

1953 — 248, 249, 282, 283 
East Bay Civil Rights 
Congress 

1953 — 248 

1955—403 



East Bay Council of Arts, 
Sciences and Professions 
1953 — 24S, 249, 255, 262, 
279 
East Bay Committee for 
Republican Spain 

1948—217 
East Bay Committee to Save 
the Rosenbergs 

1953 — 278, 282 
East Bay Machinist Strike 

1951 — 193, 194, 195, 196, 
197 
East Bay People's World 
Forum 

1953—282 
East Bay Scottsboro 
Defense Council 

1947 — 190 
East Bay Youth Cultural 
Center 

1953 — 277, 278 
East Los Angeles Girls 

Vocational High School 

1953 — 110 
Eastman, Anita 

1951 — 229 
Eastman, Max 

1945 — 74, 76, 79, 84 

1947 — 117 
Eastman, Phil 

1948 — 192 
Eastside Journal 

1948—224 
East Side Youth Club of 
the Comumnist Party 

1948—214 
Eat, Drink and Be Wary 

1943—103 
Eaton, Walter P. 

1948—330 
Ebell Club of Los Angeles 

1948 — 15, 16, 18 
Eckbo, Arline 

1955—391 
Eckbo, Mr. Garrett 

1951 — 267 
Eckbo, Mrs. Garrett 

1951—267 
Eckbow, Garrett 

1953 — 107 

1955 — 387, 390, 391 
Eckerson, Chelene V. 

194S — 277, 278 
Eckert, Kenneth 

1945 — 139 
Eckert, Dr. Ralph 

1947—330 
Eckstein, Erma 

1948—375 
Ecmirbiam, Florita 

1948 — 179 
Economic News 

1949 — 461 
Economic Notes 

1948 — 49, 224 

1949—386, 460, 547 
Eddy, Harriet E. 

1959 — 184 
Edel, Prof. Abraham 

1949—480 
Edelman, Helen 

1951 — 107, 109, 111, 116, 
117, 118, 133 

1957—3, 20, 21, 22, 30 
Edelstein, Mrs. Jean 

1948—16 
Eden, Philip 

1947—89, 91 

1949 — 425, 429, 430 

1953—278, 282 
Edgerton, Judge 

1955 — 184 
Edie, Prof. Stuart 

1949—399, 480, 505 



Edises and Treuhaft 

1953 — 279 

1955—50 
Edises, Bertram 

1948—215 

1949 — 688 

1951 — 254, 256, 260, 261, 
264 

1955 — 49, 50, 51 

1959 — 132 
Edises, Mrs. Bertram 

1953 — 264, 279, 282 
Edises, Pele 

1947 — 90, 149 
Edises, Pete 

1948 — 343 
Edises, Treuhaft and 
Condon 

1955—50 
Edman, Erwin 

1949 — 499, 506, 510, 524, 
525 
Edmonds, Justice 

1955—51 
Edmonds, Sue 

1948 — 277, 278 
Edmonds, George (see 

George E. Williams) 
Education and Social 
Conflict 

1953—151 
Education and Social 
Dividends 

1953—151 
Education Between Two 
Worlds 

1951—45 
Educational Committee 
on Americanism 

1948—17, 19 
Educational Frontier, The 

1953 — 155, 156 
Ediication System of the 
U.S.S.R., The 

1949 — 539 
Edwards 

1949 — 677 
Edwards, G. W. 

1948 — 330 
Edwards, George 

1947 — 268, 269 

1948 — 214 
Edwards, India 

1948—228 

1949—458 
Edwards, Mrs. 

1955 — 26 
Edwards, Ralph R. 

1955 — 18, 23, 24, 26, 27, 
30, 34, 40 
Edwards, Thyra 

1948 — 228, 230 

1949—458, 545 
Efeimoff, Boris 

1949 — 552 
Efthin, Alex 

1951 — 287 
Egan, Jack 

1948—94 

1949 — 554 
Eger, Joseph 

1955 — 386 
Ehrenburg 

1953 — 275 
Ehrenburg, Ilya 

1947—106 

1948—199 

1949—68, 497 
Ehrlich, Leonard 

1945 — 126 
Ehrlich, Teresa 

1948—93, 95 
Eickholt, A. E. 

1948 — 16 



INDEX 



267 



Eidenoff, Sol 




Eisler Hits Back 


1947—163 




1948—118 


Eidsath, Rev. Martin. S. 




Eisman, Harry 


1945 — 137 




1949 — 182 


1947—67, 96 




Eisner, Simon 


194S — 183, 185 




1947 — 179 


1949—419 




Elber, Irwin 


Eidusson, Sam 




1947 — 82, 89, 90, 91 


1948—179 




1949—425, 429, 430 


Eighteenth Brumaire of 




Elconin, Alice 


Louis Bonaparte 




1948—161 


1949—190, 191 




Elconin, William 


Eiler, Major E. E. 




1948 — 62, 164, 209, 346 


1948 — 16 




1949—146, 470, 688 


Einfeld, Charles 




1959 — 99 


1948 — 210, 211 




Elconin, William B. 


Einstein 




1955 — 383, 390 


1949—63 




Elconin, William L. 


1953—234 




1951 — 255 


Einstein, Albert 




Elders, Paul 


1948 — 244, 262, 310, 


311, 


1953 — 264 


324, 328 




Eldredge, Florence (see 


1949 — 480, 484, 4S9, 


495, 


Mrs. Frederic March) 


499, 502, 506, 


509, 


1949 — 688 


510, 511, 512, 


516, 


1951 — 284 


519, 520, 522, 


523, 


Eldridge, Anita 


526, 528, 530, 


531, 


1948—375 


532, 533, 534 




Eldridge, Dorothy Hope 


1955 — 193, 410 




Tisdale 


Eisenberg, Frances 




1959 — 176 


1953—79, 110, 119, 


120, 


Election Struggle in Cali- 


124, 125, 126 




fornia, The 


1955 — 66, 423, 424, 


425, 


1959 — 25 


426, 427 




Electrical Workers Union 


1957—149 




CIO 


Eisenberge, Mrs. Francis R. 


1948—164 


1947—71, 115, 117, 


119, 


Elementary Russian Reader 


122, 126, 128, 


129, 


1951—153 


132, 134, 135, 


136, 


Eliel, Paul 


137, 138, 139, 


141, 


1947 — 89, 93 


369 




Eliot, Dr. Frederick May 


1948 — 177 




1948—271, 322 


1949 — 422 




1949 — 468 


1951—286 




Elisco, Edward 


Eisenberg, Jack 




1947—71 


1955 — 386 




1948 — 189 


Eisenberg, Meyer 




1949 — 422 


1955 — 391 




Elizabeth Gurley Flynn 


Eisenberg, Mrs. Meyer 




Club 


1955—391 




1947—35 


Eisenberger, Sidney 




1949—306 


1948 — 179 




Elizalde Anti-Discrimina- 


Eisenhower, Dwight David 


tion Committee 


1947—362 




1947 — 55 


1951—67 




1949—306 


1953 — 194 




Elkins, Dr. Oscar 


1955—215 




1955 — 79, 288 


1957 — 60, 62, 77 




Elkus, Albert I. 


1959 — 169, 195, 19C 




194S — 328, 352 


Eisler 




Ellington, Duke 


1949 — 60 




1948 — 251 


Eisler Defense Committee 


Elliot, Jesse 


1948 — 118 




1948 — 16 


1949 — 304, 306, 446 




Elliot, Scott 


Eisler, Gerhardt 




1948—356 


1948—35, 100, 118, 


122, 


Elliott, Edward E. 


125, 134, 139, 


166, 


1948 — 346, 355 


202, 204, 209, 


226, 


1949 — 478, 688 


362, 363, 365, 


368 


Elliott, Ida 


1949 — 172, 231, 304, 


442, 


1948—214 


444, 446, 447, 


448, 


Elliott, J. Paul 


449, 451, 452, 


454, 


1947 — 132, 133, 137 


455, 522, 523, 


632, 


Ellis, David 


656, 677 




1948 — 356 


1951 — 50, 54, 257, 


260, 


Ellis, Francis 


265, 287 




1948 — 277 


1953—224 




Ellis, Fred 


1959 — 89, 115 




1945 — 119 


Eisler, Hans 




1948 — 270 


1948—189, 202, 224, 


316, 


1949 — 467 


317, 364, 377 




Ellis, Robert 


1949 — 305, 523, 677, 


688 


1949 — 517 


1951—53, 54, 57, 260 


Ellis, Dr. Robert H. 


Eisler, Hanns 




1949—480, 489, 499, 514, 


1959—115 




532 



Ellisberg, Benjamin 

1947—77 

1949—423 
Ellison, Naomi 

194S — 186 

1949—562, 563 
Ellison, Victor 

1948 — 186 

1949—563 
Ellsworth, Ted 

1947 — 301 

194S — 251, 255 

1949 — 688 
Eloesser, Dr. Leo 

1948—94, 114, 132, 328, 
358, 390 

1949 — 554 

1951—92, 93 
Eloesser, Rikee 

1948—278, 352 
Elsea, A. Ray 

1943 — 356, 358, 382 
El Sinarquista 

1943—201, 202 
El Socorro Rojo Inter- 
nacional 

1949 — 439 
Eltcher, Max 

1959 — 175 
Eltenton, Dorothea 

1947 — 89 

1948—171, 172. 176, 178 

1951—57, 59, 235 
Eltenton, George C. 

1947—89 
Eltenton, Dr. George C. 

1948—172, 173, 174, 176, 
178, 237 
Eltenton, George Charles 

1951—234, 235, 240, 241, 
242, 243 
Elton, Harry 

1948—278 
Elveson, Leon 

1959 — 173, 176 
Embassy of Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics 

1949—548 
Embree, Edwin 

1953—151 
Embrey, Elizabeth 

1948 — 179 
Embrey, Garland 

1948 — 179 
Embury, Aymar I. 

1948—330 
Emeny, Brooks 

1947 — 321 
Emergency Action Confer- 

1948 — 203, 205 
1951—265 
Emergency Civil Liberties 
Committee 
1959 — 144, 146, 207, 214 
Emergency Civil Liberties 
Conference 
1948 — 233, 234 
Emergency Committee on 
KFI 
1947 — 181, 186 
1948 — 233 
1949—306 
1955 — 444 
Emergency Committee to 
Aid Spain 
1947—202 
1949 — 306 
Emergency Conference on 
World Peace and China 
1951—276 
1953 — 247 
Emergency Conference to 
Aid the Spanish Re- 
public 
1949—306 



268 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



Emergency Conference to 
Halt the Blackout of 
Civil Liberties in Cali- 
fornia 
1948 — 233 
1949—307 
Emergency Council 

1949—301 
Emergency Defense Agency 

1959 — 173 
Emergency Legislative Con- 
ference 
1951 — 57 
Emergency Medical Com- 
mittee for the Defense 
of Professional Licen- 
sure 
1955 — 115, 117, 370, 371 
Emergency National Con- 
vention 
1949—171 
Emergency Peace Confer- 
ence 
1948 — 246 
Emergency Peace Mobiliza- 
tion 
1948—67, 115, 150, 165, 

342 
1949 — 307 
Emergency Relief Appro- 
priation Acts 
1959—139 
Emergency Trade Union 
Conference to Aid 
Spanish Democracy 
1947—202 
1949 — 307 
Emery, Dr. Clyde K. 

1948—170, 171 
Emge, Dr. Ludwig A. 

1948 — 144 
Emerson, Dr. Haven 

1949 — 480, 499, 505, 506, 
507, 510, 511, 524 
Emerson, Thomas I. 
1948—331 

1949—480, 489, 499, 508, 
514, 517, 541 
Ernes 

1949—179 
Emma Lazarus Women's 
Clubs of Los Angeles 
1955 — 388, 390, 391 
Emmett, W. H. 

1949—191 
Empire of Fear 

1959 — 167 
Empros 
1948 — 224 
1949—386 
Emspak, Julius 
1945 — 147 
1948—198 

1949—448, 451, 455 
1953 — 63, 187, 190 
Encina, Susie 

1951 — 267 
Encinas 

1951 — 274 
End Poverty in California 

1943 — 119 
Ende, Lee, Mrs. 

1955—391 
End-Discrimination Com- 
mittee 
1955 — 98 
Endore, Guy 
1945 — 121, 127 
1947 — 70, 72, 73 
1948—97, 114, 152, 189, 

279, 357, 374 
1949 — 146, 421, 428, 433, 
480, 488, 489, 499, 
501, 502, 504, 506, 
510, 512, 514, 517, 



518, 522, 526, 5?7, 
535, 625 
1951 — 53, 57, 271 
1953—172, 174 
1955 — 442, 443, 450 
Enee, S. 

1948 — 328, 352 
Engdahl. Louis J. (J. Louis) 

1949 — 178, 196 
Engel, Lehman 

1949 — 4S0, 499, 502, 506, 
512, 515, 537 
Engelberg. Hyman, Dr. 
1947—73 
1948 — 346 
1951— 1'67 

1955—266, 2SS, 367, 370 
374 
Engleberg, Monroe, Dr 

1951—267 
Engels, Frederich 
1943 — 19 
1945 — 60, SO 
1947—9, 15, 17, 77 85 

268, 361 
1948 — 372 

1949—12, 14, 27, 67, 70 79 
80, 85, 99, 127, 128.' 
142, 155, 183, 184 
185, 1S8, 190, 191, 
193, 202, 203, 204 
208, 210, 211, 217, 
219, 225, ?30, 234, 
242, 248, 251, 358, 
423, 615, 616, 651, 
670, 705 
1953—9, 10, 11, 12, 17, 18 
19, 20, 24, 25, 26, 
29, 47, 156, 223, 
224 
1955—89, 3S1 
1957 — 64, 146 
Engles, Frederick 

1951 — 66, 153 
Enr/els on Capitol 

1949 — 191 
Enger, Mrs. Eva O. 

194S — 16 
England, George 

194S— 356 
Engle, Congressman Clair 

1959—31 
English Friends of the 
Chinese People 
1948—144 
English, Richard 

1955 — 441 
Englund, Ken 

194S — 251 
Enlarged Caucuses 

1943 — 81, 82 
Enloe, Mrs. Dorothv Scharn 
1947—324, 340, 341, 343, 
344 
Enochs, Neil 

1947 — 72, 73 
Enock, Beatrice 

1948—259 
Enrisrht, Theodore 

1957 — 73 
Fntenza, John 

1948 — 171, 355 
Enters, Anga 

1948 — 310 
Ephron, Henry 

1948 — 210 
Ephron, Phoebe 

1948 — 210 
Epperson, Dr. J. Gordon 

194S— 16 
Epstein, Abraham 
1948 — 199 
1949 — 464 
Epstein, Ethel 
1948—226, 375 



Epstein, Ida M. 

1951 — 267 
Epstein, Isaac 

194S — 259, 343 
Epstein, Israel 

1949— 4C1 
Epstein, Jack 

1948—186 

1949 — 562 
Epstein, Jerry 

1955 — 344, 386 
Epstein, Julius 

194S — 97, 210 
Epstein, Lena 

1948 — 343 
Epstein, Max 

1948 — 322 
Epstein, Pauline 

1951 — 267 

1955 — 327, 388, 390, 392 

1959—128 
Epstein, Philip 

1948—210 
Epstein Schachno 

1949 — 179 
Equal Justice 

1947 — 190 

1948 — 121, 155, 224 

1949 — 386 
Equal Rights Conference 

195.-.— 306, 316, 3:'2 
Equality 

1948 — 119, 224 

1949—366, 507 
ERA 

1949—286, 303, 374 
Eralova, Edvokia I. 

1948—231 
Erb 

1951—143 
Ercoli (PalmiroTogliatti) 

1949 — 10, 131, 162, 239 
Erdman, Alice 

1943 — 360 
Erdman, Mrs. Henrv E. 

1947 — 241 

1949—436 
Erfer, Paul 

1947 — 72 
Ericson, Carl R. 

1945 — 167, 168 
Erickson, Edward A. 

194S — 16 
Erickson, Leif 

1948 — 94 

1949—554 
Erickson, Will 

1949—137 
Erikson, Ruth 

1951 — 230 
Ernst, Hugh 

1953 — 131 
Ernst, Hugo 

1948 — 114 

1951 — 286 
Ernst, Morris 

1951—261, 262, 263, 268 
Ernst, Morris L. 

1948—109, 110, 145, 199, 
247 
Erskine, Charles 

1948—113, 391 
Erskine, Dorothy 

1947 — 94 

1948 — 341 
Erskine, Mr. and Mrs. 
Herbert W. 

1948 — 194 
Erskine, Morse 

1948 — 5 
Erskine, Thomas 

1953 — 180 
Ertola, Dr. Charles A. 

1948 — 185 
Erwin, Agon 

1947—106 



269 



Escalante, Anival 

1949 — 181 
Esovich, Rudy 

1947—164 
Essay on Liberty 

1953 — 180, 181, 185, 1SG 
Estabrook, Howard 
1948 — 97, 1S5, 372 
1951—53 

1955—436, 437, 43S, 441, 
442, 443, 444 
Estavan, Lawrence 

1943 — 137 
Esterman, Priscilia M. 
1948—177 
1951— 2S6 
Esterman, William B. 
1947—73 
194S— 105 

1951 — 29, 30, 260, 264, 2S0 
1953—104, 120, 124, 125, 

126 
1955—303, 383, 390, 417, 
419, 420, 421, 427, 
451 
Esthonian Women's Club 
(of Massachusetts; 
1949 — 307, 406 
Esthonian Workers' Clubs 

1949—307 
Etecnpain 
1948 — 224 

1949—386, 467, 548 
Eteenpain Cooperative 
Society 
1949—548 
Etela, Aive 
1949—548 
Ethical Drug 

1948 — 343 
Eugene Debs Branch of the 
Communist Party 
1948 — 215 
Eugene, Lyons 

1943—17 
Evans, Alice 
1948 — 278 
Evans, Charles 

1948 — 311, 313 
Evans, Dr. E. Manfred 

1948—171 
Evanson, Sylvia 
1947 — 89 
1949 — 425 
Evening Outlook 

1957—3 5 
Evergood, Philip 
1948 — 262, 343, 
1949 — 480, 4S3, 484, 488, 
489, 499, 501, 503, 
504, 505. 508, 508, 
509, 511, 514, 518, 
522, 523, 524, 525, 
527, 528, 529, 530, 
531, 533, 534, 535, 
536, 537 
1951 — 271, 272 
1953 — 172 
Evergreen Primary School 
-420 
- i dv's Supermarket 
1951 — 2CC 
Evils of Tobacco, The 

1948—96 
Ewin, Frederic 
1948—179 
1959 — 55 
Ewert, Arthur 
1948—363 
1949—172 
Excerpt from Address on 
Arrival in Spain 
1943 — 120 
Exchange Club 
1959—210 



Ex-Combattenti Society 

1943 — 287, 290, 301-303, 
305, 309 
Exiled Writers Committee 

1948 — 141, 234, 270, 335 

1949 — 308, 324, 366, 468 
Expose 

1957—69 
Ex-Servicemen's 
International 

1948—385 
Ex-Yank 

1P4S— 339 
Eyck, Mills Ten 

194S — 324 
Eye and Ear Hospital 

1955 — 93 
Eyer, Courtland 

1948—95 
Eyer, Ronald F. 

1948—317 
Eyster, Mrs. Elizabeth 

1949—602 
Ezekiel, Mordecai 

1949 — 488, 511, 514 



F. B. I. — see Federal Bureau 

of Investigation 
F. B. I. Academy 

1959 — 105 
F. B. I., The 

1959 209 

F. W. T. U. — see World Fed- 
eration of Trade Unions 
Faber, Dr. Harold 

1947—144 
Facci, Dr. Joseph 

1943 — 286 
Faco, Ruy 

1949— 1S1 
Fact-Finding Committee of 
the California Legisla- 
ture 
1949 — 657 
Factories in the Field 

1959—209 
Facts for Farmers 
1948 — 224 
1949 — 387, 546 
1959 — 146 
Facts for Women 
1948—225 
1949— 3S7, 546 
Facts Speak, The 
(Chapter 25) 
1947 — 20S-210, 217 
Fadeev, A. A. 

1949 — 485, 497 
Fadayev, A. A. 

1949—476, 485, 492, 493, 
494, 495 
Fadayev, Alexander A. 

1851 — 270 
Fadiman, William 

1948 — 97 
FAECT — see International 
Federation of Archi- 
tects, Engineers, Chem- 
ists and Technicians for 
sixth report 
194S— 173, 174 
1953—2 12 
FAECT (Chapter 25) 
1955— 4S, 49, 432 

T Technical School 
19 17—209 

I'.-irl 
-139, 141 
1947 — 75, 96 
1948 — 183, 259 
1963—104 
1955—390 



Fagerhaush, Ole 
1949—437 



Fagg, Fred, Jr. 

1953 — 133 

Fainaru, Harry 

1948—343 

1949 — 547 

Fairbanks, John K. 

1959—174 
Fairchild, Henry Pratt 
1945—127 

1948—109, 113, 114, 151, 
169, 201, 208, 262, 
263, 270, 322-325, 
327, 328, 333, 352, 
357, 377 
1949 — 449, 46S, 480, 483, 
484, 488, 489, 491, 
498, 502, 503, 504, 
505, 506, 507, 50S, 
509, 510, 512, 513, 
515, 517, 518, 519, 
520, 522, 523, 524, 
526, 527, 528, 529, 
530, 531, 532, 533, 
534, 536, 537, 538, 
539 
1951—58, 271, 272, 276, 

281 
1953 — 131, 171, 172, 174, 
175, 176, 177, 273, 
280, 281 
1955—392 
1959 — 185 
Fairchild, Mildred 
1948 — 227, 230, 324 
1949 — 456, 458 
Fair Employment Practices 
Act 
1947 — 46, 301 
Fair Employment Practices 
Commission 
1957—124 
Fair Facts 

1949—636 
Fairfax City Council 

1948—5 
Fairfax High School 
1951 — 27, 33, 34 
1953—120 
Fairfax Residents and Tax- 
payers Assn. 
1948 — 4, 5 
Fairley, Lincoln 

1947—89, 91 
Faith Grace Bureau 

1943—360, 373 
Fajans, Irving 

1959 — 174 
Fajon, Etienne 

! 9 5 7—96 

' la | • 

1948—103 

1959 — 105 

Falawn, Betty 

1943—145, 147 
Falkenstein, Claire 
1947—89, 94 
1 049— 425 
Falkowski, Ed 
1945 — 119 
1948 — 273 
1949—471 
Fallender, Alice 

1948 — 356 
Fallender, Syd 

1948 — 356 

Family Living and Our 

Schools 

19 47—324 

Fan Minh 

1953—194 

I i. Rose M. 
1943—284, 289, 303, 314, 
Far East Spotlioht 
1951 — 278, 280 



270 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



Far Eastern University 
1951—180, 181 
1953 — 229 
Faragoh, Francis 

1951—57 
Faragoh, Francis Edwards 
1945—116, 117, 127 
1948 — 97, 250, 256, 261, 
378 
Faragon, Elizabeth 

1948 — 278 
Farber, Richard 

1948 — 244 
Farber's Park View Manor 

1948 — 344 
Farm Equipment Organiz- 
ing Committee 
1959 — 94 
Farm Labor Party 

1943—98, 99 
Farm Research 
1948 — 168 
1949 — 308, 466, 546 
Farmer, Frances 

1948 — 151, 277, 278, 310, 
377 
Farmer, Fyke 

1949 — 480 
Farmer-Labor-Consumers' 
Association 
1948—383 
Farmer-Labor Party 

1959 — 27, 28 
Farmer, Mary Virginia 
1943—135, 145-148, 150, 

164 
1947—73 

1948—256, 316, 356 
1951 — 82 
Farmers Educational and 
Cooperative Union of 
America 
1953 — 174 
Farnham, Dr. E. C. 
1948 — 239 
1949 — 435 
Farquhar, Samuel T. 
1947 — 107, 109 
1948—258 
1951 — 62, 63 
Farr, Rev. Joyce Wesley 

1948—185 
Farrell, Dennie 

1948 — 280 
Farrell, James T. 
1945 — 121, 125, 126 
1948—194, 273, 330 
Farrell, Tom 

1949 — 428, 433 
Farrelly, David 

1959—18, 34 
Fascio 

1943 — 287 
Fascism 

1943 — 9, 283, 284, 383 
1945 — 6 

1959 — 44, 45, 46, 47, 178 
Fascism and Social 
Revolution 
1943 — 118 
1953 — 232 
Fascist 

1949 — 20 
Fascist Militia 

1949—17 
Fascist Organizations 
1943—383 
1945—5 
Fascist Party 

1943 — 282, 283 
Fascist Propaganda 

1943—285, 286, 319-21 
Fascist Spain — The Nazi 
Valhalla 
1948—217 



Fascists 
1943—282 
1951 — 8, 11, 41, 47, 48, 

257, 262 
1959 — 105 
Fassler, Arnold M. 

1948—185 
Fast, Howard 
1947 — 106 
1948—60, 132, 186, 231, 

263 343 
1949 — 447' 460, 480, 483, 
484, 485, 489, 491, 
499, 501, 503, 505, 
506, 508, 509, 512, 
514, 515, 516, 517, 
518, 519, 520, 521, 
522, 523, 524, 525, 
526, 527, 528, 529, 
531, 532, 534, 535, 
536, 537, 545, 546, 
562 
1951—60, 271, 272, 276, 

281 
1953 — 139, 172 
1959 — 85, 147, 181, 183 
Faster, Archie 

1948 — 220 
Fate and Revolution 

1943—21 
Fatherland Front 

1949 — 118 
Faulkner, Barry 

1948 — 330 
Faulkner, Stanley 

1955—392 
Faulkner, William J. 

1948 — 320, 321 
Faullin, Earl 

1943—145, 147 
Faupel, Rev. A. D. 

1948 — 358, 359 
Fayayev 

1953 275 

FBI — See Federal Bureau 

of Investigation 
Fearing, Franklin 
1945 — 116 

1947—72, 95-97, 102, 108, 
129, 130, 141, 179, 
186, 188, 254, 263 
1948—146, 149, 170, 171, 
183, 184, 190, 201, 
239, 253, 255, 258, 
276, 279, 309, 346, 

1949 — 435, 688 

1951 — 53, 54, 56, 58, 59, 
62, 63, 64, 109, 255, 
268, 280 

1953—172 
Fearing, Dr. Franklin 

1955 — 365 
Fearing, Kenneth 

1945—121, 126, 127 

1948 — 270, 273 

1949—471 
Feder, Gottfried 

1943 — 219, 222 
Feder, Dr. Morris 

1948 — 106, 160, 161 
Feder, Dr. Morris R. 

1951—267 

1955—79, 173, 174, 175, 
176, 275, 288, 304, 
307, 308, 311, 315, 
347, 374, 389 

1959—125 
Feder, Mrs. Morris 

1955—315, 347, 3S9 
Federal Art Project 

1943—131, 133 

1949—420 



Federal Bureau of 
Investigation 
1943 — 8 
1945 — 6, 33 
1947—34, 63, 99, 133, 211, 

216, 217, 319 
1948—93, 97, 110, 116, 

130, 134, 173, 174, 
236, 274, 277, 332, ! 
370 

1949 — 441, 444, 469, 541, ! 

593, 642, 653, 656, 1 

658, 678 
1951—3, 22, 77, 80, 81, 85, I 

94, 132, 150, 170, 

179, 199, 225, 228, 

229, 230, 241, 243, 

258, 263, 283 
1953—80, 144, 182, 186 
1955—43, 45, 49, 107, 

108, 284, 285, 286, 

380, 412 
1957—80, 121, 123, 130, I 

131, 141 
1959—11, 38, 43, 61, 76, ! 

77, 79, 80, 81, 83, | 
103, 112, 114, 120, I 
125, 126, 129, 138, , 
139, 140, 143, 148, 
151, 152, 153, 154, 
155, 156, 177, 186, 
188, 191, 193, 196, 1 
199, 206, 209, 210, 
214 
Federal Civil Defense 
Administration 
1955 — 147 
Federal Communications 
Commission 
1947—180, 182, 184, 185, i 
192, 193 
Federal Economic 
Administration 
1959 — 173 
Federal Emergency Relief 
Administration 
1959—173 
Federal Register 
1959 — 141, 142 
Federal Security Agency 

1959 — 173 
Federal Theatre Project 
1943 — 146 
1947 — 73 
Federal Theater Project, 
Los Angeles 
1951 — 83 
Federal Trade Commission 

1949 — 275 
Federal Work Relief 
Program 
1953—100 
Federal Workers Local No. ! 
245, CIO 
194S — 148 
Federal Works Agency 

igcj) 173 

Federal Writers Project 
1943 — 126, 128-132, 138, 
139, 150, 151, 166 
1959—117 
Federated Press 
1948 — 49, 145 
1949 — 276, 30S, 3S7, 460, 
461, 623 
Federation for Political 
Unity 
1959—24 
Federation for the Repeal j 
of the Levering Act 
1955—318 
Federation Internationale 
Des Anciens Combat- 
tants 
1948—384 



INDEX 



271 



Federation of Architects, 
Engineers, Chemists & 
Technicians 
1943 135 

1947 — 89, 101-103, 189 

1948 — 7, 8, 52, 234-236, 
298, 335 

1959—94 
Federation of Architects, 
Engineers, Chemists & 
Technicians (CIO), 
Chapter 25 

1951 — 198 
Federation of Bulgarian- 
Macedonian Workers' 
Clubs 

1949 — 414 
Federation of Mexican 
Workers 

1959 — 96 
Federation of Scientists 

1948—318 
Federation of Spanish- 
American Voters 

1949 — 438 
Federation of the Just 

1953 — 11 
Federation of Women 
Telephone Workers 

1955 — 418 
Federman, J. H. 

1948 — 268 

1949 — 464 
Fee, William 

1947—105 
Feely, Father 

1947 — 285 
Feffer, Col. I. 

1948 — 156 
Fefferman, Sarah H. 

1953 — 79, 92, 120, 121 
Feigan, Isidore 

194S — 259 
Feinberg, Alice 

1955 — 389 
Feinberg-, Rabbi Abraham L. 

1948—328 
Feinberg Law 

1953 — 148 
Feinberg-, William 

1947 — 202. 203 
Feingersh, Francis 

1948 — 94 

1949 — 554 
Feinglass v. Feinecke 

1949 — 578 
Feins, Bernard 

1948—211 
Feldman, Ann Parks- 

1955—387 
Feldman, J. Arnold 

1948 — 339 
Feldman, Leo 

1951—267 
Feldman, Max 

1947 — 212 
Felhaber, Elmer 

1948 — 162 
Felis, James 

1948—339 
Felix, Maria 

1951—273 
Felix, Ralph 

1957—43-50, 54, 55, 57 
Fellowship of 

Reconciliation 

1948—246 
Folsbin, Joseph 

194S — 214 

1949—463 
Felson, Milt 

1949—556 
Feldstein. Abe 

1955 — 389 
Felton, James 

1949—608 



Fenichel, Karl 

1959 — 176 
Fenster, Leo 

1955 — 406, 409 
Fenston (Reg-ent U. C.) 

1951 — 74 
FEPC, Southern California 
Committee for the Pro- 
motion of 
1947 — 46, 47 
Ferber, Edna 

1948—240, 263, 330, 389 
Ferenz, Franz K. 

1943 — 225, 241, 257, 266 
Ferguson, Isaac E. 
1948 — 265, 331 
1949 — 541 
Ferno, John 
1948—247 
Ferrand, Jacques 

1949 — 486 
Ferrer, Jose 

1949 — 480, 484, 489, 499, 
501, 504, 509, 514, 
515, 521, 528, 534 
1951—271 
Ferrer, Uta Hagen 

1951 — 271 
Ferris, Varney 

1947—164 
Ferrogiarco, Jerome 
194S — 94 
1949—554 
Feuchtwanger, Lion 
1947 — 96, 97, 141 
1948 — 131, 170, 183, 271, 
276, 324, 350, 351, 
358 
1949—449, 468, 480, 491, 
499, 506, 507, 509, 
510, 516, 528, 530, 
533, 534, 535, 537, 

1951 — 53, 56, 57, 271, 272, 
280, 286 

1953 — 131 
Festus Coleman Committee 

1948 — 172 

1949—308 
Ficke, Arthur D. 

1945 — 127 
Fiedler, Mrs. Sam 

1948—317 
Field. Ben 

1945 — 121 

1947 — 106 

1948 — 189, 233, 273 

1949—471 
Field, Mrs. Betty 

194S — 133, 168 
Field, C. Don (Assembly- 
man) 

1947—263, 264 
Field, Case 

1959 — 188 
Field, Edith C. 

1949 — 548 
Field, Frederick Vanderbilt 

1947—267 

1948 — 113, 114, 143, 162, 
164, 168, 198, 208, 
2?6, 227, 270, 324, 
340, 341, 343, 376, 
377 

1949—105, 2S0, 295, 461, 
546 

1951 — 272 

1953 — 131, 172, 176, 230, 
280, 281 
Field, Mrs. Frederick V. 

1949—456 
Field, Grace 

1949—546 
Field, Jane 

1948—151 



Field, Marshall 

1948 — 109, 131 
Field, Martin 

1948—372 
Field, R. D. 

1949 — 449 
Field, Dr. Robert D. 

1948 — 322 

1949— 4S0, 499, 516, 530 
Field, Mrs. Sarah Bard 

1948 — 226, 328, 341, 352 
Field, William O., Jr. 

1948 — 170, 248 

1949 — 461 
Field Workers School 

1943 — 87 
Fielde, Gerald 

1948 — 95 
Fielding, George 

1955—162 
Fielding, Jerry 

1955—386 
Fieldston School, New- 
York City 

1955 — 221 
Fierro, Josephine 

1945 — 182 
Fifteen Years of Biro 
Bidjan 

194S — 97 
Fifth Amendment 

1959—49, 55, 56, 113, 125, 
127, 169, 172, 176, 
192, 193, 202, 203, 
208, 219 
Fifth Cell, The 

1947—277 
Fifth Congress of the 
Comintern 

1953 — 49 
Fifth Congress of Youth 

1948 — 351 
Fifth World Festival of 
Youth and Students 

1957 — 128 
Fight 

1948 — 98, 124, 225, 366 

1949—387 
Fight Against War and 
Facism, The 

1953 — 174 
Fight Thought Control 

1948—58 
Fighting Words 

1948—193 
Files, James Ray 

1948 — 352 
Files, Mary 

1948—16 
Fillmore Club 

1955—404 
Film and Photo League 

194S — 237, 238, 247 

1949 — 308, 312 

1959—137 
Film Audiences 

1949 — 309 
Film Audiences for 
Democracy 

1948 — 52, 167, 193, 238 

1949 — 286, 309 
Film Editor (Local 776) 

1947—177 
Film Front 

194S — 138 
Film News 

194S— 225 

1949 — 387 
Film Survey 

1948 — 167, 238 
Films for Democracy 

194S— 167, 193, 238, 239, 
248, 341 

1949— 2S6, 309 

1953—172 



272 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



230 



Film Technician 
1947—67 

Film Technicians, 

Local 6S3, I.A.T.S.E., 
AFL 

1949—419 
Finch, Verdia 

1948 — 203 
Pindley, Warren G. 

1953—153 
Fine, C. W. 

1948—333 
Fine, Charles 

1948 — 163 
Fine, Sylvia 

194S — 210 
Fineberg Law 

1951 — 43 
Fineman, Harold 

1948 — 339 
Fineman, Irving 

1947 — 96 
Fink, Werner 

1948 — 205 
Finkelstein, Sidney 

1949 — 481, 4S9, 500, 503 

50S, 516 

525, 529 

536, 537 

Finkelstein, Ted 

1947 — 211 

1951 — 77, 229, 
Finn, Aubrey 

1947 — 186 
Finn, Pauline Lauber 

1945 — 116 

1947 — 54, 55, 97, 179, 180, 
187, 242 

194S — 2G0, 309 

1949 — 436 

1951—57, 58, 59, 255 

1955—444, 446 
Finney, E. K. 

1949 — 437 
Finnish-American Mutual 
Aid Society 

1949—466 
Finnish Communist Party 

1949—172 
Finnish Communist Party 
(See Communist Party 
of Finland) 
Finnish Federation 

1948—224 

1949 — 309, 386 
Finnish Women's Club (of 
Massachusetts) 

1949—309 
Finnish Workers' Clubs 

1949—309 
Fiore, Anthony S. 

1943—284, 304 
Firemen's Union 

19 17—161 
Firestone, Bernie 

194S — 179 
Firestone, Fred 

1955—389 
Firestone, Nina 

1955 — 3S9 
First Aid Employees, Local 
767 

1947—177 
First American Delegation 
to U.S.S.R. 

1949—530 
First American Fire Ins. 
Co. of New York 

1949—256 
First Congress of Mexican 
and Spanish-American 
Peoples 

1948—160 

1949—453 



519, 523, 


1953- 


-101 




530, 535, 


1955- 


-292, 


293, 294, 321, 






327, 


329, 330, 334, 






335, 


337, 346, 361, 



First Congress of the Com- 
munist International 

1953 47 

First Five Years, The 

1957 — 132 
First Indo-Soviet 

Cultural Congress 
1953—233 
First International 
1945 — 82 
1949—203 
First Presbyterian Church 
(Los Angeles) 
1948—280 
First State-wide Emergency 
Legislative Conference 
1949—309 
First State-wide Legislative 
Conference 
1949 — 435 
First Unitarian Church of 
Los Angeles 
1948 — 115, 160, 231, 280, 
338, 344, S50, 353 
1949 — 460 
1951 — 276, 286 
-101 
-292, 
327, 
335, 
388 

First United States Con- 
gress Against War 
1948 — 150 

1949 — 209, 272, 275, 278, 
324, 329, 336, 367, 
368 
First World Youth Congress 

1948—180 
Fischer 

1949—161 
Fischer, Charles H. 

1951 — 154, 155 
Fischer, Harold H. 
1947 — 8S 
1948 — 358 
Fischer, Louis 
1943 — 19 
1949 — 546 
Fischer, Marjorie 
1945 — 127 
1948 — 389 
Fischer. Lt. S. M. 

1959—176 
F.I.S.E. (See World Fed- 
eration of Teachers) 
Fishbaugh, Earl C, Jr. 

1949 — 601, 60S 
Fisher, Mr. 

1947 — 204 

Fisher, Alice 

194S— 161 

Fisher, Arthur 

1948 — 265, 273 
Fisher, Charles 

1948—299 
Fisher, Clyde 

1948—248 
Fisher, Dorothy Canfield 
1948—109, 199, 228, 278, 

330, 3S9 
1949—457, 488, 499, 505, 
506, 507, 509, 510, 
522, 530, 531, 537 
1953—151, 152, 171 
Fisher, Eugene 

1948- 355 

Fisher, G. Yv. 

1948—16 

1949 — 601 

Fisher, Hans 

1948—378 

Fisher, Prof. Harold M. 

194S— 144 
Fisher, IT. H. 

1948— 32S, 352, 377 



Fisher, Helen M. 

194S— 271 

1949 — 469 
Fisher, Hence 

194S — 195 

1949 — 437 
Fisher, Henry 

1947—151, 163, 164 

1949—691, 696 
Fisher, Prof. Irving 

194S— 271, 327 

1949—468 
Fisher, Jacob 

1948 — 299, 300 
Fisher, Louis 

1949—92 
Fisher, Rachel 

1948 — 299, 300 
Fisher, Ruth 

1948—179 
Fisher, Vardis 

1948—248 
Fisherman, Ida 

1955—389 
Fisherman, Meyer 

1955 — 3S9 
Fishermens Union 

1959 — 94 
Fishier, Beatrice 

1948—146 
Fishman, Wallace 

1948—94 

1949—554 
Fiske, Loring 

1955 — 442, 443 
Fiske. Vocha 

19 47—73 
Fitelson, William 

1948 — 238 
Fitzbutler, James 

1949—557 
Fitzgerald, Albert J. 

1945—148 
Fitzgerald, Alfred J. 

1953—187 
Fitzgerald, Edward 

1959—172, 173, 174 
Fitzgerald, Edward J. 

1 9 5 9 —173 
Fitzgerald, Frank 

1947 — 78, 80 

1949 — 424 
Fitzpatrick, Thomas, Jr. 

194S — 13 
Five Over Club 

19 4 9—438 
Five Year Plan 

1949—19, 87 
Fizriale, Thomas 

1948—254, 279 
Flamholtz, J. A. 

1955—409 
Flamm, Irvan B. 

1949—530 
Flamm, Irving H. 

1949 — 481, 489, 500, 
534, 537 
Flanagan, Hallie 

1943 — 135, 146, 147 

1948 — 199, 278 

1953 — 151 
Flanagan, John 

1948—330 
Flanigan, Alan 

1955—387 
Planner, Charlotte 

1948 — 185 

1953—259 
Flanner, Hildegarde 

1948 — 341 
Flanner, John 

1948 — 94 

1949—554 



273 



Fhinn ry, Harry W. 

1945—15, 17 
Flasher, Jack, Dr. 

1955 — 139, 140, 141, 

170, 171, 172, 

174, 203, 293, 

306, 310, 317, 

Flato, Charles 

1959 — 173, 175 
Flatte, Mrs. Gertrude 

1947 — 71 

1949—422 
Flaxer, Abraham 

1945 — 148, 157, 

1947 — 219 
Flaxer, Abram 

1948—111, 114, 



15S 



151, 



16S, 176, 196, 



149, 

17::, 

305, 
380 



162, 

200, 
352, 



111, 328, 350, 
375, 380, 381, 390 
1949 — 6S8 

1951—59, 60, 92, 93, 261, 
270, 275, 276, 2S1, 
287 
1953 — 3, 64, 125, 127, 128, 
130, 131, 140, 171, 
172, 176, 245, 280, 
281 
1959 — 54, 55 
Flaxer v. United States 

1959—193 
Fledderus, Mary L. 
19 48—228 
1949 — 458 
Fleinert, Martha 

1948 — 184 
Fleischinger, Stefan (see 
also Nelson, Steve) 
1951—236 
Fleisher, Sidney 

1948—240 
Fleishhacker, Mrs. 
Mortimer, Jr. 
1948 — 144 
Fleishman. Stanley 

1951—267 
Fleishman, Sylvia 
1949 — 428, 433 
Fleming, Dema Jane 

1943 — 356, 366 
Fleming, James A. 

1948 — 16 
Flepsio, Carol 

1948 — 179 
Fletcher, Allan L. 
1948 — 226, 343 
Fletcher, Charles D. 

1949 — 179 
Fletcher, Jess 

1949 — 455 
Fletcher, Rev. Joseph F. 
1948 — 322 

1949—481, 489, 500, 504, 
507, 512, 513, 514, 
518, 520, 530, 531 
Fliegel, Edward 
1948—94 
1949 — 554 
Flippin, Mr. and Mrs. 
Robert B. 
1948—194 
Flores, Angel 

1945—126 
Flores, Luis Diaz 

194S — 375 
Florinsky, Michael T. 

1943—218 
Florists Association of 
San Francisco 
1943 — 288 
Flory, Ishmael P. 

—93 
Fluellen, Joel 
1948 — 356 



Flvnn, Elizabeth Gurley 

19 47 — 227 

1948 — 97, 200, 202, 213, 
226, 228, 230, 232, 
247, 266, 328, 34S, 
351, 352, 390 

1949—108, 143, 144, 189, 
291, 300, 306, 449, 



1951- 



451, 457, 458, 523 
264, 284, 



188, 210 



359 
:e also 



-60, 93 
286 

1953—72, 174, 175 

1957—3 

1959 — 124, 12 
Flynn "Tim" 

1949 — 475 
Focus on Youth 

1948 — 183 

1949 — 387, 561 
Foerster, Prof. Frederick 
Wilhelm 

1949 — 481 
Fogarty, Pat 

1947—90 
Fogg, Katharine 

194S — 113 
Foisie, Frank P. 

1943 — 176, 192 
Foley Square Trial 

1951 — 67, 263, 265 
Folk Arts of New China 

1957 — 134, 135 
Folks, Homer 

1948 — 324 
Follman, Norah 

1943 — 138 
Folsom, Franklin 

1948 — 141, 189 
Folsom, Frank 

Oppenheimer, Dr. J. 
Frank) 

1951—234 
Folsom, Prof. Joseph K. 

1949 — 481 
Fonda, Henry 

1948 — 210 
Foner, Morris 

1948—179 
Foner, Philip 

1948—179 

1949 — 429 
Fong, B. S. 

1948 — 144 
Fontaine, Joan 

1948 — 254, 255 
Fontaine, Robert 

1945 — 44 
Food, Tobacco and Agri- 
cultural Workers of 
America 

1948—38, 76, 212 

1949—476, 677 

1955—50 
Foote, Mary 

1948 — 343 
Foote, Michael, M. P. 

1951 — 279 
For a Lasting Peace, for a 
People's Democracy 

1949—99, 101, 106, 125, 
127, 128, 193, 223, 
224, 388, 490, 616, 
617 

1953—239 
For Peace in Asia, the 
Pacific Pcaiotis of the 
World 

1957 — 138 
For the Rescue of Refugees 

1948—368, 166 
For Use of Strike Welfare 
Committees Only 

1955—274 
For Whom the Bell Tolls 

1948—100 



Forbes-Robertson, Diana 

1948 — 234 
"Forced Labor in Soviet 
Union" 

1949—654 
Ford 

1957—80 
Ford, Mr. 

1947—364 
Ford, Ford Maddox 

1948 — 274 

1949 — 471 
Ford Foundation 

19 5 3 — 207 

1955—332, 455 
Ford, James W. 

Jgtl— 153, 244, 245, 266, 
386 

1949—177, 295, 341, 454, 
521 

1953—175, 241 
Ford, John Anson 

19 47 — 185, 186 

1948 — 109, 239, 244 

1949 — 435, 595 

1953 — 128 
Ford, Robert 

1948 — 94 

1949 — 554 
Ford, Hon. Thomas 

llil-lll 181, 351 
Forde, Dr. Welles 

1947 — 239 

1948 — 355 . 

Fordham Law Review 

1949 — 27 
Fordham University 

1949—96 . 
Foreign Affairs 

1949 — 15 „ ., 

Foreign Ministers Council 

4 049 44 

Foreign Policy Association 

1947 — 314 

1949 — 1 5 
Foreign Policy of Nazis 

1P 43 _222, 223 
Foreign Policy of the 
Soviet Union, The 

1949—31 
Foreman, Carl 

194S— 316, 373 
Foreman Clarke 

-1049 — 455, 481, 439, suy, 
503 506, 512, 514, 
519, 525, 529 
Foreman, Leon 

Fore^orTto U. S. Senate 
Subcommittee on in- 
ternal Security Hearing 

1953—122 . 
Forman, Harrison 

1948—198 
Forrest, Mr. 

19 18— 220, 221 
Forrest, Jim 

19 IS— 214 
Forsyth, Margaret 

1948 — 151 
Forsvth, Robert (see 
Kyle Crichton) 

FoVt'iaT, 1 Second Service 
•nand 
1959—103 
Fortier, Lillian S. 

1951—280 . 

Fortieth Club Communist 
Party 
1 IMS— 259 
Fortmueller v. Commis- 
sioner of Immigration 
I 9 19 -246 



274 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



Fortnightly Club, American 
Unitarian Youth, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. 
1948 — 339 
Fortson, Jack 

1953 — 259 
Fortune Survey of Public 
Opinion 
1949 — 661 
Fort-Whitman, Lovett 
1948 — 266 
1949 — 177, 180 
Forty-fourth Street Book 
Fair 
1949 — 450 
Fasburgh, Francis 

1945 — 148 
Fosdick, Rev. Harry 
Emerson 
1948 — 109, 319 
Foss, Bertha Josselyn 

1948 — 327 
Foss, Lukas 

1949 — 481, 489 
Foster, Dorothy 

1953—79, 92, 120, 121 
Foster, Joe 
1947 — 183 
1948—268 
1949 — 464 
Foster, Paul D., Dr. 

1955 — 76 
Foster, Robert Geib 

1947—324, 325, 329, 332, 
342, 344, 345, 353 
Foster, William Z. 

1943—24, 27, 35, 36, 171 

1945—88, 119 

1947—9, 12, 30, 31, 37, 218, 

227, 259, 267 
1948 — 9, 29, 53, 107, 132, 
145, 147, 153, 176, 
212, 220, 221, 226, 
244-247, 266, 343, 
357, 359 
1949—1, 84, 95, 96, 97, 99, 
105, 108, 112, 117, 
119, 124, 128, 129, 
133, 134, 143, 145, 
159, 160, 164, 174, 
177, 178, 180, 185, 
186, 188, 190, 191, 
196, 197, 198, 199, 
215, 223, 230, 231, 
237, 276, 278, 327, 
342, 344, 363, 364, 
442, 451, 467, 487, 
521, 613, 617, 618, 
621, 626, 632, 704, 
1591 
1951 — 20, 21, 94, 153, 190, 

261 
1953—58, 59, 61, 63, 66, 
69, 70, 71, 136, 137, 
138, 140, 152, 157, 
158, 164, 175, 195, 
198, 238 
1955—73, 80, 89, 90, 3S2, 

391, 399 
1957—75, 80 

1959 — 18, 23, 24, 42, 43, 
90, 91, 92, 93, 151, 
181, 182, 185 
Fougerouse, John 

194S— 287 
Foundations of Leninism 
1948—29 

1949 — 25, 190, 192 

Founding of the First 

International 

1949 i9i 

Four Continent Book Corp. 
1948 — 49, 214 
1949—310, 463, 548 
Four Hundred Million 
1948 — 247 



Fourier, Charles 

1945—71 
Fourteen Booklets 

1957—140 
Fourteenth Amendment 

1959 — 197 
Fourth American Writers' 
Congress 
1948—102, 246 
1949 — 467 
Fourth Annual Writers' 
Congress 
1949 — 420 
Fourth Congress of the 
Communist 
International 
1948 — 265 
1953—48 
Fourth Congress of the 
League of American 
Writers 
1948 — 275 
Fourth International 

1957 — 90 
Fourth National Convention 
of the Communist Party 
1948 — 142 
Fourth World Congress 

1953 — 49 
Foutz, Dave 
1948 — 279 
1949 — 691, 696 
Fowler, Cody (President, 
American Bar Associa- 
tion) 
1951—67 
Fowlks, Louis 
1947 — 79 
1949 — 424 
Fox, Clara 
1951 — 267 
1955 — 389, 392 
Fox, David 

1947—211 
Fox, Ernest 
1949 — 451 
Fox, Irvine: David 

1951 — 72, 75, 76, 77, 78, 
79, 81, 82, 89, 175, 
228, 229, 230, 233, 
234 
Fox. Jack 
1951 — 267 
1955 — 389, 392 
Fox, Luba 

1943—134, 145 
Fox, Mary 

1948—179 
Fox, Ralph 

1949 — 191 
Fox, Sidney 
1949 — 481 
Fraenkel, Osmond K. 

1948 — 109, 200, 265, 270, 

327, 331, 351 
1949—541 
1951 — 263 
Fraina, Louis C. 
1949 — 177. 401 
Fram, Faiea 
1943 — 126 
Frame-Up 

1953 — 190 
France 

1943 — 221 
France Nouvelle 

1949—171 
Franchi, Davida Corey 

1943—133, 134 
Franchi, Fred 

1943—129, 130, 132, 135- 
137, 142, 145 
Francis, Bella 

1949 — 428, 433 
Francis, Charles 
1957—28 



Francis, P. 

1949 179 

Francis, Willard Hall 
1948—177 
1951 — 286 
Franco 

1948 — 218, 318 
1949 — 420 
1951—47, 258, 273 
Franco Must Go 

1948 — 217 
Frank, Justin, Dr. 

1955—208 
Frank, Melvin 

1948 — 210, 211 
Frank, Nelson 

1949 — 551 
Frank, Richard 

1951 — 96 
Frank, Waldo 

1945—121, 122, 123, 126, 

127 
1948—96, 132, 143, 179, 
194, 244, 245, 266, 
270, 273, 32S, 338, 
352 
1949 — 471 
1951 — 272, 286 
Franke, Willard E. 

1943—356, 376, 377 
Frankel, J. Allen 
1943 — 125, 158 
1948 — 266, 332 
1949 — 542 
1951 — 267 
1955 — 390 
1959—128 
Frankel, Jack 

1955 — 388 
Frankenstein, Alfred 

1948 — 317 
Frankenstein, Mr. and Mrs. 

1948 — 194 
Frankfeld 

1949 — 325 
Frankfurter, Felix 

1959 — 150 
Franklin. Beniamin 

1947 — 363, 364 
Franklin, Francis 
1948 — 186, 196 
1949—562 
Franklin, Harold 
1948 — 263 
1949 — 696, 697 
Franklin High School, Los 
Angeles 
1955 — 425 
Franklin Institute 

1947 — 363 
Franklin. Prof. Mitchell 
1948 — 271 
1949 — 468 
Franklin v. Nat C. Goldston 
Agency 
1955 — 56 
Franklin, Paul 
1945 — 116, 117 
1948 — 251 
1955 — 446 
Franks, Barney 

1947 — 152 
Frantz, Laurent B. 

1955—384 
Franz Boas Lodge of the 
International Workers 
Order in Los Angeles 
1948 — 158 
Franzbleau, S. 

1955—389 
Franzbleau, Mrs. S. 

1955 — 389 
Fraternal Outlook 
1948 — 49, 225 
1949—388, 467, 545 



INDEX 



275 



Fratis, J. Bruce 

1951 — 264 
Frazier, E. Franklin 

1948 — 1S1, 351 
Frazier, Elizabeth P. 

1949 — 481, 500, 509, 513, 
521, 530 
Frazier, Lynn J. 

1948—196, 248 
Frederick Engels 

1951 — 153 
Frederics, Van 

1948 — 215 
Free German Committee of 
Mexico 

1948 — 119 
Free Indonesian Committee 

1948—218 
Free Italy Society 

1948 — 241, 259 

1949 — 310 
Free Polish Committee 

1949 — 10 
Free Press Publishing Corp. 

1949—548 
Free World Association 

1947 — 190 
Freed, Emil 

1943—135, 159, 160 

1948—214, 223, 343, 384 
Freed, Morris 

1951—267 
Freed, Rose 

1951—267 
Freedom of the Press, Inc. 

1949—545 
Freedom from Fear 
Committee 

1948—35, 61, 239-241 

1949—310, 630 
Freedom Train 

1948—110, 202 

1949—673 
Freeman, Elizabeth 

1948—358, 359 
Freeman, Frank N. 

1948—320 
Freeman, Prof. Frank S. 

1949—481, 510 
Freeman, Harry 

1948 — 270, 328 
Freeman, James 

1951 — 196 
Freeman, Jean 

1948 — 146 
Freeman, Joseph 

1945—119, 121, 



194S- 



127 
-151, 



194, 

333, 



122, 126, 
244, 273, 



1949—471 
Freeman, Martha 

1948 — 185 

1949 — 561 
Freeman. Tex 

1947 — 71 

1949 — 422 
Frees. Ben, Dr. 

1955 — 114, 115, 116, 117, 
123. 126, 132, 211 
Freiberger, Fred 

1948 — 356 
Freidhofer, Hugo 

1947—73 

1948 — 317 
Freiheit 

1948 — 49, 157, 242, 392 

1949—388, 393, 467 

1951—201 

1953—63 
Freitag, Elmer 

1943 — 53 

1949 — 93 
French Commune 

1945 — 82 



French Communist Party 

1 9 47 25 29 

1949—94,' 133, 158, 165, 
170-174 
French Communist Party 
Congress 

1953—232 
French Friends of the 
Chinese People 

1948—144 
French Sardine Company 

1948 — 268 
French, Will 

1953 — 151 
Fresco, David 

1948 — 356 
Freskin, Alex 

1948—214 
Fresno Bee 

1948 — 14 

1949 — 9 
Fresno State College 

1959 — 212 
Freud, Ralph 

1945 — 115, 116, 131 
Friday 

1948 — 225, 342 

1953 — 131 
Friday Morning Club 

1953 — 101 
Frieda, Morris 

1955 — 388 
Frieden, Evelyn 

1953—277, 282 
Frieden, Mayer 

1953 — 259, 277, 278, 2S0, 
282 
Frieden, Meyer 

1947 — 71 

1948 — 184, 185, 188, 190 

1949 — 422, 561, 563, 688 
Friedenrich, David 

1948 — 216 
Friedenthal, Isadore 

1948 — 184 
Friedman, Bob 

1948 — 226 
Friedman, Gustave 

1947 — 89 

1949—425 
Friedman, Julian 

1959 — 172 
Friedman, Max Bernard 

1951 — 78, 79, 228, 229, 230, 
233, 234 
Friedman v. Schwellenback 

1949—572 
Friends of New Germany 

1943—225 
Friends of Progress 

1943—256, 260, 261, 266, 
272 

1949—576 

1951—3 
Friends of Soviet Russia 

1947 — 313 

1948—65. 142, 169, 242- 
244, 267, 357, 376 

1949 — 310, 311, 402, 412, 
4 63 

1959 — 137 
Friends of the Abraham 
Lincoln Brigade 

1948 — 35, 48, 66, 93, 147, 
157, 196, 197, 244, 

1949 — 310, 454, 501, 546, 

553, 556 
195 3—272 
1955—88 
1959—20, 137 
Friends of the Campus 
1948—186 
1949—311, 562 



Friends of the Chinese 
People 
1948—143 
1949 — 311, 384, 563 
Friends of the German- 
American 
1949 — 450 
Friends of the Soviet Union ; 
see also National Coun- 
cil of American-Soviet 
Friendship 
1943—119 
1947—313, 314 
1948 — 35, 65, 123, 145, 169, 
192, 196, 244, 246, 
247, 321, 322, 324, 

1949—274, 278, 284, 310, 
311, 337, 403, 412, 
533, 537 

1951—286 

1953 — 175 

1959 — 137 
Frisselle S. Parker 

1948 — 1G 
Fritchman, Rev. Stephen H. 

1948 — 114, 115, 181, 198, 
200, 208, 211, 241, 
271, 318, 328, 344, 

1949 — 146, 449, 451, 468, 

632-634, 688 
1951—276, 280 
1953—131, 172, 173, 174 
1955—99, 109, 110, 111, 
112, 191, 195, 196, 
306, 326, 327, 329, 
333, 335, 337, 344, 
363, 383, 3S8, 390 
1959—184 
Fritz, Mrs. Bernadine 

1948 — 256 
Fritz, Gerald 

1948—356 
Fritzbutler, James 

1948 — 378 
From 19 16 to March 1917 

1949—192 
From Socialism to Com- 
munism in the Soviet 
Union 
1949 — 192 
From Spring 1918 to 
Spring 1919 
1949 — 192 
From the Bourgeois to the 
Proletarian Revolution 
1949 — 191 
Fromkin, Vicki Landish ; see 
also Landish, Vicki 
1951 — 24, 25, 31, 32, 33 
1953—284 
Front Organizations 

1943 — 101, 102 
Frontier Films 
1947 — 189, 209 
1948 — 52, 96, 129, 247, 370 

371 
1949—312 
Frontier Magazine 

1955—185, 336, 337, 359, 

361, 383, 384 

1959— 1S6 

Frost, C. F. 

1948—343 

Fro.st, Callie 

1953—282 

Frost, Dr. Lowell 

1948 — 109 
Frost, -Airs. Lowell C. 
1948 — 109, 277, 278 
Frunze Military Academy 
i 953 — 2:2 9 
1959 ii9 

L955 L5, 23, 31, 34, 35, 



276 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



Fry, Mrs. Lesie 


Gadar Party 




1943—259 


1953 — 214, 215, 217, 


218, 


Fry, Percival 


219, 220, 222, 


223, 


1943 — 130, 137 


227, 229, 231, 


232, 


Fry, Varian 


241, 242, 243, 


244, 


194S — 333 


245, 246, 272 




Fuchik, Julian 


Gadar Party, California 


1951 — 145, 146, 14S 


1953—2, 214, 216, 219 


220, 


Fuchs Case 


224, 225, 240 




1957—80 


Gadar Party, Hindusta 


n 


1959— 18S 


1953 — 2, 216 




Fuchs, Daniel 


Gadar Party, Indian 




1945—127 


1953 — 221 




Fuchs, Dr. Klaus 


Gadar Party, Panama 




1951—80, 90, 175 


1953 — 222 




1953 — 211 


Gaer, Joseph 




Fuchs, Klaus 


1949 — 481, 500, 514, 


515, 


1955 — 401 


516, 536 




Fuerbach 


Gaeth, Arthur 




1953 — 9 


1949 — 481, 483, 500, 


515, 


Fugler, Merton 


516, 519 




1955—24 


Gag, Wanda 




Fugii, Shugi 


1948—151, 189, 248, 


322, 


1943—154 


328, 352, 389 




Fuhr, Lini 


Gage, Loren 




1949—546 


1943 — 145, 147 




Fuji, Shugi 


1948 — 356 




1951 — 278 


Gailmor, William S. 




Fullbright Award 


1948 — 131, 263 




1959-75 


Gainer, Morris 




Fulton, Kenneth 


1949 — 488, 449 




1947 — 18 6, 239 


Gait her Report 




1948 — 279, 353 


1959—201 




Function of Culture, The 


Galat, Shirley 




1948—311 


1949 — 596 




Fund for the Republic 


Galdieri, Christine 




1959 — 58, 59, 87 


1943 — 284, 308 




Fund Raising Speaker 


Galena Defense Committee 


1948—217 


1948—34 




Fundamental Problems of 


1949—312, 453 




Marxism 


Galens, General 




1949 — 191 


1949—104 




Fundamental of Marxism 


Galileo 




1949—190 


1955—106, 107 




Funk, John 


Gallacher, William 




1947 — 94 


1953 — 241 




Funn, Dorothy K. 


Gallager, Margolis, 




1949—546 


McTernihan and Tyre 


Funt, Dorothy 


1948—177 




1948 — 227 


1951 — 285 




Fur Workers Joint Council 


Gallagher, Edward D. 




1949 — 286 


1948— 26S, 358, 359 




Fur Workers Union 


1949 — 464 




1959—94 


Gallagher, Leo 




Furman, Julius 


1943 — 125, 210, 217 




1943 — 60 


1945—139, 141, 182, 


193 


Furman, Maxine 


1947 — 47, 64, 65, 70 


, 74, 


1943 — 60 


77, 170, 1S8, 


221, 


1948—314, 317 


248, 249 




Furness, Lillian 


194S— 56, 113, 116, 


14S, 


1948 — 151, 277 


153, 165, 194, 


201, 


Furniture Workers of 


215, 244, 254, 


265- 


American, Local 256 


267, 272, 308, 


::22, 


1951—267 


328, 344, 346, 


352, 


Furniture Workers Union 


358, 359, 390 




1959 — 94 


1949—146, 329, 330, 


361, 


Furriers Union 
1949 — 302 


417, 421, 423, 

451, 542, 6S8, 

1951 — 93, 248, 255, 


449, 
691 
259, 


Fuss, Oscar 


260, 265 




1943 — 60, 144, 207, 211, 


1953 — 172, 175 




213, 214, 217 


1959 — 99, 115, 121, 


123, 


1945—148, 182, 193 


124, 127, 128 




1947—47, 70, 101, 236 
1948—375, 3S3 


Gallagher, Mae 
1951 — 230 




1949 — 421 


Gallery, Duncan 
1947—90 




G 


Gallin, Leo 




1947—54, 55 




Gable, Harris 

1948—372 
Gabrielson, John 


Gallion, Dr. Arthur B. 

1948 — 171 
Gallo 

1949 — 555 




1948—377 


Gallo, John 




Gadar News 


1948 — 186, 18S 




1953—222 


1949—562, 563 





Galloway, Marry 

1955 — 388 
Galloway, Mary 

1955—390 
Gallup, Dr. George 

1949 — 661, 665 
Galvan v. Press 

1955 — 61 
Galvin, Jack 

1947 — 306 
Galvin, Joe 

1948— 2S7 
Gambs, James J. 

194S— 16 

1949 — 601 
Gamboa, Fernando 

1951 — 273 
Ganahl, Herbert 

1943 — 217 

1945 — 182 

1948 — 375 

1949 — r>** 
Gandall, Matt 

1948—355 
Gandhi, Mahatma 

1953 — 225 
Gang, Kopp & Tyre 

1955—444 
Gang, Martin 

1955—444 
Ganley, Nat 

1948 — 212 

1949 — 547 
Gannes, Harry 

1948 — 266, 273 
Gannett, Betty 

1948 — 213 

1949 — 618 
Gannett, Lewis S. 

1948 — 145, 170, 247, 
387 
Gannon, Chester F. 

1948 — 16 

1949 — 702 
Gannon, William 

1943—37 
Gans, A. 

1948 — 273 
Gantt, Dr. W. Horsley 

1948 — 322, 328, 352 
Ganz, Dr. Rudolph 

1948 — 271, 311, 317, 

1949—468 
Gaorwitch, Joseph 

1951 — 286 
Garaudy, Roger 

1947 — 106 
Garber, Daniel 

1948 — 330 
Garcia, Dr. Fabian 

1943—124 
Garcia, Rev. Juan 

19 48—185 
Garcia, Marshall 

1948—94 

1949 — 554 
Grrden Grove Neics 

1955—24, 35 
Gardner, Ava 

1948 — 210 
Gardner, Betty 

1955 — 383 
Gardner, Cleve 

1947 — 295 
Gardner, Gene 

1948 — 184 

1949 — 561 
Gardner, Harold 

1948 — 177 

1951 — 286 
Gardner. John 

1949 — 437 
Gardner, Joseph 

1948—151 



277 



Gardner, Leslie 

1948 — 177 

1951 — 286 
Gardner, Lois 

1955—391 
Gardner, Louis 

1955 — 112, 391 
Gardner, Malcolm 

1948 — 280 
Gardner, Philip 

1943 — 60, 93 

1948—268 

1949 — 464 
Gardner, Sam 

1948—141, 170 
Gardner, Virginia 

1943 — 13, 177, 249, 260, 
340, 342, 344, 345 

1949—688 

1955 — 136 
Garfield 

1949 — 629 
Garfield, Fannie 

1947—89, 91 

1949 — 425 
Garfield, John 

1947—179, 190, 239 

1948— 19S, 240, 251, 255, 
358, 382 

1949 — 688 
Garfield, Jules 

1948—96, 97, 151, 377 
Garibaldi American 
Fraternal Society 

1949 — 466 
Garland, Charles 

1948—145 
Garland Fund 

1948—246, 247, 336, 357 

1'j49— 276, 287, 297, 312, 
355, 369, 395, 396 

1951—261 

1953 — 63 
Garland, Gordon 

1953 — 129 
Garland, James A. 

1948—145 
Garland, Walter 

1948 — 378 

1949—109, 556, 557 
Garlin, Sender 

1947—117 

1948 — 102, 266 

1949 — 631 

1955—304 
Garment Workers Union 

1949 — 476 
Garn, Dr. Don C. 

1948 — 16 
Garner v. Board of Public 
Works 

1955—62 
Garrett, Betty 

1948 — 356 
Garriga, Miguel 

1948—151, 244 
Garrigues, Charles H. 

1943 — 151, 153, lot), 158, 
169 
Garrison Films 

1948—247, 248 
Garrison Films Distributors, 
Inc. 

1948 — 247 

1949 — 312 
Garrison III, Mrs. William 
Boyd 

1948—181 
Garry, Charles 

1948 — 163 

1959—124 
Garry, Charles R. 

1955—403, 404 

1959—133, 134 
Gartner, Irvin 

1948—355 



Gartz, Kate Crane 

1943— GO, 266, 269 

1948—109, 116, 151, 152, 
160, 328, 352, 358, 
359 
Garvanza Methodist 

Church (Los Angeles) 

1948— 2S0, 339 
Garvey, Marcus 

1948 — 333 
Garvin, Stella 

1948—227 
Gas and Chemical Workers 
Union 

1959 — 94 
Gaspar, Walter 

1948—16 
Gaspary, Vera 

1948 — 357 
Gastonia Textile Strike 

^q r q 122 

Gates, Dr."caleb F. 

1948—322 
Gates, John 

1948 — 94, 212, 213 

1949 — 108, 144, 179, 487, 
492, 545, 553 

1951 — 269 

1959 — 43, 180 
Gates, Katherine 

1949 — 596 
Gatewood, Ernestine 

1953—248, 266, 267 
Gatov, Paul D. 

1948 — 146, 149 
Gatov, Mrs. Paul D. 

1948—146, 149 
Gaulden, Rose 

1948 — 212 
Gauss, Dean Christian 

1948 — 322, 324 
Gautt, Kathryn 

1948 — 259 
Gavron, Joseph 

1955 — 391 
Gayle, Mrs. Margaret 

1948—163 
Gayle, Rosalie 

1955—391 
Gaylord, Donald F. 

1948 — 377 
Gaynor, Gus 

1948 — 185 
Gaynor, James A. 

1947—202 
Geballe, Ronald 

1951 — 229 
Gebert, Bill 

1948 — 385 

1949 — 414 
Gebert, Boleslaw 

1951—283, 284 

1955—44 
Geddes, Virgil 

1948 — 238, 278, 389 
Geder, Billy 

1947—204 
Geer, Will 

1949 — 4S1, 488, 489, 500, 
501, 508, 513, 515, 
516, 519, 520, 521, 
522, 530, 535 

1951—271 
Geisinger, Fern 

1947 — 117 
Geist, Jack 

1948 — 339 
Geisz, Henry W. 

1948 — 386 
Gelders, Joseph S. 

1948 — 122 

1949—336 
Gelders, Louis 

1949—481 

1951—271 



Gelhorn 

1955 — 308 
Gelhorn, Walter 

1959 — 49, 84 
Gelhorn, Dr. Walter 
1951—261, 263 
1953—177 
Gelhorn, Mrs. Walter 

1953 — 172, 174 
Gellert, Hugo 

194S— 168, 189, 194, 270, 
328 
Gellhorn, Martha 

194S — 389 
Gellhorn, Walter 

1948 — 109, 331, 341 
1949 — 541 
Gelsey, Irwin 

1948—210 
General Electric 

1957—17 
General Strike of 1934 

1943 — 178 
Genser, Joseph 

1955 — 432 
Geneva School of Inter- 
national Studies 
1957 — 89 
George, Mrs. 

1949—646, 647 
George, Ashwell Bureau 

1943 — 359, 373 
George, Daisy 
1948—228 
1949 — 458 
George, Miss Grace 

1949—602 
George, Harrison 
1945 — 96, 87 
1947 — 247 

1948 — 97, 176, 266, 342 
1949 — 178 
1951 — 172, 238 
1953—174, 175 
1955—44 
George, Julia C. 
1947 — 7S 
1949 — 424 
George, Paul 
1948—383 
George Washington 
Battalion 
1948 — 93 
George Washington 
Carver School 
1949 — 312, 453, 455 
Georgian v. Uhl 

1949 — 249 
Gerasimov 

1953—234 
Gerasimov, Sergei A. 

1949 — 494, 497 
Gerber, Aaron T. 

1948—377 
Gerber, Serril 

1948 — 179 
Gerber, Sorrill Leonard 

1955 — 420, 421 
Gerbert, Boleslaw 
1948 — 326 
19 49—540, 545 
Gerbode, Mrs. Frank 

1948—194 
Gerbode, Martha 

1947 — 89, 93 
Gerhard, 

1949—677 

Gerlach, Anthony 

1948 — 268 

1949 — 464 

Gerlach, Fred 

1948 — 339 
Gerlach, Taletha 
1951—278 



278 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



256, 
351 
550, 



145 



383 
702 



German- American 
1948 — 225 
1949—388, 450 
German-American Alliance 

19 43 -242 

1947—44, 246, 254, 260 
German-American Bund 
1943 — 10, 225, 227, 228, 

235, 254, 
1948 — 74, 349, 
1949—90, 296, 
1951 — 212 
1955 — 421, 422 
1959 — 48, 139, 
German-American Labor 
Council 
1949—312, 450 
German Foreign Office 

1945 — 17 
German Ideology, The 

1949 — 191 
German Nazi Bund 

1945—5 
German Republic 

1943—218 
Germany 

1951—197, 212 
Gershwin, George 

1948 — 238 
Gershwin, Ira 

1948 — 211, 251, 252, 317, 

358 
1955—457 
Gershwin, Mrs. Ira 

1948—14, 97, 255, 277, 
278 
Gerson, Simon 

1953 — 282 
Gerson, Simon W. 

1949 — 179, 295, 312, 454, 

524 
1959 — 42, 43, 176 
Gerson ( Simon W.) 
Supporters 
1949 — 312 
Gerson, Dr. T. Percival 
1948 — 170, 358, 359 
Gerson Supporters 

1948 — 34 
Gerstein, Evelyn 

1948 — 278 
Gerstein, Rev. Dr. Louis C. 

1949—481 
Gerth, Ruth 

1947—94 
Gervasi, Mrs. Frank 

1948 — 168 

Gervin, Gloria 

1948—184 

1949 — 561 

Gesange, Sarein 

1948—392 
Gesas, Dr. Arnold 

1948—227 
Gessner, Robert 

1948—97 
Gestapo 
1943 — 220 
1951 — 43, 170 
1959—178 
Gettings, William 

1947 — 96 
Geyer, Lee 

1955 — 426 
Geyer, Lee E. 

1948—244, 351 
Ghioldi, Rodolfo 

1949—181 
Ghosh 

1953 — 234 
Gianera, Rev. William C. 

1953 — 133 
Giani, Teja Singh 

1953—221 
Gianinni, Louis M. 
1951—73 



Gibb, Helen Freeland 

1959 — 184 
Gibbens, C. M. 
1947—241 
1949—436 
1955 — 453 
Gibbons, Ed 
1947 — 50 

1949—602, 614, 637, 
1951 — 245, 254 
Gibbons, H. J. 

1948 — 320 
Gibbons, John 

1949 — 181 
Gibbs, Dorothy 

1948 — 356 
Gibbs, Helen Freeland 

1953 — 252 
Gibbs, Isobel 
1948 — 356 
Gibnev, Sheridan 
1945 — 116 
1948 — 210, 211, 251, 

374 
1951—53 
1955 — 457, 458 
Gibson, Chief Justice 

1955 — 51 
Gibson, Clarence 

1947 — 239 
Gibson, Julie 

1948—183, 356 
Gide, Andre 
1949 — 552 
Gideon's Dirty Linen 

1957 — 28 
Gideonse, Dr. Harry B. 

1951 — 10 
Gideonse, Dr. Harry D. 

1959 — 53, 54 
Gidlow, Elsa 

1948—4-7, 193, 358 
Giedt, Warren H. 

1959—82. 
Giermanski, Katherine 

1949—546 
Giffey, Arthur 

1947 — 156, 157 
Gifford, E. W. 
1947 — 88, 93 
1949—425 
Giggins, Okey 

1948—343 
Gilbert and Sullivan 

1955—228 
Gilbert, Ed 

1945 — 139 
Gilbert, Mrs. Ester 

1948 — 200 

Gilbert, Jane 

1948 — 343 

Gilbert, Jody 

1948 — 97, 356 
Gilbert, Leatrice Joy 

1949 — 481 
Gilbert, Louise 
1947 — 89 
1949 — 425 
Giles, Barbara 
1948 — 340 

1949 — 481, 489, 500, 
508, 516, 517, 
529, 536, 537 
Giles, Gertrude 

1955—428 
Gilhausen, Harry 

1947—71 
Gilhausen, Howard 
1947 — 72 
1949—422 
Gilien, Ted 
1947—73 
1949—428, 432 
1955 — 315, 316 



Gilien, Dr. John 

1949 — 483 
Gillert, Huga 

1948—266 

Gillmor, Ann 

1953—171 

Gillmor, Dan 

1948 — 141, 327 

345 1949 — 491 

Gillmore, Frank 

1948 — 181 
Gilluly, Dr. James 

1948—171 
Gilman, Beryl 

1948 — 196 
Gilman, James W. 

1948 — 95 
Gilpin, DeWitt 

1949 — 547 
Gilson, Ed 

1943 — 382 
Gilwarg, Esther 
276, 1948—228 
1949 — 458 
Gimbel, Mrs. Elinor S. 

1948—113, 168, 227, 230 
1949 — 449, 456, 459 
Ginsberg, M. 
1955—389 
Ginsburg, Dr. H. M. 

1948—16 
Giordano, Dr. Modesto 
1943—284, 302, 303 
Giovannie, Don 

1948—356 
Gitlin, M. 

1955 — 389 
Gitlow, Benjamin 
1943 — 19, 36 
1948 — 10, 243, 247, 266, 

357 
1949—62, 157, 161, 172, 
177, 178, 298, 439, 
450, 608 
1951—11, 12 
1953 — 175 
1959 — 183 
Gitlow v. New York 

1949 — 253, 566, 568, 570, 

579 
1953 — 180 
Gitt, Josiah W. 

1949 — 481, 489, 500, 514, 
532 
Gittell, Dr. 

1947—264 
Giulii, Nicolai 

1953 — 80 
Gius, Cyril H. 

1955—406, 407, 408, 409 
Giviagda Poparna 

1949—181 
Gladstein, Anderson, Res- 
ner, and Sawyer 
1951—29, 135, 161 
Gladstein, Grossman, Mar- 
golis, & Sawyer 
1955 — 49, 50 
Gladstein, Grossman, Saw- 
yer & Edises 
506, 1955—50 
525, Gladstein, Richard 

1947 — 149, 151, 164, 165, 

166 
1948 — 8, 209, 215, 281, 

299, 332 
1949 — 542, 688 
1951 — 135, 161, 260, 264 
1953 — 254, 259, 263, 265, 
266, 267, 269, 270, 
274 
1959—124, 129, 130, 132, 
134, 155 
Gladstein, Mrs. Richard 
1947—164 



INDEX 



279 



Gladstone, Charles 


Glynn, Charles 






1949—688 


1947 — 73 


1948—356 






1951 — 255 


1948 — 62, 209 


Goarwitch, Joseph 






1959 — 23, 109 


1949 — 470, 688 


1948 — 177 






Goldburg, Jesse J. 


Glantz, Lieb 


Goberman, Max 






1948—210 


1947 — 96 


1949 — 481, 489, 


500, 


513 


Golden Book of American 


Glas Noroda 


Goddard, Howard 






Friendship With the 


1948 — 269 


194S— 94, 233 






Soviet Union 


1949 — 181 


1949 — 554 






1948 — 65, 169, 248, 366 


Glaser, Eda 


Goddard, Paulette 






1949 — 313, 412, 533 


1959—176 


1948—210, 250 






Golden, Clinton S. 


Glasgow University School 


Godfrey, Katherine 




1948—247, 320 


of Medicine 


1948 — 378 






Golden, Mark 


1951—164 


1949—557 






1957 — 103 


Glass, Dr. Charles H. 


Godfrey, Yvonne 






Goldenberg, Harold 


1948—16 


1949—547 






1948—215 


Glass, Mrs. Joseph 


Godowskv, Leopold 




Goldenberg, Sybil 


1948—146 


1948 — 311 






1949 — 561 


Glass, Lester 


Goebbels, Dr. 






Goldfarb, Sidney 


1948 — 278 


1943—220 






1955—303, 304 


Glasser, Albert 


1949—61 






Goldfrank, Herbert 


1948—317 


Goeffrion, Victor 






1948—246, 261, 340 


Glasser Case 


1948 — 311 






Goldin, Pauline 


1959 — 188 


Goetschius, Dr. Percy 




1955 — 391 


Glasser, Harold 


1948 — 311 






Goldman, Ben 


1959 — 172, 173, 174 


Goff, Irving 






1948 — 375 


Glassford, R. B. 


1948—213 






Goldman, Bess 


1945 — 119 


1949—556 






1948—146 


Glassman, Sidney 


Goff, Robert 






Goldman, Harold 


1959 — 175, 176 


1947 — 89, 91 






1948—310 


Glazer, Pearl 


1949 — 425 






1955 — 455 


1948—184 


Goggin, Richard 






Goldman, Irving 


1949—561 


1947—241 






1959 — 55, 174 


Glazer, Tom 


1949 — 436 






Goldman, Sol 


1948—392 


Gold, Bela 






1948—352 


Gleason, James 


1959 — 172, 173, 


175 




Goldner, Dr. Sanford 


1948—254 


Gold, Ben 






1948 — 170, 177, 231 


Gleason, Leverett L. 


1945—147 






1949 — 422, 424, 428, 432, 


1948 — 132 


1948 — 107, 151, 


194, 


196, 


434, 438, 460 


1949—549 


200, 244, 


248, 


324, 


1951—57, 255, 286 


Gleason, Lucille 


328, 351, 


352 




1955 — 383, 390 


1948—277, 278 


1949 — 105, 277, 


302, 


545, 


Goldring, Benjamin 


Gleason, Mrs. Russell 


647 






1948—201 


1948—251 


1951 — 56, 275, 


276, 


281 


Goldschmidt, Dr. Alfonso 


Gleichman, Haskell (Hack) 


1953 — 63, 131, 


172, 


173, 


1948 — 248 


1943 — 108 


176, 241 






Goldsmith, Cornelia 


1948—220 


Gold Case 






1948 — 227 


Glendale Police Department 


1959—188 






1949 — 456 


1955 — 104 


Gold, Harry 






Goldsmith, James 


Glendale Sanitarium and 


1951 — 90, 175 






1947—96 


Hospital 


Gold, Dr. Herman 






Goldsmith, Leonard 


1955 — 98 


1948 — 353 






1948—162 


Glenn, Albert E. 


Gold, Michael 






Goldstein, Mrs. Bessie 


1948—95 


1945 — 119, 121, 


126 




1948 — 146 


Glenn, Charlie 


1947—68, 106 






Goldstein, Rabbi Herbert S. 


1955—298 


1948 — 97, 117, 


151, 


194, 


1949 — 481, 530 


Glenn, Elaine 


226, 245, 


270, 


273, 


Goldstein, Jack 


1955 — 298, 302 


278, 338, 


392 




1948 — 94 


Glenn, Elizabeth Leech 


1949—178, 377, 


420, 


471, 


1949 — 554 


1947 — 34, 35, 36, 302 


545 






Goldstein, Rabbi Sidney E. 


Gley, Charles E. 


1953—139, 175 






1948—181, 193 


1948—162 


Goldberg, Anya 






Goldstone, Nat 


Glezos, Manolis 


1948—279 






1947—239 


1949 — 523 


Goldberg, Arthur 






Golla, Louis 


Glick, Robert H. 


1951 — 267 






1947—90 


1948—279 


Goldberg, B. Z. 






Golland, Sam 


Glicksman 


1948 — 196, 323 






1955 — 3S9 


1951 — 48 


1949—538 






Gollobin, Ira 


Glicksman, Jerzy 


Goldberg, Freda 






1948 — 318 


1957 — 62 


1948 — 277 






Golobin, Ira 


Glinski, Blanche 


Goldberg, Jay 






1951—278 


1949—546 


1948—210 






Golschmann, Vladimir 


Glinskv, Vincent 


Goldberg, Lena 






1948—317 


1949—481, 500, 505, 530 


1951 — 267 






1949 — 481 


Glisby, Julieanna 


Goldberg, Leo 






Golstein, Dr. 


1949 — 596 


1947 — 179 






1955 — 315 


Gloecker, Jacob 


1948—198 






Goltz, Bill 


1943—382 


Goldberg, Leon 






1055 — 389 


Glos Ludowy 


1947 — 191 






Goltz, "William D. 


1948—225 


Goldblatt, Harry 






1<14S — 344 


1949 — 124, 179, 181, 388, 


1955—225 






1951—267 


467, 545 


Goldblatt, Louis 






Gomberg, Frances Adams 


Glover, Edmond 


1943—93, 114 






1 f> is — 357 


1948—356 


1947—84, 163 






Gomez, Antonie 


Gluck, Alma 


1948 — 160, 200, 


249, 


328, 


194S — 94 


1948—311 


351, 352, 


390 




1949 — 554 



280 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



Gomez, Manuel 


Gordon, Clark 




Gostin, Irwin 




1948 — 106, 143, 173 


1948 — 350 




1948—184 




1949—177, 471 


Gordon, David A. 




1949—561 




Gomulka, Wladyslaw 


1953—119, 140 




Gotham, C. W. 




1949 — 33, 124 


Gordon, Eugene 




1949 — 437 




Gonnick, Louis 


1945—121 




Gottesman, Frederick A. 


1948 — 220 


1948 — 194, 266, 273 




1948—259 




Gonzalles, Isabella 


1949 — 471 




Gottlieb, Dorothy 




1949 — 548, 625 


Gordon, Senator Frank L. 


1948—228, 230 




Gonzales-Monroy, Jaime 


1947 — 4, 328, 372 




1949 — 458 




1945 — 195 


Gordon Henrietta D. 




Gottlieb, Harry 




1948 — 146, 202, 375 


1949 — 481, 500, 530 




1949 — 4S1, 500, 


505 


Good Soldier, A 


Gordon, Irving 




Gottlieb, Louis E. 




1943 — 264 


1949—428, 433 




1953 — 249, 277, 


279, 28<] 


Goodbye Christ 


Gordon, Joel 




Gottlieb, Victor 




1945—119 


1959 — 173, 176 




1948 — 317 




1948 — 353 


Gordon, Louis 




Gottwald, Element 


Goodlaw, Dr. E. I. 


1948 — 196 




(Clement) 




1948 — 344 


Gordon, Max 




1948 — 66 




Goodlaw, Dr. Edward 


1948 — 343 




1949 — 100, 110 




1955 — 290, 304, 391 


Gordon, Michael 




1953 — 136 




Goodlet, Carelton 


194,;— 104, 210, 276 




Gough, Lloyd 




1947 — S9, 91 


Gordon, Miriam 




1948 — 356 




1948 — 216 


1949—179 




1953 — 104 




1949 — 425, 438 


Gordon, R. A. 




Goularte, Angie 




Goodley, Mrs. William 


194S — 328, 352 




1947—244 




1948 — 355 


Gordon, S. 




Gould, Barbara 




Goodman, Ben 


1949 — 547 




1948 — 188 




1943 — 135, 145 


Gordon, Dr. Wilbert Z. 




1949 — 563 




1948—210, 317 


(Same as Wilbur) 




Gould, Kenneth M 




Goodman, Eooth B. 


1955—98 




1948—196 




1943—189, 176, 192, 193 


Gordon, Dr. Wilbur Z. 




Gould, Morton 




Goodman, Mrs. Gertrude 


(Same as Wilbert) 




1948 — 240, 317 




1948—14 


1955 — 241, 242, 243, 


244, 


1949 — 481, 483, 


490, 494, 


Goodman, Harriette 


245, 246, 247, 


248, 


500, 501, 


504, 506, 


1948 — 185 


249, 250, 251, 


252, 


514, 515, 


516, 522, 


1949—561 


288, 367, 370, 


372, 


530, 532 




Goodman, Irvin 


374, 390 




Gould, Thomas G. 




1948 — 265, 266 


1959 — 125 




1947 — 96 




Goodman, Jack 


Gorham, Thelma Thurston 


Gonzenko Case 




1948 — 377 


19 47—89 




1957—80 




Goodman, Morris 


1949—425 




1959— 1SS 




1948—203 


Gordon, William 




Gouzenko, Igor 




1951 — 280 


1943 — 145 




1947—30, 214, 


216, 310 


Goodman, Rosalie 


Gordon, Dr. William Z. 




1949—95, 654, 




1951 — 280 


1951—267 




1953—55 




Goodman, Sayde K. 


Gorelick, Esther 




1955 — 393, 401 




1947 — 98 


1955 — 389 




Government Print 


ing Office 


194S — 203 


Gorelick, Mordecai 




1959 — 89, 121 




Goodman, Dr. Sidney 


1948 — 238, 276, 278, 


378 


Governor's Island 




1955 — 107, 367 


Gorenfeld, Abraham 




1959 — 103 




Goodrich, Francis 


1955 — 423 




Governor's Office 




1947 — 239 


Gorin, B. S. 




1959 — 26 




194S — 355 


194 3 — 60 




Gow, Esther Allen 




Goodsell, Willvstine, Dr. 


Gorki, Maxim 




1948 — 3 28 




1948 — 199 


1945 — 119 




Gow, James 




1951 — 92, 93 


1948 — 266 




1947 — 106 




1953—151, 171, 172, 176, 


1949—377 




1949 — 481, 490, 


500, 501, 


280, 281 


Gorky, Mr. 




503, 506, 


515, 522, 


Goodson, Murray 


1947—106 




526, 529, 


532, 534, 


1949 — 542 


Gorlich 




535 




Goold, Rev. Arthur T. 


1948—203 




Gowen, Emmett 




1948—392 


Gorman, Francis J. 




194S — 389 




Goolsby, A. B. 


1948 — 179, 244, 248, 333 


GPU 




1948 — 62 


Gorman, John 




1949 — 645 




1949—470 


1948 — 337 




Grabel. Terry 




Goorwitch, Joseph, Dr. 


Gorman, Stella 




1948 — 186 




1951—267 


1948 — 337 




1949 — 562 




Goosner, Helen 


Gorney, Jay 




Grace, John G. 




1951—267 


1948 — 97, 189, 215, 


256, 


1947—94 




Goossens, Eugen 


317 




Grachew, Alexander P. 


1948—317 


1949 — 481, 4S9, 500, 


503, 


1948 — i7i 




Gorbaeheff, Theodore 
1947—89, 91 


504, 530 
1951 — 271 




Grad, David 




1949 — 425 


Gorney, Sondra 




1949 — 383 




1953—252 


1947 — 72 




Grady, John G. 




Gordis, Robert 


1948 — 343 




1945 — 18 




1948 — 320, 321 


Gorodnitzkv, Sascha 




Graef, Hugo 




1949 — 500, 509 


1948 — 311 




1948 — 384, 385 




Gordon, Aaron 


Goshal, Kumar 




1949 — 3is 




1947—96 


1959—185 








Gordon, Dr. Asher 


Goshal, Kumor 




Grafe, Paul 




1948 — 216 


1947 — 83 




1945 — 18 




Gordon, Bernard 


Gosman, Mollie 




Graff, Fred 




1948 — 374 


1955—391 




1948—356 





INDEX 



281 



Graham, Charles 


Graze, Stanley 


Green, Gilbert 


1949 — 481, 490, 500, 512, 


1959 — 172, 174, 176 


1951 — 183 


514 


Great Britain 


1953 — 71, 174, 19S 


Graham, Dr. Frank P. 


1943 — 220 


Green, Howard J. 


1948—114, 151, 199, 319, 


Great Conspiracy Against 


1948 — 255 


334, 335 


Russia, The 


Green, J. T. 


Graham, Garrett 


1948 — 326 


1948 — 259 


194S — 374 


1949—539 


Green, John 


Graham, Jack 


Great Globe Itself, The 


1948 — 248, 251, 252, 255, 


1948—339 


1949 — 654 


257, 310, 317 


Graham, John A. 


Great Madness, The 


Green, Mark 


1948 — 16 


1948 — 245 


1948—16 


Graham, Lee 


Great Pretense 


Green, Paul 


1948 — 356 


1957 — 97 


1948 — 261 


Graham, Dr. Malbone 


Great Retreat, The 


1949 — 172 


1948 — 171 


1949 — 654 


Green, Mr. and Mrs. Robei 1 


Graham, Martha 


Great San Francisco 


Miller 


194S— 310 


General Strike, The 


1948—182, 184, 185 


Graham, Shirley 


1945—156 


1949—560 


1949 — 481, 483, 490, 491, 


Great Swindle, The 


Green, Sidney 


500, 501, 509, 514, 


1953 — 188 


1953 — 79, 86, 87, 88, 89, 


515, 516, 517, 518, 


Greater Boston Committee 


90, 91, 98, 106, 107, 


519, 522, 523, 525, 


for the Boycott of Jap- 


121, 124, 125 


526, 527, 535, 536 


anese Goods 


Green, Stuart 


Grajdanzev, Andrew 


1948—115 


10 17—203 


1959 — 175 


Greater Boston Peace Strike 


Green, William 


Granata, Lillian 


Committee 


1947 — 87 


1948 — 259 


1948 — 334, 335 


Greenbaum, Betty 


Grandall, Sgt. William 


Greater Germany 


1948 — 214 


1959—176 


1943 — 221 


1949 — 463 


Grange 


Greater New York Commit- 


Greenbaum, Isidore 


1949 — 437 


tee for Employment 


1948—214 


Granger, Lester 


1949 — 313 


1949 — 463 


1948—193, 375 


Greater New York Emer- 


Greenbaum, Morris 


Granich, Max 


gency Committee Con- 


1948—261 


1948 — 198, 270 


ference on Inalienable 


1949 — 463 


Grant, Alfred 


Rights 


Greenbaum, Pearl 


1943 — 145 


1947 — 210 


1943 — 145 


Grant, Ann 


1948 — 61, 112, 121, 122, 


Greenberg, Annette 


1951 — 267 


319, 320, 334 


1953—283 


Grant, David 


1949 — 313, 440, 452, 507 


Greenberg, Bob 


1948 — 186, 214 


Greater New York Emer- 


194S— 340 


1949 — 383, 563 


gency Conference on 


Greenberg, Carl (L. A. 


1951 — 267 


Inalienable Rights 


Examiner) 


Grant, Howard 


1953—176 


1948—332 


1948 — 249 


Grebanier, Dr. Bernard 


1949 — 542 


Grant, Samuel A. 


1951—10 


Greenberg, Dr. Fred 


1948 — 94 


Greece 


1948—344 


1949 — 554 


1943 — 221 


Greenberg, Jack 


Granville, Amelia 


Greek-American Committee 


1943—60 


1949 — 437 


for National Unity 


1948—332 


Graphic Arts Workshop 


1949 — 313 


1949—542 


1949 — 425, 434 


Greek-American Committee 


Greenberg, Joseph 


Gratch, Libby 


for the Defense of the 


1955 — 389 


1947 — 90 


Rights of Foreign-Born 


Greenberg, Rabbi Leonard 


Grattan, C. Harley 


1955 — 388 


1955 — 390 


1948 — 196 


Greek- American Council 


Greenberg, Michael 


Grau, Gilbert 


1949 — 274, 313 


1959 — 172 


1948—317 


Greek- American Tribune 


Greenberg, Robert 


Graubard, Dr. Mark 


1949 — 467 


1953—278 


1959—45, 46 


Green 


Greenberg, Simon 


Grauer, Ben 


1957 — 80 


1948 — 320, 321 


1948 — 263 


Green, Abner 


Greenburg, Jack Carl 


Grauman, Jacob 


1950 — 279 


1948 — 332 


1959—173, 174, 176 


Green. Archie 


1949 — 542 


Graves, Elsa 


1947 — 89 


Greene, Audrey M. 


1948 — 187 


1949 — 425 


1955 — 391 


1949 — 563 
Gravf-s. Mortimer 


Green, Bettv McGregor 
1949 — 561 


Greene, E. P. 

1948—198 


194S — 169, 170, 324 


Greenfield, Alice 


1949 — 412 


Green, Buddy 


194S — 375 


Graves, William S. 


1948 — 214 


Greenfield, E. C. 


1948 — 170, 248 


Green, Dave 


1948—383 


prawoig, Shirley 


104P — 545 


Greenfield, Rabbi Ernes! E. 


194S — 184 


Green, E. P. 


1948—198 


Gray, George 


1953 — 175 


Greenhill, Jack 


1953—259 
Pray, Herman A. 
1948—331 


Gr. en. Elizabeth 
1948—339 


19 IS— 279 

Groenhoot, Bob 

1948 — 357 


1949—541 

Gray, Mrs. Mabel 


Green, Frank 

1947—71, 241, 303 


Greenschpoon, Kate 
1948 — 170 


1949 — 438 


19 is— 63 


Gray, Rose Mario 


1949—422, 435, 470 


Greenslet, Ferris 


1948—220 


Green, Gil 


1948— ::::o 


Gray, Shirley 


1948—181, 182, 212 


Greenspahn, Lou 


1949—542 


1949—145, 177, 560 


1955 — 446 



282 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



Greenwich Village Civil 
Rights Congress 

1949 — 446 
Greenwich Village Mass 
Meeting for Peace 

1948—392 
Greenwood, Frank 

1951—29 
Greenwood, Jeanette 

1951—229 
Greer, Rev. Owen M. 

1948—241 
Gregaric, Almon 

1948—94 

1949 — 554 
Gregg, Bishop J. A. 

1948 — 201 

1949 — 449 
Gregg, Joseph 

1959 — 174 
Gregg, Ulysses 

1953 — 112 
Gregoric, Nick 

1947 — 89, 91 

1949 — 425, 429, 431 
Gregory, Horace 

1945 — 119, 121, 126 

1948 — 248, 270, 273 

1949—471 
Gregory, Todd 

1948 — 311, 312 
Gregory, Mrs. Warren 

194S— 145 
Gregovich, Lee 

1943 — 60 
Grenell, Horace 

194S— 270. 392 
Grennard, Eleanor 

1948 — 146, 148 

1949 — 688 
Grennard, Elliott 

1947—73 

1948 — 148 

1949—688 
Grey, Shirley 

1947—72 
Gribben, Vincent C. 

1957 — 142 
Griffey, Arthur A. 

1947—155 

1948 — S. 281, 282 
Griffin, Dr. Edna L. 

1955—383 
Griffin, Jacqueline 

1953 — 255 
Griffin, Kathleen 

1948—185, 195 
Griffin, Noah 

1947 — 241 

1949 — 435 
Griffith, D. W. 

1949—552 
Griffith, Dr. Edward F. 

1947 355 

Griffith, Kitty ; see also 

Stewart, Kitty Griffith 

1951 — 206 
Griffith, Lawrence R. 

1943—250, 251, 258, 26C 
Griffith, Thomas L. 

1947 — 96 

1948—254 
Grijalva, Mrs. Bebe 

1955—383 
Griner, Don 

1947 — 151 
Grissell, Bob 

1947 — 239 
Griswold, Dean Erwin 

1959—188, 197 
Griswold, Dr. 

1957 — 45, 46 
Grobstein, Mrs. A. J. 

1948—279 



Grobstein, B. 






1947—185 






Grobstein, Harry 






1947 — 239 






Grommet, Alice 






1955 — 391 






Gromyko, Andrei 






1948 — 177, 353 






1949 — 48. 107 






1951 — 286 






Gromvko, Xenia 






1948 — 177 






1951 — 286 






Gropper, Mrs. Sophie 




1948 — 227 






1949 — 456 






Gropper, William 






1945—119 






1947—183 






194S— 97, 132, 


141, 


151, 


159, 163, 


168, 


176, 


189, 196, 


208, 


248, 


261, 270, 


310, 


340, 


353 






1949—467, 481, 


486, 


488, 



490, 498, 501, 50 r >, 

506, 508, 509, 510, 

513, 514, 516, 517, 

520, 521, 522, 523, 

525, 528, 530, 533, 

534, 535, 536. 537 

1951—58, 60, 235, 271, 272 

1953—132, 172, 173, 174, 

175 

Grosbauer, Leslie A. 

1948—4, 5, 7 
Gross, Chaim 

1949 — 481, 500, 504. 505, 
509, 514, 530, 535, 
536, 537 
Gross, Eddie 
1948 — 343 
Gross, Milton 

1951—229 
Grossman, Aubrey 
(Mr. and Mrs.) 
1943 — 60, 86, 99, 176 
1947—78, S3, 92, 100, 103, 
104, 189, 211, 212, 
221, 227, 255, 256 
1948 — 147, 213, 236, 265, 

332, 377 
1949 — 147, 424, 542, 688, 

691, 692 
1951 — 263, 264 
1955 — 327, 328 
Grossman, Aubrey 

1959 — 124, 129, 130, 131, 
132, 134 
Grossman, Mrs. Foley 

1948—151 
Grossman, Hazel 

1947 — 78, 79, 83, 84, 89- 

92, 100, 104, 211 
1948—236, 343 
1949 — 424-426, 429, 430, 

1951 — 277 
Grossman, Hyman 

1949 — 464 
Grossman, Jack 

1955 — 389 
Grossman, Mrs. Jack 

1955—389 
Groth, Alexander 

1947—72 

1948 — 177 
Groth, Alexandria 

1951 — 286 
Groth, John 

1948 — 196 
Grotz, Paul 

1949 — 481 



Group Theater 

1948 — 52, 105 

1949 — 314 
Group Theatre 

1959—110 
Grove, John 

1951—230 
Grover, Bertha 

1948 — 220 
Grover, Bob 

1948—220 
Groza, Petru 

1949 — 116, 117 
Gruen, Eddie 

1943 — 85 
Gruen, Sonia 

1959—176 
Gruenberg, Louis 

1948 — 330 
Gruenberg, Maurice 

1948—356 
Gruenberg, Mrs. Sidonie M. 

1948 — 227, 228 

1949 — 456, 458, 481, 489, 
500, 505, 513, 531 
Gruening, Ernest 

1948 — 247 
Gruilow, Leo 

1948 — 326 

1949 — 540 
Grumet, Donna and Leonard 

1949 — 429, 430 
Grundfast. Leo 

1948 — 184 
Grunsfeld, Ernest A., Jr. 

1949 — 481, 500, 504, 509, 

512, 518 
Grutman, David 

1947 — 185 
Gruver, Ada 

1949—596 
Gsovski, Vladimir 

1943 — 29, 31 
Guerard, Albert 

1959—184 
Guerard, Dr. Albert 

1948 — 216 
Guerrin, Judge Arthur 

1H59 — 99 
Guggenheim Jet Propulsion 
Center 

1957—130 
Guggenheimer, Mrs. J. C. 

1948—266 
Gugler, Eric 

1948 — 330 
Guidera, Mathew G. 
1943 — 61, 77, 176-178, 180, 
182, 184, 1S5, 188 
Guiding Light Bureau 

1943 — 373 
Guido, Musto 

1943—302 
Guild Bulletin, The 

1948 — 128 
Guilford, Jack 

1949 — 481, 490, 500, 504, 

513, 514, 515, 523, 
532 

Guinier, Ewart G. 

1948 — 339 

1949 — 449 
Guinea Pigs No More 

1943—103 
Gukowsky L. 

1948— 26S 

1949 — 464 
Gulotta, Frances 

1948 — 188 

1949 — 563 
Gundlach, Dr. Ralph 

1957—11 



283 



Gundlach, Prof. Ralph H. 


Haggerty, (Regent, U. 


C.) 


Halperin, Maurice 




194S — 328, 377 






1951 — 74 




1959—172, 174 




1951 — 56, 60, 93 


, 97, 


101, 


Haggerty, C. J. 




Halpern, Ida 




153, 154, 


158, 


159, 


1947 — 80 




1951—286 




160, 231, 


272, 


275, 


Hague, Al 




Halpern, Ray 




281 






1948 — 311, 313 




1948—220 




1953 — 139, 172, 


176, 


201, 


Hahn, Mr. 




Halpert, Ruth 




204, 205, 


206, 


256, 


1955 — 106 




1947—72 




280, 2S1 






Hahn, (Dean, U. C. L. 


A.) 


Halprin, Anna 




Gundorov, Lt. Gen. 






1951 — 113, 114, 116 




1947 — 179 




Alexander 






Hahn, Milton E. 




Halprin, Leahn J. 




1949 — 413 






1957 — 5, 8, 9, 13, 14 


, 16- 


1947 — 179 




Gunther, Blair F. 






30, 116, 118 




Halprin, M. A. 




1949 — 414 






Hahn, Whittier 




1947—179, 239 




Gurev, Lucille 






194S— 220 




1948 — 355 




1955—421 






Haieg, Al 




Halsey, Margaret 




Gurllain, Robert 






1943—167 




1949 — 481, 500, 506, 


509, 


1957 — 126 






Halberstadt, Ernst 




510, 514, 516, 


517 


Gurmukh Singh 






1949 — 481 




Hama, Carl 




1953 — 223, 244 






Halberstadt, Milton 




1947—77 




Gusick, Jon 






1947 — 89, 91 




1949 — 423 




194S — 356 






1948 — 425 




Hamburg, Alice 




Gussev, S. 






Haldane Club 




1953 — 248, 249, 250, 


251, 


1949 — 172 






1947 — 41 




252, 253, 255, 


259, 


Gustafson. Mrs. C. 


V. 




1951 — 86 




276, 2S0, 282 




194S — 277 






Haldane, J. B. S. 




Hamburg, Mr. and Mrs. 


Sam 


Gustafson, Elton 






1949—181 




1948 — 194 




1959 — 55 






Hale, Annie Riley 




Hamilton, Dr. A. J. 




Gutekunst, George 






1948 — 358, 359 




1947 — 352 




1947 — 152, 163-165 




Hale, Gus 




Hamilton, Bob 




Guthrie, Andrew 






1948 — 212 




1948 — 1S5 




1951 — 229, 230 






Hale, Richard 




1949 — 561 




Guthrie, Woody 






1948 — 356 




Hamilton, James Shelley 


194S — 343, 392 






Hale, Robert L. 




1948 — 278 




1949 — 548 






194S — 265 




Hamilton, Maynard 




Guyler, Alvin R. 






Halich, S. 




194S — 106, 160 




1948 — 375 






1955 — 389 




Hamlett, Dr. Howard 




Guvot, Raymond 






Hall, David 




1948 — 344 




1949 — 173 






1949 — 481 




Hamlin, Prof. Talbot 




Gvorak, Mic 






Hall, Golda 




1949— 4S1, 500, 525, 


530 


1948 — 269 






1947 — 89 




Hamline University 




Gwathmey, Robert 




194S — 425 




1957 — 16 




1949 — 481, 490, 


500, 


503, 


Hall, Gus 




Hammer, Al 




505, 508, 


514, 


517, 


1949 — 145 




1955 — 338 




519, 522, 


525, 


527, 


1959 — 151 




Hammer, Alain 




529, 534, 


535, 


536, 


Hall, Martin 




1948 — 356 




537 






1948—357 




Hammer, Arthur 




Gyssling, Dr. Georsre 




1955 — 176, 177, 178, 


179, 


1948 — 17 




1943 — 239 






ISO, 181, 1S2, 


184, 


Hammer, Lou 




1945 — 12 






1S5, 186, 292, 
306, 323, 326, 
341, 353, 361, 


294, 
340, 
362, 


1948 — 17 
Hammerstein, Eugene 
1951—119 




H 






384, 387 
1959 — 125 




Hammerstein, Oscar 
1948—240, 241, 250, 


256, 


H. J. Heinz Company 




Hall, Otto 




263, 392 




1959 — 134 






1949 — 177, 180 




1949 — 543 




H.O.G. (Armenian Group) 


Hall, R. A. 




Hammett, Dashiel 




1949 — 315 






1948—5 




1945—128 




Haas, Lillian 






Hall, Rob 




1947—313 




1955 — 300 






1957 — 78, SO 




104N— 96, 97, 113, 


141, 


Haas, Nell 






Hall, Robert F. 




163, 200, 226, 


234, 


1953—125, 126 






1948 — 233, 343 




239, 244, 248, 


310, 


Hacker, Louis 






1949—119, 545 




327, 32S, 351, 


377, 


1948—179 






Hall, Robin 




391 




Hackett, Albert 






1948—5, 7 




1949—146, 448, 449, 


456, 


1947 — 179, 191 






Hall, Ruth Anna 




481, 490, 498, 


502, 


Hackett, Frances 






1955 — 177 




506, 507, SOS, 


509, 


1947 — 179 






Hall, Sidney 




510, 511, 512, 


517, 


Hadsell, Miss Geraldine 


194S— 4, 5 




519, 523, 525, 


6SS 


1948 — 16 






Hall, Dr. Victor 




1951 — 56, 58, 60, 92 


, 93, 


Hagberg, Gene 






194S— 185 




264, 271, 272, 


275 


1943—61, 63, 22! 


5, 230 


, 231 


Hall-Gardner Bureau 




1953—171, 172, 174, 


176, 


Hagedorn, H. 
1948 230 






1943 — 360, 373 




2S0, 281 








Hallas, G. 




Hammett, J. W., Jr. 










1955—389 




1948—339 




Hageman, E. I. 






Hallgren, Mauritz 




Hammond, John 




1959 — 104 






1945—127 




1948 — 311 




Hagen, Uta — see also 




Halliday, John 




Hammond, John, Jr. 




Ferrer, Uta Hagen 




194S — 356 




194S— 392 




1948—210 






Hailing, Bjorne 




1949 — 548 




1949—48, 489, 


490, 


500, 


19 17 — 90 




Hammond, Marion 




502, 504, 


505, 


508, 


Halloran, John 




1948 — 215 




514, 515, 


524, 


529, 


1943—168-169 




Hammond, Rev. P. W. 




531, 534, 


535 




Halper, Albert 




1948 — 377 




1951—271, 272, 


275, 


2S0, 


1948—248, 274 




Hampton, Ray 




281 






1949 — 471 




1943—322 





284 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



Han, Dr. Yu-Shen 






Hardyman, Hugh 


1943 — 322, 324, 


338 




1948 — 109, 116 


Hanchett, Clara 






1949—688 


1947 — 90 






1951 — 280, 281 


Hanck, Ethel 






1959 — 185 


1953—259 






Hardyman, Susan J. 


Hancock 






1948 — 177 


1955 — 199 






1951 — 286 


Hancock, Hershel 






Hare, Marie 


194S— 259 






1948 — 317 


Hancock, Patrick 






Hares, Gladys 


1955 — 402, 403 






1947 — 89, 91 


Hancock, Patrick Thomas 


1948 — 425 


1959 — 203 






Hariet Tubman Communist 


Hancock v. Burns 






Party Club 


1959 — 203-206 






1948 — 214 


Hancock, Walker 






Harisiades, Peter 


194S— 330 






1948 — 204 


Hand, Learned 






1949—109 


1948 — 324 






Harkavy, Minna 


Handbook of Marxism 




1948 — 261 


1949 — 78, 191 






1949—481, 487, 488, 499, 


Handelman, Howard 




501, 504, 505, 510, 


1955 — 284 






514, 515, 520, 521, 


Handelsman, Wm. 


D. 




522, 523, 530, 532, 


1948—282, 292 






534, 535, 537 


Handler, Ada 






Harkbeck, Hubert 


1949 — 423 






1953 — 153 


Handy Dorothy 






Harknes, Mr. 


1948 — 377 






1947 — 364 


Hanlon, Bert 






Harkness, Prof. Georgia 


1948 — 356 






1949 — 481, 500, 518, 531, 


Hanman, Bert 






532 


194-!— 37-39, 61 
Hanman, Bert L. 






Harkness, Henry O. 
1949 — 437 


1951 — 102, 104, 


127, 


137, 


Harlan, Hugh 


164, 165, 


166, 


167, 


1943 — 139, 150 


168 

Hanns, Eisler Branch 




Harley, Dr. J. Eugene 
1948 — 171 


1948 — 224 






Harlow, S. Ralph 


Hanoff, Elmer 






1948 — 248 


1943—37 






Harman, Rose 


Hansborough, Ray 






1943 — 217 


1948—213 






1945 — 182 


Hansen, Colonel 
1949—555 






Harnden Exp. Co. 

1949—253 


Hansome, Mariua 






Harnish, Charlotte 


1953 — 153 






1948 — 375 


Hanson, (Regent U. C.) 


Harop, Louis 


1951 — 79 






1947 — 237 


Hanson, Clarence M. 




1948 — 119 


1949—596 






Harper, Prof. Fowler 


Hanson, Joe 






1955—314, 315 


1943 — 39 






Harper, Mrs. Fowler V. 


Hanson, Howard 






1955 — 316 


1948 — 311, 317, 


390, 


391 


Harper, Manley H. 


Harbans Singh 






1953 — 153 


1953 — 223 






Harpers 


Harbor General Hospital 


1957 — 106 
1959 — 54 


1955 — 98 






Harriman, Mrs. Borden 


Harburg, E. Y. 






1948 — 322, 324 


1948—116, 202, 


251, 


252, 


Harrington, James 


254, 258, 


279, 


330, 


1945—71 


392 






Harrington, Hal 


1949 — 481, 484, 


490, 


500, 


1949—437 


509, 510, 


512, 


513, 


Harris, Al 


514, 515, 


518, 


527, 


1947 — 146, 158 


531, 543, 


688 




1948—285, 300, 308 


1951—53, 271, 280 




Harris, Daniel 


Harby Councilman 




1947—77 


1949 — 611, 612 






1948 — 436 
Harris, Ed and Mrs. 


Hardgrove, Robert 




1947 — 77 


1948 — 195 






1948 — 146 


Harding, John 






1949 — 423 


1951 — 230 






Harris, Franklin E. 


Hardy, George 
1947—79, 90 






1948—248 
Harris, Prof. Frederick P. 


1948 — 249 






1949 — 481 


Hardy, Howard 






Harris, Judge George 
1951 — 179 


1948 — 233 






Harris, Gerald, Sr. 


Hardy, Jack 






1948—162 


1948 — 270 






Harris, Harvey 


1949 — 179 






1948—17 



Harris, Herb 

1943—128 
Harris, Jack Sargeant 

1959—174, 176 
Harris, Janet 

194S — 281 
Harris, Jed 

1948—188 
Harris, Joe 

1947—151, 163 

1948—285 
Harris, John L. 

1947—12, 171, 172 
Harris, Lem 

1948 — 213, 244, 333 

1949 — 189 
Harris, Mrs. Lawrence 

1948—144 
Harris, Lement 

1949 — 456 
Harris, Lou 

1947—239 
Harris, Louise 

1947—185 

1948 — 251, 255 
Harris, Milton 

1948—146 
Harris, Roy 

1948 — 311, 330, 357 

1949—511, 514, 523, 528, 
530 
Harris, Dr. Roy E. 

1949 — 481, 490, 500, 504, 
509 
Harris, Thomas L. 

1947—72, 89 

1948 — 170, 171, 322, 323, 

1949—425, 538 
Harris, Vera 

1948—249, 310 
Harrison, Caleb 

1948 — 242 
Harrison, Chas. Yale 

1945 — 119 
Harrison, Gilbert 

1953—101 
Harrison, Heber Glen 

1955 — 424, 425 
Harrison, Michael 

1949—428, 432 
Harrison, Pauline 

1948 — 179 
Harrison Senior High 
School, New York 

1953—271 
Harrison, Shelby M. 

1949 — 481, 500 
Harrison, "Wm. 

1948 — 163 

1949—547 
Harry Bridges 

1948 — 133 
Harry Bridges Defense 
Committee 

1948—96, 147, 248, 253 

1949 — 314 

1953 — 280 
Harry Bridges Victory 
Committee 

1948—56 

1949—314 
Harry Carlisle Defense 
Fund 

1955 — 3S9 
Harry's Barbecue Drive-in 

1948 — 343 
Hart, Henry 

1945 — 121, 126, 127 

1948—194, 244 
Hart, Henry Hersch 

1955 — 452 
Hart, Marian 

1948—194 

1949 — 549 



285 



Hart, Moss 

1948—210, 240, 241, 262, 
322 
Hart, Pearl M. 

1948 — 93, 95, 114, 211, 
226, 265, 272, 328, 
332 377 

1949— 48l| 488, 490, 499, 
502, 504, 506, 508, 
512, 514, 517, 518, 
541 
Harte, Robert 

1953—41 
Hartford, Claire 

1949 — 428, 434 
Hartford, Ken 

1947 — 96 
Hartford, Kenneth 

1949 — 428, 432 

1959 — 125 
Hartford, Kenneth (Ken) 

1955 — 112, 198, 199, 200, 

201, 202, 203, 204, 

205, 269, 306, 309, 

312, 316, 367, 383 

Hartley, "Walter E. 

1948 — 171 
Hartman, Arthur 

1948—311 
Hartman, Bishop Lewis 

1948 — 115 
Hartman, Don 

1948 — 251, 255 
Hartman, Jacob W. 

1948 — 142 
Hartman, Paul 

1951—287 
Hartung, Frank E. 

1949 — 481, 500, 536 
Harvard Department of 
Pediatrics 

1955—107 
Harvard Medical School 

1955—151, 160 
Harvard University 

1948—100 

1949 — 476, 495 

1959 — 53 
Harvard University, Gradu- 
ate School of Education 

1953—151 
Harvard University, Law 
School 

1959 — 188, 197 
Harvard University, 
President of 

1951 — 67 
Harvath, Ralph 

1948 — 306 
Harvey, Arthur J. 

1949 — 449 
Harvey, George 

1945 — 148 

1948—312, 314 
Harvey, John 

1951 — 193, 196 
Harvey, Ken 

1948—356 
Harwayne, Francis 

1953—282 
Harwayne, Martin 

1953—277, 279, 282 
Hashimoto, Kuyohi 

1943—350 
Hasiwar, Henry E. 

1948—13, 337 
Haskell, Dr. Harold 

1947 — 239 

1948—355 
Haskell, Oliver 

1948—151 

1953—91, 105, 106 
Bass. George 

1948—221 



Hassell, Carolyn 

1948 — 185 

1949—561 
Hassid, Professor, and 
Mrs. W. Z. 

1948 — 194 
Hassier, Mr. and Mrs. John 

1948 — 194 
Hastings College of Law 

1948 — 95 

1951—264 
Hatchard, Chas. 

1948 — 377 
Hathaway 

1951 — 9 
Hathaway, Clarence 

1953 — 172, 174, 175, 241 
Hathaway, Clarence A. 

1945 — 121 

1947 — 68 

1948 — 97, 151, 176, 181, 
194, 244, 245, 266, 

1949—178, 180, 365, 420 
Hathawav, Henry 

1949—437 
Hathaway, Marion 

1948—271, 278, 328, 375 

1949—488, 490, 504, 512 
Hathway, Professor Marion 

1949—468, 481, 499, 509 
Hatkin, Mrs. Dora 

1948—146 
Haufrect, Herbert 

1948 — 392 
Haushofer, Dr. Karl 

1955—400 
Havil, John 

1948—215 
Havenner, Frank R. 

1947 — 89, 93 
Hawaii Civil Liberties 
Committee 

1949 — 314 
Hawaii Civil Rights 
Congress 

1955 — 388 
Hawaiian Constructors 

1945 — 7, 19-27 
Hawaiian Islands Commu- 
nist Party, Secretary 

1951 — 196 
Hawes, Bess 

1948 — 392 
Hawes, Elizabeth 

1948—327 
Hawkins, Augustus F., 
Assemblyman 

1949 — 421, 424, 436, 478, 
557, 688 

1951—255 
Hawkins, Professor David 

1949 — 481 
Hawkins. Rev. Elrler G. 

1949 — 481, 500, 503, 508, 
509, 519 
Hawley, Betty 

194S — 226 
Haws. Elizabeth 

1948 — 226 
Hawthorne, Richard 

1955—305 
Hax, Mav 

1948—5 
Hay, Harry 

1949—428, 542 
Havden, Holden 

1955 — 402, 403 

1959 — 203 
Havden, Sterling 

1948—211 
Havdon, A. Eustace 

1949 — Kfi2 
Hayes, Alfred 

1948—274 

1949—471 



Hayes, Arthur Garfield 

1953 — 172, 175 
Hayes, Ellen 

1948—266 
Hayes, Rev. G. L. 

1955 — 111 
Hayes, Helen 

1948 — 263 
Hayes, Dr. J. H. 

1948—202 
Hay ford, Jane L. 

1949—481 
Haynes, Jackson 

1948 — 94 

1949—554 
Haynie, Annie 

1949 — 437 
Hays, Aline Davis 

1948—114, 163, 277, 278, 
328 359 
Hays. Arthur Garfield 

1948 — 96, 107, 109, 110, 
199, 201, 228, 240, 
249, 270 

1951 — 56 
Hays, Mrs. Arthur Garfield 

1949 — 457 
Hays, Lee 

1948—392 

1949 — 543, 548 
Hays, Mary 

1948—343 
Hayward, Mr. and Mrs. 
George 

1948 — 194 

1949 — 424, 437 
Havward, George 

1947—78, 79 

1949—424. 437 
Haywood. Bill ("William D.) 

1949 — 177, 182 
Hay worth, Rita 

1948—210, 251, 255, 375 
Hazard, Gail 

1947 — 89, 91 

1949 — 425 
Health and Hvgiene 

1948—225 

1949 — 388 
Henlv, Don R. 

1913 — 53. 162 

1947—169 

194S— 106, 152, 160, 249, 

1949—93, 146, 688 

1951—255 
Healv. Mrs. Don 

1943 — 86 
Healv. Dorothv 

1947 — 23, 26, 28, 71, 96, 
115, 129, 138, 221, 
227 

1948 — 7, 213, 235, 272, 
384 

1949—146, 422. 6SS, 692 

1951—28, 253 

1953—208 
Healv, Dorothv (TJealey) 

1955—298, 330, 354, 360, 
363 
Healev, Dorothy R. 

1959—27, 41, ^^\, 181, 182, 
209 
Hear About the U. S. S. R. 

194 8—102 
Hearings 

1 9 ! 3— 6 
Hearn, Lawrence 

1948—198 
Hearst, Wm. R. 

1947—5, 29, 30, 140, 362 

L9 is— 333 

1949—95 
Heart of Spain 

1948—247 



286 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



Heath, Edith K. 

1947 — 89 

1949 — 425 
Heath, H. T. 

1948 — 199 
Hecht, Ben 

194S — 234, 273, 352, 358 

1949 — 471 
Hecht, Harold 

1947 — 239 

1948 — 355 
Hedges, Virginia 

1959 — 213, 218 
Hedley, David 

1947 — 78, 101, 163 

1948 — 8, 195 

1949 — 424 

1953—174 
Hedrick, Travis K. 

1948—226, 343 
Heenan, Barry 

1948 — 356 
Heffernan, Dr. Helen 

1948 — 171 
Heflin, Van 

1948—210 
Hegel 

1945 — 69, 75 

1947—85 

1953—9, 156 
Heggan, Annette 

1951—29 
Heide, Paul 

1948 — 194, 200, 351 

1951—231 
Heide, Ruby 

1948 — 185 

1953 — 257, 259, 260. 280 
Heidelberger, Prof. Michael 

1949—481, 500, 509, 517, 
526, 530 
Heifetz, Jascha 

1947 — 292 

1948 — 317 
Heilbrun, Joe 

1948—62 

1949—470 
Heim. Ed 

1943 — 61, S2 
Heiser. Prof. Karl P. 

]949_481 
Heist. A. A., and Mrs. 

1948—109, 249, 278, 377 

1949 — 688 
Heist. Rev. A. A. 

1955—332 
Heit, Lou 

1948 — 378 

1949—557 
Helen Busch School 

1951—159 
Helford, Ella 

1948—259 
Helford, Norris 

1947 — 242 

1948—259 

1949 — 436 

1951 — 287, 288 
Helgren, George 

1943 — 126 
Helgren, Nora 

1943 — 124, 125 

1948 — 276 

1951—58 
Hellenic American Brother- 
hood. PWO 

1948 — 204 
Hellenic American Brother- 
hood (Youth Commit- 
tee) 

1948—338 
Hellenic-American 

Fraternal Society 

1949—466 



Hellenic American Veterans 
of World War II 
1948 — 339 
Heller. A. A. 
1947 — 267 

1948 — 151, 261, 270, 376, 
1949 — 179, 545 
Heller. Isaac S. 

1948 — 265 
Hellman, Lillian 
1947—127 

1948—96. 97, 101, 113, 
141, 152, 176, 234, 
239, 244, 248, 249 
262, 265, 277, 278, 
324, 327. 330, 353. 
354, 358, 377, 391 
1949 — 481, 484, 490, 498, 
501. 502, 503, BOd. 
506, 507, 508, 509, 
510, 514, 515, 519. 
521, 522, 5*>4, 52R. 
527, 528, 529, 530, 
531, 532, 533, 534, 
537. 688 
1951 — 56. 58. 92, 93, 271, 

286, 287 
1953—131, 171, 172, 173, 
174, 175, 280, 281 
Helm. L. C. 

1943 — 61. S3 
Helmpn, Sidnev 

1948 — 327 
Helmholz. A. C. 

1947 — 102 
Heitners. Al 
1943 — 144 
Heming-wav. Ernest 

1948 — 100, 234, 247, 310. 
1949 — 546 
Hemingwav, Capt. Henrv 

1948—5 
Hemsiev. Violetta 

1948—185 
Henderson. Dr. A. D. 
1948 — 392, 325 
1949 — 539 
Henderson. Bob 

1948—311. 313 
Henderson. Donald (Don) 
1943 — 86 
1945 — 147 

1948 — 114, 151, 162, 186, 
■>nn <>08, 244, 328, 
337, 351, 352, 390 
1949 — 146, 272, 311, 448. 
449, 451. 491, 563, 
688 
19FS1 — 56, 281 
1953— R3. 131. 171. 172, 
172. 175. 1^6 
Henderson. Rev. J. Roy 
1947 — 9fi 

1948 — 1R3, 185, 190 
1949—561 
Hendlev. Chas. J. 
1948 — 151. 179 
Hendricks, \gnes 

1948 — 266 
Hendricks. Frank 
1948 — -195 
1949 — 437 
Hendrickson, Alice 

1948 — 352 
Hendrickson, Esther 

1948 — 17 
Hendrix, Hilton T. 

1949—601 
Henlev, Dr. David E. 

1948 — 171 
Henner, Edna Wolff 

1949 — 481, 500 
Henreid, Lisl 
1947—179 



Henreid, Paul 

1947 — 180, 191, 234 

1948—210, 241, 328, 357 

1949 — 557 
Henry Barbusse Club 

1940—467 
Henry, John 

1948—215 
Henson, Vivian N. 

1948—356 
Hepburn, Katherine 

1948—58, 59, 210 

1949 — 630, 679. 688 
Hepburn, Mrs. Thomas W. 

1948—322 
Heraclitus 

1947 — 85 
Herbert, F. Huerh, and Mrs. 

1948 — 277, 372, 374 
Herberts, Rev. Herbert L. 

1948—164 
Herbst, Josephine 

1945 — 119, 121, 126 

1948 — 95. 194, 248, 266, 
270, 273, 277 

1949 — 471 
Herendeen, Lee 

194S — 184 

1949—561 
Herman Boettcher Branch 
of the Communist Party 

1948 — 215 
Herman, Francis 

1948 — 94 

1949—554 
Herman, George 

1948 — 280 
Herman, W. H. 

1947 — 155 
Herman, Sam 

1948 — 273 
Hermann, John 

1945 — 119 

1948 — 273 

1949—471 
Herndon, Angelo 

1948—122, 136, 155, 181, 
182, 189, 192, 196, 
201, 266, 315, 364 

1949—296 
Herndon Defense 
Committee 

1949 — 314 
Herniter, Annette 

1951—160, 161, 163, 165, 
167 
Herniter Case 

1951—165 
Herniter, Tsador 

1951 — 160, 161 
Herniter, Ida 

1951 — 160. 161 
Hernstein, Yetta 

1955 — 389 
Heroes of the War 

1949—539 
Heroik, Ferdinand 

1949—497 
Herre, Ambert W. 

1959 — 185 
Herrell, Mvron 

1947 — 242 

1949—436 
Herrera, Francis 

1948 — 185 

1949—561 
Herrey, Hermann 

1949—481 
Herrick, Martha 

1943 — 135 
Herrick, Robert 

1943 — 128, 130, 131, 135, 

1945—121, 126 
1948—274 
1949 — 472 



INDEX 



287 



Herrick, "Walter 

1943—129, 131, 135, 145 
Herring, Prof. Hubert 

1948 — 109 
Herrmann, Bernard 

1948 — 317, 318 
Hersey, John 

1948 — 240 
Herstein, Lillian 

1948 — 107, 273 
Hertz, Alfred 

1948—311 
Hertz, David 

1947 — 179 

194S— 372 
Hertzberg, Sidney 

1948 — 334 
Hertzel Junior College 

1955 — 428, 430 
Herzberg, Fred 

194S — 146 
Herzig, Thelma 

1949 — 428, 433 
Hesse, "Walter 

1947 — 155 

1948 — 8, 281 
Hasthal, Eleanor 

1947—89, 91 

1949 — 425 
Heuschele, Karl August and 
Mrs. 

1943—225, 236, 238 
Heym, Stefan (Stephen) 

1949 — 481, 488, 500, 514, 
516, 525, 536, 537 
Heyward, Dubose 

1945—127 
Heyward, Sammy 

1949—481 
Hibben, Paxton 

1948 — 107 
Hickerson, Clyde V. 

1948 — 328 
Hickerson, Harold 

1948 — 226, 333, 386 

1949 — 377 
Hicklin, M. F. 

1949 — 601 
Hicks, Granville 

1945—121, 126 

1948—151, 194, 199, 244, 
245, 248, 273, 389 

1949—471 

1951 — 90 

1953—173, 174, 175 
Hicks, Julian 

1949—428, 433, 434 

1951 — 280 
Hidden Rulers 

1943— 36S, 369, 375 . 
Higginbotham, Dr. 

1948 — 318 
Higginbotham, William A. 

1949 — 495, 483 
Higgns, Eugene 

1948 — 336 
High Altitude Observatory 

1949 — 495 
High v. State 

1949 — 254 
Hiken, Nat 

1949 — 4S1, 534, 535 
Hiberman, Max 

1948 — 344 
Hildebrandt, Fred U. 

1948 — 333 
Hilgard, Ernest R. 

1948 — 377 

1949 — 481, 500, 508, 509, 
518 
Hill, Charles 

1949—512, 519, 522, 525 
Hill, Rev. Chas. A. 

1948—201 

1949—449, 481, 490, 500, 
503, 504, 506, 512, 



518, 519, 520, 526, 
530, 531 
Hill, Dr. Chas. W. 

1947 — 96 

1948 — 183 
Hill, Gerald 

1948 — 185 
Hill, Jerry 

1953 — 259 
Hill, Dr. Leslie Pinckney 

1948 — 322 
Hill, Preston 

194S — 94 

1949—554 
Hill, T. Arnold 

1948—375 
Hill v. Florida 

1949—575 
Hill, Willis J. 

1947 — 71, 96, 242, 429 

1948 — 183, 202, 383 

1949 — 422, 436, 561 
Hille, Walderman 

194S— 392 
Hill man, Sidney 

1945 — 148, 149 

1948 — 114, 145, 243, 247, 
324, 357 

1953 — 58, 61, 62, 63 
Hillman, Mrs. Sidney 

1949 — 456, 4~57 
Hills, Guy 

1947 — 127 
Hilton, Ned 

1948 — 266 
Himes, Prof. Norman E. 

1947 — 323, 324, 341 

1948 — 176 

1953 — 280, 281 
Hinckley, W 7 m. W. 

1948 — 180 
Hindemith, Paul 

1948 — 336 
Hinderaker, Ivan 

1959 — IS, 34 
Hinders, Maurice 

194S — 114, 341 
Hindu Trading Company 

1953 — 222 
Hindustan-American 
Trading Company 

1953 — 222 
Hindustani Gadar News 

1953 — 214 
Hines v. Davidowits 

1949 — 574 
Hinshaw, Dr. Cecil E. 

1949 — 481, 490 
Hinton, Carmelita 

1949 — 481 
Hirohito 

1948 — 78 
Hiroshimia, Seinen Kai 

1943 — 323 
Hirsch, Alean 

1948 — 170 
Hirsch, Alfred 

1948—328 
Hirsch, Carl 

1949 — 546 
Hirsch, Eli 

1947 — 89 

1949—425 
Hirsch, Joseph 

1949 — 481, 500, 514, 530, 
534, 535, 536, 537 
Hirschbein, Peretz 

1947—96 
Hirschfield, Al 

1948—240 
Hirschman, Ira A. 

1949 — 481, 484, 490, 500, 
503, 506, 509, 514, 
515, 516, 519 



Hirshfelder, Betty 

1949 — 437 
Hirt, Chas. C. 

1948 — 171 
Hiskey, Dr. Clarence 

1951 — 221, 227, 228 
Hiss, Alger 

1951—65, 80, 90, 175 
1953—4, 56, 207, 211 
1959 — 4S, 157, 172, 175, 
199 
Hiss Case 
1957 — 80 
1959 — 188, 196 
Hiss, Donald 

1959—172, 173 
History of American 
Trotskyism, The 
1957 — 85 
History of the Communist 
Manifesto 
1949—191 
History of the Communist 
Party of Russia 
1948—326 
1949—539 
History of the Communist 
Party of the Soviet 
Union 
1949—99, 191 
1953 — 61, 195, 238 
History of the Communist 
Party of the United 
States 
1953 — 195, 198 
History of the Russian 
Revolution 
1949—191 
History Today, Inc. 

1948—248 
Historical Records Survey 

1943—126, 127, 138 
Hitchcock, George 
1947—82, 85, 90, 91 
1948 — 220, 342 
1949 — 429, 431, 432 
Hitchcock, Marjorie 

1948 — 226 
Hitler, Adolph 

1943 — 42, 54, 219, 220 
1947 — 8, 13, 20, 23, 29, 45, 
54, 200, 270, 272, 
273 292 
1948—32, '33, 44, 64, 78, 
103, 108, 144, 151, 
154, 155, 158, 161, 
162, 165, 247, 249, 
250, 252, 25S, 275, 
283, 290, 307, 321, 
332, 351, 374 
1949 — 13, 16, 19, 20, 32, 
38, 45, 51, 61, 69, 
71, 87, 88, 91, 93, 
94, 112, 123, 166, 
187, 259, 265, 448, 
478, 495, 550, 617, 
649 
1951 — 23, 48, 53, 66, 183, 

194, 258, 270 
1953 — 44, 62, 66, 67, 68 
1955—366, 371, 420 
1959 — 44, 45, 99, 178, 1S3 
Hitler-Stalin Nonagression 
Pact 
1947 — 152, 153 
1949—96, 137, 147, 326, 
334, 360, 477, 478, 
552, 617 
1951 — 90, 282 
1957—75 
1959—92, 17S 
Hittelman, Fannie 
1950—289 



288 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



Hittelman, Dr. Joseph 



106, 209, 210, 

212, 213, 214, 

216, 217, 218, 

220, 275, 288, 

374, 387 



1955—79, 
211 
215 
219! 
373, 

1959—185 
Hixson, Wm. 

1948 — 163 
Ho Ching-chih 

1957 — 136 
Ho, Wallace 

1947 — 152, 163 
Hoag, Esther 

1948—353 
Hobart College 

194S — 391 
Hobart, Rose 

1947 — 239 

1948 — 14, 104, 105, 209, 
259, 355, 356 

1949 — 478, 481, 688 

1951 — 268, 271, 272, 280 
Hobson, Loyal A. 

1948—185 
Hochfelder, Major Julius 

1947 — 96 
Hochheimer, Rita 

1948 — 193 
Hochman, Julius 

1948 — 179 
Hocking, Prof. Wm. Ernest 

1948—324 

1949—481 
Hodess, Sam 

1948 — 375 
Hodges, Norval 

1949 — 601, 608 
Hodg-head, Lillian 

1948—185 
Hodgson, Rev. Chester 

1949 — 481, 490, 500, 504, 
506, 507, 512, 522, 
618 
Hodza, Colonel 

1949 — 555 
Hoff, Harold 

1948 — 94 

1949 — 554 
Hoff, Sidney 

1949—504, 511, 520 
Hoff, Syd 

1949 — 481, 500, 501 
Hoffa, James 

1959 — 108, 109 
Hoffman, Bob 

1948—356 
Hoffman, Dr. Eugene 

1955 — 126, 127, 128 
Hoffman, John M. 

1948—17 
Hoffman, Joseph 

1948 — 210 

1955 — 456 
Hoffman, June 

1949 — 484 

1951 — 268 

1955—366 
Hoffman, Hans 

1947 — 85, 91 
Hoffman, Louis E. 

1955 — 391 
Hoffman, Malvina 

1949 — 330 
Hoffman, Paul G. 

1949—670, 671 
Hoffman, Pawel 

1949 — 497 
Hoffman, Wm. 

1947—89 
Hogge, Bob 

1955—321 
Hoijer, Dr. Harry 

1947—67, 71, 72, 95-98, 
141, 179, 188, 259 



1948—103, 170, 171, 183, 
202, 279, 318, 375 
1949 — 419, 422, 688 
1951 — 53, 56, 57, 59, 109 
Holcombe, Arthur 

1948 — 179 
Hold the Priceline Com- 
mittee 
1947—55 
1949—315 
Holden, Lawrence 

1948—356 
Holifleld, Chester 

1959 — 34 
Hoijer, Harry 

1945 — 137 
Holland 

1943—221 
Holland, Harold 
1947 — 152, 163 
Hollander, Sidney 

1948 — 375 

Holliday, Judy 

1948—392 

1949 — 481, 490, 500, 513, 
515, 516, 529, 543 
1951—271 
Hollister, Carol 

1948 — 184, 311, 317 
1949 — 481, 500, 510, 537 
Hollister, Clinton D. 

1959—185 
Hollister, David 

1948 — 184 
Holloway, C. C. 

1948 — 17 
Holly, William H. 
1948 — 186, 273 
1949 — 562 
Hollywood Actors' Labora- 
tory School 
1948—95 
1949 — 315 
Hollywood Anti-Nazi 
League 
1943—135, 136 
1947—70, 183, 

250 
1948—51, 67, 
158, 166, 
249, 250, 251, 255- 
257, 312, 313, 341, 
371 
1949 — 88, 315, 316, 382, 
396, 397, 421, 477, 
617 
1951—58, 61 
1955—366 
1959 — 20, 112 
Hollywood Arts, Sciences 
and Professions Coun- 
cil ; see also Council of 
Arts, Sciences and Pro- 
fessions 
1951—268 
Hollywood Arts, Sciences 
and Professions Coun- 
cil of the Progressive 
Citizens of America 
1948 — 59, 129, 136, 148, 
346 
Hollywood Athletic Club 

1955 — 313 
Hollywood Branch of the 
League of American 
Writers 
1948—192 
Hollywood Canteen 

1948 — 317 
Hollywood Chapter of the 
League of American 
Writers 
1948 — 137, 158, 191 



188, 190, 



105, 135, 
1S8, 231, 



Hollywood Citizens Com- 
mittee of the Arts, Sci- 
ences and Professions 
1949 — 705 
Hollvwood Citizen-News 
1947—5, 97, 138, 141, 193, 

199, 227, 231 
1948 — 15, 172, 205, 369 
1949—9, 699 
Hollywood Committee to 
Aid Spanish Refugees 
in France 
1947 — 191 
Hollywood Community 
Radio Group 
1947—179, ISO, 186, 189, 

192, 193, 370 
1948—105 
1949—315, 706 
1951 — 57, 59, 60 
Hollywood Cultural Com- 
mission 
1943—148, 164 
Hollywood Democratic 
Club 
1948—221, 222 
Hollywood Democratic 
Committee 
1948 — 51, 63, 135, 138, 
166, 250-255, 257, 
371 
1949—315, 477, 628 
1951 — 58, 59, 248 
1955 — 365, 366, 445, 446, 
458, 461 
Hollywood Folk Dance 
Center 
1947 — 72 
Hollywood Forum 

1948 — 104, 119, 135 
Hollywood High School 

1951 — 27 
Hollywood Hospital 

1955 — 324 
Hollvwood Independent 
1948 — 225 
1949 — 388 
Hollywood Independent Cit- 
izens Committee of the 
Arts, Sciences and Pro- 
fessions 
1947 — 33, 34, 55, 56, 108, 
180, 183, 186-191, 
196, 210, 217, 236, 
241, 251, 281, 284, 
295, 296, 297, 301, 
369 
1948—51, 105, 116, 139, 
149, 225, 252, 255, 
308 
1949 — 315, 316, 388, 435, 

477 
1951—57, 59, 62, 268, 290, 

291 
1953 — 88 

1955—364, 365, 366, 440, 
441, 445, 455, 461, 
463, 464 
Hollywood League Against 
Nazism 
1948—249, 255 
1949 — 315, 316 
Hollywood League for 
Democratic Action 
1948 — 154, 159, 167, 168, 

251, 255 
1949—316, 477 
1951 — 58 

1955—366, 460, 461 
Hollywood League of 
American Writers 
1948 — 127, 369 
Hollywood League of 
Women Shoppers 
1948—278 



INDEX 



289 



Hollywood Motion Picture 
Alliance 
1948—59 
Hollywood Motion Picture 
Committee of the Na- 
tional Council of Amer- 
ican-Soviet Friendship 
194S — 123 
Hollywood Motion Picture 
Democratic Committee 
1948 — 38, 51, 135, 251- 

257, 311, 384 
1949—315, 316, 333, 477 
1955—366 
Hollywood Now 

1948 — 158 
Hollywood Peace Forum 
1948 — 154, 155, 159, 160 
1949 — 316 
Hollywood Presbyterian 
Hospital 
1955 — 98 
Hollywood Quarterly 
1947 — 105-108 
1948 — 257, 258, 369, 373 
1949—389 
1951—54, 55, 56, 60, 61, 

62, 64 
1955 — 438 
Hollywood Reporter 

1948 — 132, 172, 1S9, 210, 

274, 355, 360 
1953 — 285 

1955—455, 459, 460, 461, 
463 
Hollywood Screen Writers' 
Guild 
1959—10 
Hollywood Studio Club 

1947 — 185, 186 
Hollywood Ten Committee 

1951—267 
Hollywood Theatre Alliance 

1949 — 316 
Hollywood Town Forum 

1948—137 
Hollywood Town Meeting 

1948—155 
Hollywood Trade Union 

1943 — 78 
Hollyiuood Variety 

1947—191 
Hollywood Victory Com- 
mittee 
1948—95 
Hollywood Women's Club 

1955 — 115, 370 
Hollywood Women's 
Council 
1947 — 183 
194S — 221 
Hollywood Writers' Mobili- 
zation 
1945 — 117-131 
1947 — 34, 53, 55, 58, 62, 
72, 95, 97, 98, 107- 
109, 140, 141-142, 
187, 188, 190-192, 

1948—52, 56, 58, 105, 127- 
129, 131, 135, 137, 
158, 159, 189, 192, 
258, 259, 260, 261, 

275, 359, 3G0, 369, 
373, 389 

1949 — 316, 389, 679 
1951—51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 

56, 59, 60, 61, 62, 

63, 64 
1953—89 
1955—437, 43S, 440, 444, 

446, 458, 461, 462 
1959—10, 137 
10— L-4361 



Holman, Libby 

1949 — 481, 490, 500, 503, 

509, 514, 515, 517, 
518, 519, 522, 531, 
534, 535, 536 

Holman, Pauline 

1948—277 
Holme, Edward L. 

1953—260 
Holmer, Eleanor 

1948 — 161 
Holmes, Chief Justice 

1947—282, 284 

1949 — 570 
Holmes, Dean Henry 

1953—151 
Holmes, Eugene C. 

1945—127 

1949—481, 488, 500, 508, 

510, 512, 516, 531, 
536, 537 

Holmes, John 

1951 — 229, 230 
Holmes, Rev. John H. 

1948 — 333 
Holmstock, Ethel 

1943—143 
Holmgren, Roderick B. 

1948—342 
Holomon, J. M. 

1949 — 438 
Holt, Joe 

1948— 2S5 
Holt, Prof. Lee Elbert 

1949—481, 500, 519 
Unit her Reports 

1948 — 148 
Ilolther, Wm. B. 

1943 — 129 
Holtz, Miriam 

1943 — 157, 1G3 
Holtzendorff, I Toward L. 

1953 — 78, 79, 81, 82, 83, 
84, 85, 86, 104, 117, 
119, 120, 126, 132 
Holy Family, The 

1953 — 10 
Holyoke Book Shop 

1949 — 316 
Home Owners Loan 
Corporation 

1959 — 173 
Homer, Louise 

1948—311 
Homer, Sidney 

1948—311 
Homes, John Hayes 

1948 — 244 
Honeycombe, John G. 

1943—61, 117-122 

1948—44 

1949—553, 554 
Hong, Rev. Lee S. 

1948—144 
Honig, N. 

1948—268 

1949 — 464 
Honolulu Ht ar- Bulletin 

1943—325, 326 
Honorary Campaign Com- 
mittee for the Election 
of Clifford T. McAvoy 

1949 — 317 
Ho'O, Marshal 

1947—73 
Hook, Sidney 

1951—38, 4 7, 50 
Hooker, Helene 

1948 — 258 
Hooper, Dennis 

1947—75, 151, 163 
Hoover, Herbert C. 

1947 — 224 

1949 — 692 

1959—151 



Hoover, J. Edgar 

1945—67, 136 

1947 — 34, 63, 99, 133, 214, 
217 

1948 — 116, 134, 232, 277, 
370 

1949 — 416, 441, 541, 593, 
667, 678 

1951 — 4, 251, 263, 2S3 

1955 — 43, 45, 457 

1957 — 121 

1959—42, 43, 176, 177, 
182, 186, 201, 210 
Hope, Bob 

1947 — 126 
Hopkins, Miss Annabel 

1948 — 182 

1949 — 560 
Hopkins, David 

1948 — 210 
Hopkins, Harry 

1948 — 235 

1959 — 173 
Hopkins, Meriam 

1948 — 251, 263 
Hopkinson, Chas. 

1949 — 330 
Hopp, Beatrice 

1948—339 
Horgan, Rev. Emerson G. 

1959—185 
Hori, H. 

1943 — 337 
Horn, Marguerite 

1948 — 17 

thur 
255 



Hornblow, A 
1948—251, 

Home, Hal 
1948—211 

Home, Lena 
1947— 235, 
1948 — 198, 



239, 242 
202, 203, 241, 
255, 311, 316, 317, 
355, 392 

1949 — 436, 543, 6SS 
Horner, Arthur 

1953 — 241 
Horner, Jacqueline 

1948—350 
Hornick, Helen 

1948—356 
Horowitz, Morris 

1951—267 
Horrall, C. B. 

1945 — 160, 162 

1947 — 57, 59 
Horton, Alice 

1948—187 

1949—563 
Horton Dance Group 

1947 — 73 
Horton, Lister 

1948—343 
Horvath, Mrs. Theresa 

1948 — 204 
Hosie, Laurence 

1948 — 19 3 
Hoskins, Mrs. Alice 

1948 — 355 
Hosmer, Helen 

1948—4 
Hospital of the Good 
Samaritan 

1955—98 
Hossack, John B. 

1959—217 
Hotel and Restaurant Em- 
ployees International 
lis 17, 28 I, 440, 468, 

1947—177 
Hotel and Restaurant 
Workers Union 
1948—115 



290 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



Hotel Service Workers 
Local 283 

1947 — 80 
Houk, Wm. C. 

1948 — 328, 382 
Hour 

1948—225 

1949—389, 451 
Hourilian, Martin 

1945 — 139, 145 

1948—375 
Hourwich, Nicholas 

1949 — 177 
House Appropriations 
Committee 

1949—573 
House Military Affairs 
Committee 

1945—27 
House of Representatives 

1959 — 139 
House Resolution No. 277 

1943—6, 389-391 
House Un-American Activ- 
ities Comimttee 

1957—10 

1959 — 39, 84, 89, 121, 126, 
135, 139, 193, 209, 
211 
Houseman, John 

1948 — 1SS, 210 211, 251, 
255, 392 

1949 — 543 
Housing Commissioners, 
Board of 

1953—80 
Housing Question, The 

1949 — 191 
Housmer, Jerry 

1948 — 356 
Houston, Chas. H. 

1948—265, 386 
Houston, George 

1948 — 317 
Houston, John 

1948—210, 240 
Houston, Norman 

1955 — 459 
Houston, Norman C. 

1947 — 183, 185 

1948 — 239 

1949—435 
Houston, Norman F. 

1955—459 
Houston, Dr. Percy 

1948—171 
Houston, Walter 

1948 — 240, 251, 255 
Hovde, Bryn J. 

1949— 4S4, 486 
Hovey, Suge 

1948 — 317 
How I Came to Communism 

1948 — 245 
How Man Became a Giant 

1948 — 326 

1949 — 539 
How to Detect Communist 
Indoctrination 

1959—212 
How You Can Fight 
Communism 

1949—654 
Howard, Dr. B. F. 

1948 — 359 
Howard, Boyce 

1949—422 
Howard, Cecil 

1948 — 330 
Howard, Charles 

1948 — 383 

1949 — 515 
Howard, Charles P. 

1949—481, 490, 500, 512, 
514, 526, 535 



Howard, Charlotte 


Hubert, Flaye Adams 




1947—91 


1945—7 




Howard, Evelyn Capell 


Hubler, Richard B. 




1955—421 


1955—456 




Howard, Gertrude G. 


Hubler, Richard G. 




1947 — 171 


1948 — 372 




Howard, Kenneth W. 


Hubley, John 




1947 — 71 


1948 — 192 




1948 — 184, 343 


Hudson Case 




1949—422, 688 


1951—95, 154, 165 




Howard, Maurice 


1959—15 




1947 — 242 


Hudson, Dr. Claude 




1948 — 62 


1947—242 




1949—436, 470, 6S3 


194S — 198-200, 202, 


230 


Howard, Milton 


241, 271, 272, 


279 


1947—106 


255 




1948—233, 343 


1949—436, 459, 688 




1949 — 202, 545 


Hudson, Everitt 




Howard, Sidney 


1951 — 35, 101-135, 


137- 


1945—126 


149, 151, 152, 


155 


1948—238, 278 


160, 164, 165, 


168 


Howard University 


1953—242 




1955—238 


1955 — 70 




Howard University, Med- 


1957 — 2-6, 7, 80, 102 




ical School 


1959—15, 127 




1955 — 238 


Hudson, Mrs. Helen 




Howard, Wilford 


Hudson, Manley O. 




1947 — 241 


1948—247 




1948 — 195 


Hudson, Ray 




1949—435, 437 


1943 — 197 




Howe, Ann 


1947 — 172, 204 




1943—133, 140, 146 


1948 — 244, 245 




1947 — 73 


Hudson, Roy 




1948—278 


1953 — 72, 175 




Howe, James Wong 


Hudson, William A. 




1948 — 198 


1951 — 102, 103, 104, 


105 


Howe, Jane 


106, 107, 108, 


111 


1943 — 143, 158 


112, 113, 114, 


115 


Howe, M. A. 


116. 122, 132 




1948—330 


Huebsch, B. W. 




Howe, Mary 


1948 — 248 




1948—317 


Huebston. Jean 




Howe. Quincy 


1948 — 339 




194S — 179 


Huff, Henry 




Howell, Dr. Clarence V. 


1949 — 451 




1948—333 


Huff. Marion 




Howell, R. A. 


1943 — 360 




1948 — 198 
Howells, John N. M. 

1949 — 481 
Howser, Fred 


Huff, Paul 
1948 — 17 
Hushes, Charles Evans 




1951 — 75 


1947 — 7 




Hoxey, Lowell 


1949—23 




1955 — 390 


Hughes, Conde 




Hoyt, Ralph E. 


1948 — 377 




1943—176, 186 


Hughes, Dorothy 




Hrdlicka, Dr. Ales 


1948 — 357 




1948—322 

Hronek, Jirl 

1949 — 497 


Hughes, Rev. Fred A. 
1948 — 249 




Hsieh Chia-lin 


Hughes, John B. 




1957 — 129 


1945 — 116 




Hsinhua News Agency 


1947 — 96, 141, 183, 


227 


1957—140 


1948 — 198, 254 




Hsu Kuang-yao 


Hughes, John Eli 




1957—136 


1947 — 305 




Hu Ko 

1957—136 
Hu, T. Y. 
1948 — 273 


Hughes, Kenneth 
1949—514, 519, 527 




Hughes, Rev. Kenneth de P. 


Huber, Louie 


1949—481, 490, 500, 


50b, 


1948 — 4 


512, 514, 517, 


526, 


Huberman, Edward 


531, 532 




194S— 151, 208 


Hughes, Langston 




Huberman, Leo 


1945—119, 121, 124 




1947 — 104, 209, 210 


1947 — 77, 106, 313 




1949 — 481, 489, 490, 499, 


1948 — 97, 107, 114, 


132, 


501, 504, 505, 507, 


148, 162, 169, 


179, 


512, 514, 516, 518, 


186, 193, 194, 


196, 


521, 525, 528, 534, 


198, 244, 245, 


263, 


536, 537 


266, 273, 278, 


324, 


Hubbard, Frank W. 


328, 352, 353, 


3S9, 


1947 — 115 


390 




Hubbard v. Hurnden 


1949 — 423, 448, 449, 


451, 


Exp. Co. 


471, 481, 484, 


488, 


1949—253 


490, 498, 501, 


503, 



291 



Hughes, Langston — Cont. 


Hunter, Alice 




505, 506, 50S, 


509, 


194S — 255 




510, 512, 513, 


514, 


1951 — 26S 




515, 516, 517, 


521, 


Hunter College 




522, 525, 526, 


527, 


1953—141, 142 




528, 530, 534, 


535, 


Hunter, Herbert 




536, 537, 545, 


547, 


1949 — 546 




562, 6S8 




Hunter, Kim 




1951— 56, 60, 261, 


271, 


1948—240 




287 




1949 — 4S1 




1953—139, 172, 173, 


174, 


Hunter, Mary 




175 




1949 — 481, 490 




Hughes, Margaret 




Hunter, Ronald W. 




1948 — 109 




1959 — 176 




Hughes, Marie 




Hunter, Tookie 




1947 — 239 




194S— 96, 151 




Hughes, T. W. 




Hunters Call, The 




1943 — 258 




1947 — 124, 125, 135 




Huso, Roland C. 




Huntington Memorial 




1947 — 75 




Hospital 




Huhn, John 




1955—98 




1948 — 62 




Hunton, Alpheus 




1949 — 470, 6S8 




1949 — 488, 504, 508, 


515, 


Huiswood, Otto 




519, 526, 536, 


547 


1949 — 177 




Hunton, Dr. Alpheus 




Hull, Secretary Cordell 


1959—195 




194S — 191 




Hunton, Dr. W. A. 




1949 — 15 




1949—481, 490, 512, 


51S, 


Hull, Morgan 




526 




1943 — 155 




Hunton, W. Alpheus 




1947 — 210 




1949 — 500, 504, 512, 


51S, 


1948 — 207 




521, 546, 548 




Hullihen, Dr. Walter 




Hunton, William A. 




194S— 324 




1949 — 516, 526 




Hulme, Prof. Ed M. 




Hurd v. Hodge 




1947 — 88, 93 




1955—60 




1949 — 425 




Hurley, Mrs. Edith 




Hultgren, Wayne 




194S — 228 




1947—269 




1949—457 




1953—279, 282 




Hurok, Sol 




Humanist Society of 




1948 — 311 




Friends 




Hurricane, The 




1943 — 119 




1957—135 




Humboldt. Chas. 




Hurwich, Arthur 




1947 — 106 




1949 — 481 




Hume. Mr. 




Hurwitz, Leo T. 




1947 — 85 




1949 — 481, 488, 499, 


508, 


Humphrey, Miles G. 




510, 513, 514, 


527, 


1943—38, 61, 68, 69, 


115, 


534 




177 




Hurwitz, Pauline 




Humphreys, Rolphe 




1948 — 375 




194S — 389 




Huston, John 




Humphries, Miles G. 




1948 — 241 




1951 — 235 




1949 — 688 




1959—130 




Huston, Walter 




Hundal, L. Singh 




1948—183, 255 




1953 — 223 




Hutchins, Grace 




Hungary 




1949—179 




1943—221 




1953—153, 174, 175 




Hungarian-American Coun- 


Hutchins, Guy 




cil for Democracy 




1949 — 481 




1949—317 




Hutchins, Dr. Herb L. 




Hungarian Brotherhood 
1949—466 


1948 — 17 
Hutchins, Robert Maynard 
1955 — 332 


Hungarian Socialist Party 


Hutt, Allen 




1949 — 114 




1947—106 




Hungarian Zionist 




Huxley, Dr. Julian 




1949—552 




1949— 485 




Hunnwell, Carrol E. 




Hyam, Jack 




1943 60, 62 




1948 — 356 








Hvans, Mary Cleo, Mrs 




Hunt, Rev. Allen 




"1955 — 18 




1948 — 109, 110 




Hyman, Evelyn C. 




Hunt, Boston 




1948—266 




1948—284, 2S5, 287- 


■290, 


Hynes, Harry 




306 




1948—156 




Hunt, Dean R. D. 




Hyun, David 




1948 — 171 




1951—267 




Hunt, John 




1955 — 305, 326, 328, 


332, 


1947—77 




389 




194S— 339 




Hyun, Mary 




1949 — 423 




1955 — 327 




Hunt, Marsha 




Hyun, Peter 




1948—60, 210 




1955 — 305, 328, 339, 


390 



I.A.T.S.E. 

1949 — 476 
I Accuse! 

1957—131 
I.C.F.T.U.— see Inter- 
national Confederation 
of Free Trade Union 
Organizations 
I Change Words 

194S — 107 
I Chose Freedom 

1949 — 653 
I Confess 
1943—19 
1951—12 
IFTEAD No. S9 of 
A. F. of L. 
1953 — 259 
I Have Seen Black Hands 

1945 — 125 
ILD — see International 

Labor Defense 
I.L.W.U. — see International 
Longshoremen and 
Warehousemens Union 
IMRO 

1949 — 26 
LP. P. — see Independent 
Progressive Party 

I Saiu Poland Betrayed 

1949 — 654 
7 Saw the Russian 
People 

1948—326 

1949—539 
I. W. O. — see International 

Workers Order 
I. W. W. — see International 
Workers of the World 
Iannelli, Alfonso 

1949—481 
Ibanez, Richard A. 

1947—239 

1948—241, 355 
Ibarruri, Dolores 

1948 — 22S 

1949 — 457 
Iberra and Orloff 

1951 — 153 
Ickes, Harold L. 

1947 — 115, 296 

1948 — 103, 129, 158, 167, 
168, 181, 324, 361 

1949—328, 484 

1951—268 
Icor 

1948—49, 145, 225, 261 

1949 — 317, 393, 467, 549 
Ikano, Susumu 

1949 — 181 
Ilacqua, Nicholas 

1943 — 284, 314, 315 

II Corriere 
1943—309, 310 

II Corriere Del Popolo 

11143—285 
II Leone 

1943 — 2S5, 302 
Ilin, M. 

1948 — 326 
1949—540 
Illinois Civil Rights 
Congress 
1949 — 446 
Illinois People's Conference 
for Legislative Action 
1949 — 317 
Illinois State Advisory 

Board of the Interna- 
tional Labor Defense 
1948 — 93 
Illinois Young Communist 
League 
1955 — 428 



292 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



lima, Viola 

1948 — 180, 227 
1953 — 198 
Imes, Rev. William Lloyd 

1948—333 
Immigration and Housing- 
Commission 
1943 — 111 
Immigration and Nation- 
ality Act 
1959—192 
Immigration and Naturali- 
zation Service 
1951—3 
1953—217, 279 
1955—45 
1959—129, 156 
Imperial Black Dragon 
Society 
1943 — 337 
Imperial Comnmnism 

1949 — 654 
Imperial Comradeship 
Society 
1943—337 
Imperialism 
1949—617 
Imperialism and the 
Imperialist War 
1949 — 191 
Imperialism — The Highest 
Stage of Capitalism 
1949—190, 192 
"Imperialist War, The" 

1949 — 192 
Improved Order of 
Red Men 
1948—15, 16 
In Fact 
1943 — 247 

1948—36, 49, 86, 148, 225 
1949—262, 263, 389, 450, 

547, 630, 631 
1955 — 12, 13, 14, 39, 45, 
46 
In Memory of the Boys of 
the Abraham Lincoln 
Brigade 
1955 — 389 
In Place of Profit 

1948 — 246 
In Praise of Learning 

1949—192 
In Stalin's Secret Service 

1947—218 
Independent, The 
1947 — 306 

1948—103, 129, 225 
1949 — 389, 547 
Independent Citizens Com- 
mittee of the Arts, 
Sciences and Profes- 
sions 
1947—227, 231-233, 296, 

297, 369 
1948— 3S, 52, 63, 103, 129, 
136, 158, 159, 167, 
168, 192, 225, 262, 
318, 353, 354, 371 
1949 — 268, 315, 317, 352, 
389, 400, 452, 454, 
477, 478, 484, 547, 
628, 705 
Independent Order of 
Foresters 
1955 — 20 
Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows 
1948—15, 16, IS 
Independent Progressive 
Party 
1948—41, 62 

1949—25, 112, 113, 114, 
120, 136, 146, 248, 
251, 254, 267, 315, 
317, 352, 380, 438, 



469, 470, 471, 477, 
526, 558, C35, 646 
1953—105 

1955 — 2, 3, 4, 5, 12, 13, 
14, 15, 22, 23, 29, 
40, 46, 47, 108, 295, 
365, 390 
1959 — 19, 27, 28, 29, 30, 
34, 35, 96, 133, 134, 
137 
Independent Progressive 
Party, San Fernando 
Valley Council 
1955—389 
Independent Publicists 

1945 — 117 
Independent Socialist 
League 
1957—47, 65, 73 
Independent Students' 
Political Action 
Committee 
1948—219 
Independent Voters' Com- 
mittee of the Arts 
and Sciences 
1949—317 
Independent Voters of 
Illinois 
1948—354 
Independent Voters of New 
Hampshire 
1948—354 
India Neivs 
1948 — 259 
1949—421 
India Today 
1953 — 232 
Indian Federation of Labor 

1953 — 225 
Indian National Congress 

1953—226 
Individualist, The 

1959—48 
Indman, Nina 

194S— 382 
Indonesia 

1951—18 
Indonesian Association 

1948—218 
Indonesian Review 
1948 — 225 
1949 — 389, 549 
Indusco — see also American 
Committee in Aid of 
Chinese Industrial Co- 
operatives 
1951—280 
Industrial Journal 
194S — 225 
1949 — 389 
Industrial Training Insti- 
tute of Chicago 
1955—404 
Industrial Union Council 
1943 — 135 
1948—160 
Industrial Union of Marine 
and Shipbuilding Work- 
ers of America, CIO 
1947 — 67 
1949 — 419 
Industrial Workers of the 
World 
1948 — 70, 246 
1949 — 177, 572 
Industries Disinherited 

1953 — 18S 
Infante, Marco Ignaco 
1947 — 89, 91 
1949 — 425 
Infantile Leftism in Com- 
munism 
1957—34 



Information Bulletin 
1948 — 225 
1949 — 548 
Information Bureau of the 
Communist Parties 
1949—298 
Ingalls, Laura 

1943 — 256, 257 
Ingersoll, Jeremiah 

1949 — 547 
Ingersoll, Raymond C. 
1948—201, 323 
1949—538 
Ingersoll, Mrs. Raymond V. 

1948—334, 335 
Inglehart, Robert 

1948 — 113 
Ingram, LeRoy R. 

1945 — 208 
Ingram, Rex 
1947—96, 249 
1948 — 132, 151, 183, 239, 

251, 255, 377 
1949 — 561 
Ingster, Boris 

1943 — 123 
Inland Boatmens Union 

1959—94 
Inland Boatmen's Union of 
the Pacific 
1948 — 212 
1949 — 475 
Inland Steel Co. v. National 
Labor Relations Board 
1955 — 61 
Inman, Mary 

1949 — 546 
Innes, Letitia 
1943 — 145 
1947 — 73 
Institute for American 
Democracy 
1948—264 
1949 — 969 
Institute for Democratic 
Education, Inc. 
1948 — 263, 264, 
1949 — 696, 697 
Institute for Medical 
Research 
1955 — 225 
Institute for Propaganda 
Analysis 
1949—467 
Institute for the Education 
of Over-Sea Japanese 
1943 — 327 
Institute of Pacific Relations 
1947—321, 322, 370 
1948 — 41, 162, 172, 177, 

325 
1949—539, 694 
1953 — 4 
Institute on Human 
Relations 
1951 — 65 
Institute on Labor, Educa- 
tion and World Peace 
1947 — 98, 101 
1951 — 57, 63 
Instruction of Bund 
Leaders 
1943 — 229 
Intelligence Units, Armed 
Forces 
1945 — 6 
Interchurch Committee of 
American-Russian In- 
stitute 
1949 — 318 
Intercollegiate Society of 
Individualists 
1959—48 
Intercontinent News 
1949—181 



INDEX 



293 



Interim Committee on Crime 
and Correction 
1951 — 244, 254, 256 
Interim Committee on Crime 
and Correction, Chair- 
man 
1951—244 
Interim Committee on Crime 
and Correction, Investi- 
gator 
1951—254, 256 
Internal Security Act 

1959 — 194 

International 

1945—125 

1949 21 

1959—111, 166, 188, 209 
International Executive 
Committee 
1959—158 
International Seventh 
World Congress 
1959—17, 23, 37, 90 
International Alliance of 
Theatrical Stage Em- 
ployees, A. F. of L. 
1947 — 172, 177 
1948—15, 1G 
International Alliance of 
Theatrical Stage Em- 
ployees, Film Techni- 
cians Local 
1947 — 177, 683 
International Alliance of 
Theatrical and Stage 
Employees, Progressive 
Conference 
1959—20 
International Association of 
Cleaning and Dye House 
Workers, Local 7 
1947 — 80 
International Association of 
Democratic Lawyers 
1949—318 
International Association of 
Machinists 
1949 — 437 
International Association of 
Political Science 
1959 — 212 
International Association of 
Theatrical and Stage 
Employees 
1959 — 110 
International Association of 
War Veterans 
1948—384, 385 
1949 — 318, 374 
International Association of 
Workingmen 
1953—47 
International Bank for Re- 
construction and De- 
velopment 
1949—75 
International Book Shop 

1959 — 137 
International Book Shop of 
Boston 
1949 — 318 
International Book Store 
1947 — 43, 100 
1948 — 224 
1949 — 318 
1951 — 178 
1953 — 224, 265 
1959 — 146, 147, 181, 209 
International Brigade — see 
also Abraham Lincoln 
Brigade 
1948—93, 94, 205 
1949—502, 553, 554, 555, 
556 



1951 — 236, 237 
1953—260 
International Brotherhood 
of Teamsters, Local 399 
1947 — 177 
International Bulletin of 
Education 
1953—192 
International Bureau of 
Revolutionary Litera- 
ture 
1949—354, 390 
International Center 

1947 — 102 
International Class War 
Prisoners Aid Society — 
see also Comintern In- 
ternational Red Aid 
Section 
1959—121 
International Committee on 
African Affairs 
1948 — 75, 320 
1949 — 303, 318, 551 
International Confederation 
of Free Trade Union 
Organizations 
1959—97-104 
International Congress of 
Women 
1948 — 227, 228 
1949 — 318, 319, 457, 458 
International Cooi-dination 
Council 
1949—547 
International Democratic 
Women's Federation, 
The 
194S— 54, 229, 232 
1949—301, 318, 319, 373, 
458 
International Discussion 
Club 
1943 — 380 
International Federation of 
Architects, Engineers, 
Chemists and Techni- 
cians (FAECT) — see 
also Union of Technical 
Men 
1947_29, 201-205, 208, 
209, 210, 212, 213, 
214, 216, 219, 370 
1948 — 212 

1949 — 424, 425, 475, 706 
1951 — 64, 76, 77, 88, 198, 
201, 203, 204, 229, 
23(1, 232, 233, 235, 
240, 242, 243 
1953—63 
1955— 4S, 68 
1957—1 

1959—117, 119, 176 
International Federation of 
Architects, Engineers, 
Chemists and Techni- 
cians, Chapter 25 
1951 — 76, 77, 78, 80, 85, 
201, 207 208, 212, 
213, 228, 229, 230, 
231, 232, 233, 234, 
235, 254 
International Federation of 
Architects, Engineers, 
Chemists and Techni- 
cians, Chapter 25 Exec- 
utive Board 
1951 — 230 
International Federation of 
Architects, Engineers, 
Chemists and Techni- 
cians, President of Ala- 
meda County Chapter 
1951—64 



International Federation of 
Teachers Union 
1953—245 
International Fishermen 
and Allied Workers 
of America 
1953 — 63 
International Fishermen & 
Allied Workers of 
America, Local 34 
1947—93 
International Fur & Leather 
Workers, Local 79 
1947 — 93 
1949—325, 456 
International Fur & Leather 
Workers of America 
1953—63 
International Fur & Leather 
Workers Union 
1951 — 267 
1955—390 
International Hod Carriers 
Building and Common 
Laborers' Union, Local 
724 
1947 — 93 
International Institute of 
Universal Research 
and Administration 
1943—367, 380 
International Juridical 
Association 
1948 — 35, 52, 265, 331 
1949—319, 327, 540, 541 
1959—132, 133 
International Labor 
Conference, 27th 
1953—231 
International Labor Defense 
— see also Comintern, 
International Red Aid 
Section 
1943—98 

1947—189, 214, 251, 252 
1948 — 47, 48, 55, 61, 93, 
103, 107, 110, 112, 
113, 121, 122, 130, 
134, 142, 143, 145, 
155, 156, 159, 191, 
201-203, 223, 225, 
265, 266, 267, 315, 
316, 319, 329, 330, 
331, 335, 362, 364, 
365, 375 
1949—148, 174, 182, 269, 
272, 276, 291, 312, 
319, 320, 321, 322, 
325, 332, 335, 340, 
362, 390, 391, 439, 
440, 446, 447, 450, 
451, 452, 453, 454, 
455, 461, 464, 466, 
508, 540 
1951—259, 260, 261, 262, 

264, 265. 280 
1953 — 55, 97, 175, 223 
1955—385 
1957—117 

1959 — 25, 121, 122, 123, 
124, 125, 126, 128, 
130, 132, 133, 135, 
137 
International Labor De- 
fense, District 13 
1951 — 259 
International Labor Defense 
and Red Aid 
1949—318 
International Labor Defense 
News 
1948—35, 93 
International Labor 
Organization 
1959—97 



294 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



International Labor 
Workers Union 
1947— 1C3 
International Ladies Gar- 
ment Workers Union 
(ILGWU) 
1947—67, 74 
1948—383 
International Leg-ion of 
Vigilantes in 
California 
1943 — 380 
International Lenin 
University 
1949 — 198 
International Literature 
1948—156, 371 
1949 — 390 
International Longshore- 
men's Association 
1943 — 141 
International Longshore- 
men's and Ware- 
housemen's Union 
1948 — 163 
1949 — 437, 475 
1953—63 

1959—33, 34, 41, 94, 96, 
99, 108, 109, 195 
International Longshore- 
man and Warehouse- 
man's Union, Local 2 
(Ship's Scalers) 
1947—92 
International Longshore- 
men and Warehouse- 
men's Union, Local 6 
(Warehousemen) 
1947—92 
International Longshore- 
men and Warehouse- 
men's Union, Local 10 
1947 — 90, 93 
International Longshore- 
men's and Warehouse- 
men's Union, Local 26 
1951 — 267 
1955—388, 390 
International Longshore- 
men and Warehouse- 
men's Union, Local 34 
(Ship Clerks) 
1947 — 92 
International Longshore- 
men and Warehouse- 
men's Union, Local 37 
1955—388 
International Longshore- 
men's Union of San 
Francisco, Local 6 
1955 — 112 
International Longshore- 
men Workers Union 
1948 — 163 
International Music Bureau 

1949—677 
International of 1864 

1953—59 
International Photogra- 
phers, Local 659 
1947—177 
International Press 
Correspondence 
1949—104, 164, 179, 180, 
243, 259, 384, 390, 
396 
International Programs 
1948 — 392 
1949—320, 543 
International Proletariat 
Revolution 
1953—50 
International Publishers 
1948—36, 49, 120, 115, 
194, 214, 324, 369 



1949—117, 119, 126, 185, 
204, 205, 206, 207, 
210, 213, 215, 217, 
218, 220, 221, 222, 
223, 225, 244, 257, 
269, 320, 420, 440, 
442, 461, 463, 492, 
621 
1959—137 
International Red Aid — see 
also Comintern, Inter- 
national Red Aid Sec- 
tion 
1947 — 214 
1948 — 155, 265 
1949—320, 321, 439 
1953—55 
International Red Aid 
(MOPR) 
1955—385, 399 
International Socialist 

1953—47 
International Socialist 
Conference 
1949—217 
International Sound Tech- 
nicians, Local 695 
1947 — 177 
International Soviet 
Republic 
1949 — 195 
International Theatre 
Institute 
1949 — 321 
International, Third 

1953 — 17, 24, 47, 171 
International Trade 
Exposition 
1953—20 
International Union of Fish- 
ermen, and Allied 
Workers of America 
1948 — 212 
1949—475 
International Union of Fur 
and Leather Workers 
1948—212 
1949—475 
International Union of 
Journalists 
1949 — 497 
International Union of 

Mine, Mill and Smelter 
Workers, Golden Gate, 
Local 50 
1947 — 92 
1948 — 212 
1949—475 
International Union of Rev- 
olutionary Theatres 
1948 — 128, 167, 278, 367, 

370 
1949—329 
International Union of Rev- 
olutionary Writers 
1945 — 118, 119, 120 
194S— 99, 126, 135, 156, 
157, 167, 191, 274, 
368, 371 
International Union of 
Students 
1948 — 187 
1949—321, 563 
1953—192 
1955—88 
International Union of 
United Automobile, 
Aircraft and Agri- 
cultural Instrument 
Workers of America, 
CIO 
1947—67 
International Union U.A.W. 
1949—567 



International Women's 
Conference 
1948—332 
International Women's 
Day 
1948 — 226 
International Women's 
Federation 
1953 — 192 
International Woodworkers 
Union 
1959 — 94 
International Workers of 
the World 
1945—87 
1948 — 70, 246 
1949 — 255, 465, 473 
1959—90 
International Workers 
Order 
1943 — 94 

1948—35, 38, 47, 73, 98, 
102, 103, 122, 123, 
130, 134, 136, 142, 
145, 158, 192, 196, 
197, 204, 207, 216, 
218, 225, 259, 267, 
268, 269, 271, 318, 
323, 354, 355, 358, 
378, 382 
1949—127, 158, 310, 313, 
321, 322, 324, 326, 
331, 348, 366, 383, 
388, 395, 397, 409, 
413, 414, 446, 449, 
450, 453, 455, 463, 
464, 465, 466, 467, 
468, 469, 508, 523, 
524, 538, 542, 545, 
548, 551, 557 
1951—281, 282, 283, 284, 

287, 2S9 

1953— 1, " 

1955— 8, 

13, 

21, 

39, 

44, 

91, 

428 

International Workers 
Order 
1957 — 105 

1959— 25, 134, 137, 141, 
20S 
International Workers' Or- 
der, Polish Section 
1951 — 283 
International Workers Or- 
der, American Russian 
Branch 3151 
1951—267 
International Working 
Men's Association 
1949 — 203 
1953 — 20, 22 
International Youth Day 

1949—322 
Internationale 

1949—31 
Internationale Des Anciens 
Combattants ■ — see In- 
ternational Association 
of War Veterans 
1949— 31S, 374 
Internationale Roode Hulp 
1948—265 
1949—439 
Internationale Rote Hilfe 
1948—265 
1949 — 439 
Interne Council of America 
1955—87, 382 



247, 


277, 


279 


9, 


10, 


11, 


14, 


16, 


20, 


22, 


23, 


29, 


40, 


42, 


43, 


45, 


46, 


47, 


112, 


184, 


404, 



INDEX 



295 



Interne, The 

1955 — 87 
Inter-Professional Associa- 
tion 

1948— 6, 172 

1949 — 322 
Inter-Professional Associa- 
tion Bulletin 

194S— 6 
Interprofesisonal Associa- 
tion for Social 
Insurance 

1948 — 73, 115 

1949 — 322 
Interracial Coordinating 
Council of New York 

1948 — 201 
Interview With Foreign 
Workers' Delegations 

1949—192 
Introducing the 
Communist 

1953 — 240 
Invading Education 

1959 — 85 
Inzer, Hugh Ben 

1943— 4G, 50, 61, 225 
Ioannou, H. P. 

1948 — 259 

1955 — 390 
I. P. P. (See Independent 

Progressive Partv) 
Iredell, F. Raymond 

1953 — 133 
Ireland, John 

1948—356 

1949 — 181 
Iron Curtain 

1949 — 10, 42, 62, 271 
292, 529, 531, 551, 
552, 634, 645, 649, 
654, 679 
Irons, Martin 

1943—134. 163 
Irvine, G. F. (George) 

1947— 78, 79, 90, 101, 
240, 241 

1948—185, 195, 376 

1949 — 424, 435, 438, 689 

1951—259 
Irvine:, Charles 

1949— 481, 514, 534, 535 
Irwin. B^n 

194S — 96 
Irwin. Inez Havs 

1948—278 
Is America Blind 

1948—20 
Isaacs. Stanley M. 

1948 — 244, 324, 327, 375 
Isaacs, Mrs. Stanley 

1948—227, 228 

1949 — 457 
Isaacson, Bernard 

1951—287 
Isaak, Rose 

1953—248, 263, 264, 265, 
266, 269, 274, 281 
Isacson, Leo 

1949—508 
Isher Singh 

1953 — 222 
Ishihara, Sakaie 

1955 — 390 
Isln-a Perios, The 

1949—192 
Ison, Clarence 

1947—152, 163 
Issei, The 

1943—322, 346 

1945 — 48, 52, 62, 64 
Isserman, Abraham 

1955—303, 304 



Isserman, Abraham J. 

1948 — 226, 249, 259, 260, 
265, 270, 327, 328, 
331, 332, 352, 377 

1949—541 

1951 — 93, 263 

1953—172 
Isserman, Rabbi Ferdinand 
M. 

1948 — 201 
Italian Activities in 
America 

1943 — 290 
Italian Anti-Fascist 
Committee 

1949 — 323 
Italian Chamber of 
Commerce 

1943—306, 307 
Italian Communist Party 

1943—282 

1949—127, 128, 133, 239 
Italian Language 
Newspapers 

1943—309-314 
Italian-Language Schools 

1943 — 286, 287, 300, 309, 
314, 317, 319 
Italian Legion 

1943—300 
Italian Lodge, Independent 
Progressive Party 

1955—389 
Italy 

1943—220 
Iturbi, Jose 

1955 — 440 
Ivanov, Peter 

1948 — 172, 193 

1951—212, 235, 240, 241, 
242, 243 
Ivens, Joris 

1945 — 116, 117 

1948 — 114, 247 

1951 — 53, 54 
Ives, Burl 

194S— 392 

1949 — 543 
Ives, Charles 

1948 — 317, 330 
Izac, Ed V. 

1948 — 181, 351 
"Izvestia" 

1949—51, 161 

1953—45, 70 



J. B. S. Haldane Club of the 
Communist Party 

1948 — 215 
Jack, Hulan E. 

1948—202 

1949 — 449 
Jack London Branch, 
Young Communist 
League 

1955—428 
Jackins, Helen 

1948—215 
Jackson, Ada Bell 

1949 — 491 
Jackson, Alvin 

1947—239 

194S— 198, 355 
Jackson, Burton 

1948—378 

1949—557 
Jackson, Calvin 

1948—193, 317 
Jackson, Erie 

1 f » 4 S — 9 I 

1949—554 
Jackson, Eugene 

1959—55 



Jackson, Gardner 

1948 — 109, 181, 351, 386 
Jackson, Harry 

1947 — 77 

1949—423 
Jackson, J. J. 

1943—33, 34 
Jackson, James 

1948 — 212 
Jackson, James E. 

1959—194-195 
Jackson, Mr. and Mrs. 
Joseph Henry 

1948 — 194 
Jackson, Justice 

1951—89, 91 

1955—62, 64 
Jackson, Leonard 

1949—5 13 
Jackson, Dr. Leta B. 

1948—17 
Jackson, Representative 

1953 — 211 
Jackson, Robert H., Su- 
preme Court Justice 

1951 — 262 
Jacobi, Frederick 

1948—311 
Jacobi, Helen 

1948 — 376 
Jacobs, Karl Adolph 
Herman 

1955 — 176, 177 
Jacobs, Lewis 

1948 — 276 
Jacobsen, Dr. Daniel S. 

1951 — 130, 142 
Jacobsen, Nathan 

1947 — 151, 162, 163 
Jacobson, Eli 

1943 — 130, 136 
Jacobson, Elsie 

1948 — 146 
Jacobson, I. 

1948 — 355 
Jacobson, Libby 

1943—128, 133 
Jacobson, Mrs. William 

1948—278 
Jacoby 

1947 — 203 
Jacoby & Gibbons and 
Associates 

1949 — 8, 614, 650 
Jacson, Frank 

1953 — 41 
Jaffe, Fred 

1949—547 
Jaffe, Lilly Weil 

1947 — 94 
Jaffe, Madeline 

1953—131 
Jaffe, Paul 

1948 — 317 
Jaffe, Philip J. 

194 8 — 198, 208, 323, 353 

1949 — 538, 546 
Jaffe, Phillip 

1953 — 230 
Jaffe, Sam 

194S — 151 

1949 — 491, 689 

1953 — 173 
Jaffe, Teresa F. 

1948—376 
Jaffey, I. 

1955—389 
Jakeman, Shanna 

1943 — 382 
Jambol, Richard 

195 3—107 
.1; nncs 

1949 — 254 
James, Dan (Mr. and Mrs.) 

1947—106 

1948—279 



206 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



James, Dennis 

1959—84 
James, Ed 

1948—17 
James, Joseph 

1948 — 1S5 
James, Philip 

194S — 311, 330 
Jamison, James F. 

19 4 7 — 363 
Jampol, Richard 

1955—319 
Janney, Leon E. 

1949—481, 509 
Jans.=en, Werner 

194S — 317 

1949 — 481 
Japan 

1943—220 
Japanese 

1945 — 20^ 21, 27, 45, 47- 
49, 50, 52, 53, 59, 
60-G5 
Japanese-Americans 

1959—20 
Japanese-American Citi- 
zens' League 

1943— 333, 338, 344 

1945—53, 62, 63 
Japanese-American Com- 
mittee for Democracy 

1949—323, 450 
Japanese-Communist 
Group 

1943—230 
Japanese Employees of 
Los Angeles 

1943—342 
Japanese Fifth Column 

1943—338, 339 
Japanese Fisherman 

1943 — 338 
Japanese Hospital of Los 
Ang-eles 

1955 — 98 
Japanese Language Schools 
in Calif. 

1943—326, 328 

1945—50 
Japanese Military Service 
Men's League 

1943—337 
Japanese National Anthem 

1943 — 349 
Japanese Organizations 

1943—333 
Japanese Relocation 
Centers 

1943—346, 34? 

1945—47, 50 
Jarman, Hon. Pete 

1949 — 52 
Jarrico, Paul 

1947—180, 191 

1948—189, 214, 32S, 352 

1951—57, 60, 93 

1953—253, 280, 281 

1955—294, 315, 346, 387 
Jarrico, Silva 

1953—253 
Jarrico, Sylvia 

1951 — 60 
Jasmagy, Frieda 

1943 — 60 
Jaswat, Singh 

1953—223 
Jean, Aaron Paul 

1955 — 389 
Jefferson Bookshop 

1949 — 450 
Jefferson Chorus 

194S— 392 

1949 — 323, 543 



Jefferson Labor School of 
New York 

1947 — 83 
Jefferson Medical College 

1955—93, 103 
Jefferson School 

1949 — 557 
Jefferson School of Social 
Science 

1948 — 168, 269, 270 

1949—202, 224, 323, 356, 
452-455, 492, 508, 
543 

1953—280 

1955 — 88 

1959 — 48, 49, 84, 141 
Jefferson, Thomas 

1945—70 

1955 — 152, 199 
Jeffery, John 

1948 — 376 

1959 — 26 
Jeffrey, John E. 

1948 — 6, 234 
Jehova's Witnesses 

1949 — 565, 574 

1953 — 181 
Jelinek, Prof. Otto T. 

1949 — 481 
Jencks, Dr. Millard H. 

1948—322 
Jencks v. United States 

1959—193 
Jenks, M. 

1949 — 173 
Jenkins, Bill 

1948 — 185 

1949 — 561 
Jenkins, David 

1948—194, 235, 236 

1949 — 424, 425, 429, 430, 
689 

1951 — 57, 64, 235 

1953 — 250, 260, 266, 267, 
269, 276 
Jenkins, Edith 

1953 — 248, 266, 274, 275 
Jenkins, Essex G. 

1948 — 15 
Jenkins, Herbert 

1949— 43S 
Jenkins, Hyman David 

1947 — 78, 79, 81, 85, S9- 
91, 97-101,103,145- 
147, 153-156, 160, 
163, 213 
Jenkins, Kenneth 

1948 — 339 
Jenkins, Susan 

1943 — 102 

1948 — 302 

1953 — 174 
Jenner, Sen. William E. 

1959—56, 57 
Jennings, Talbot 

1945—116 

1948—251, 372 
Jennis, Harold 

1957 — 59 
Jenofsky, A. 

1948 — 196 
Jensen, Peter 

1948—273 
Jerome, V. J. 

1943—42, 45 

1945 — 136 

1947 — 63, 72, 106 

1948—88, 90, 188, 189, 
416, 423, 545, 622 

1951—56 

1953 — 67, 72, 139, 153, 173 

1957 — 80 

1959 — 113 
Jespersen, Chris N. 

1943 — 5, 6 



Jessel, George 

1948 — 114, 132, 255 
Jessie Addison Bureau 

1943—373 
Jessup, Roger W. 

1949 — 595 
Jett, Ruth 

1948—188 

1949 — 563 
Jettis, Ashley 

1948 — 238 
Jeveg, George 

1 O-15 — 175 
Jewelry Workers Union, 
Local 36 

1947—80 
Jewett, Al 

1947 — 152 
Jewish-American Lodge of 
the International 
Workers Order 

1948 — 217 
Jewish Anti-Fascist Com- 
mittee of the Soviet 
Union 

1948 — 129 

1949 — 179 
Jewish Blackbook Commit- 
tee of Los Angeles 

1947—56 

1949 — 323 
Jewish Commission 

1948 — 213 
Jewish Commission of the 
Communist Party 

1948—130 
Jewish Community Council 

1947 — 55 
Jewish Cultural Committee 
of the West Side 

1955—389 
Jeivish Daily Forward 

1949 — 622 
Jewish Hollywood Cultural 
Club 

1955—389 
Jewish Labor Committee 

1949—551 
Jeivish Life 

1948 — 36, 49, 225 

1949 — 390, 451, 546, 620, 
622 
Jewish People's Committee 

1947 — 45 

194S — 75, 97, 145, 167, 342 

1949 — 323, 453, 551 
Jewish People's Fraternal 
Order 

1948—130 

1949—324, 438, 466 

1951 — 267, 287 

1955 — 389, 390, 392 

1959 — 128 
Jewish Peoples Fraternal 
Order, Emma Lazarus 
Division 

1951 — 267 
Jewish People's Fraternal 
Order, Lodge 600 

1951 — 267 
Jewish People's Fraternal 

Order, Lodge 761 

1951 — 266 
Jewish People's Voice 

1948 — 225 

1949 — 390 
Jewish Survey 

1948 — 119, '225 

1949—390 
Jewish Voice 

1948—225 

1949 — 390 
Jewish "War Veterans of 
the U. S. 

1948—15-19, 318 






297 



Jewish Youth Council 


Johnson, Charles S. 


Johnson, Roger 


1948- — 281 


1948 — 334 


1943—154 


1951 — 25 


1949 — 481 


1953—98 


Jewitt, Victor R. 


Johnson, Crockett 


Johnson, Russell D. 


1953 — 272 


1949—481, 484, 490, 500, 


1948 — 356 


Jews 


501, 507, 521, 522, 


Johnson, Ruth 


1943 — 247 


527, 531, 532, 534, 


194S — 17, 378 


1945 — 6 


537 


1949 — 557 


1959—20, 46 


Johnson, Earl 


1953—79, 120, 121 


Jimenez, Arnufo E. 


1948 — 185 


Johnson, Stanley 


1948 — 273 


Johnson, Edna Ruth 


1953 — 104, 105 


Job, Judith 


1949 — 481, 490, 500, 519 


Johnson, Walter E. 


1953 — 267 


Johnson, Edwin C. 


1947—202-204 


Jobe, Edwin 


1948 — 333 


Johnson, Willard 


1947—242 


Johnson Equipment Com- 


1957 — 33-35 


1949—436, 437 


pany 


Johnsrud, Harold 


Jodoin, C. 


1951 — 267 


1948 — 96 


1959 — 97 


Johnson, Ernest C. 


Johnston, Ellice 


Joga Singh 


1948 — 17 


1947—78 


1953—219, 223 


Johnson, Gardner 


1949 — 424 


Johanson, C. E. 


1948 — 333 


Johnston, Paul C. 


1947 — 152, 163 


Johnson, Grover 


194S — 320 


1951—278 


1943—125 


1949 — 691 


John B. Knight Company 


1948—266, 332 


Johnston, Velda 


1949 — S, 684 


1949—542 


1943 — 127, 128, 131, 132, 


John Reed Branch of the 


1959—124 


136, 145, 151, 153, 


Communist Party 


Johnson, Rev. H. T. S. 


156, 169 


1948—215 


1948 — 185 


Johnstone, Jack 


John Reed Club 


Johnson, Hall 


1949 — 178, 452 


1947 — 68 


1948—238 


1953 — 230 


1948—6, 35, 118, 270 


Johnson, Hank 


Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee 


1949 — 420, 467, 525 


1948 — 268 


Committee 


1953 — 175 


1949 — 464 


1947—45, 79, 90, 93, 95, 


1959—110, 112, 137 


Johnson, Rev. Hewlitt 


249 


John Reed Club of Holly- 


1943 — 52 


1948—34, 35, 48, 66, 75, 


wood 


1947 — 155 


100, 101, 125, 134, 


1948 — 147 


1948—172, 326, 352 


138, 141, 168, 172, 


John Reed Club of 


1949—92, 507, 540, 633- 


176, 21G, 217, 231, 


San Francisco 


645 


232, 263, 264, 270, 


1948 — 6 


1951 — 153 


271, 309, 334-336, 


John Reed Club School 


Johnson, Hiram 


351, 368, 376, 382 


1949—525 


1947 — 182 


1949 — 273, 280, 308, 322, 


John Reed Clubs of the 


Johnson, Homer H. 


324, 359, 366, 451, 


United States 


1948 — 248 


452, 453, 454, 455, 


1949 — 324 


Johnson, Howard 


459, 460, 468, 469, 


John Reed Memorial 


1948 — 213, 378 


509, 551, 632, 656 


Meeting 


1949—557 


1951 — 234, 235, 248, 258, 


1948 — 324 


Johnson, James Weldon 


280, 287, 289 


John Reed School of Art 


1948 — 145, 199, 247 


1953—118, 131, 172, 247, 


1947 — 82 


Johnson, Joe 


281 


John Simon Guggenheim 


1955 — 383 


1955 — 88, 181, 182, 184, 


Foundation 


Johnson, John A. 


432 


1955 — 221 


1951—287 


1959 — 112, 137, 208 


Johndrew, Bernice 


Johnson, John H. 


Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee 


1948—17 


1949 — 547 


Committee v. McGrath 


Johnny Get Your Gun 


Johnson, Howard 


1959 — 141, 142 


1948 — 251 


"Stretch" 


Joint Committee for the De- 


Johnny Got His Gun 


1949 — 557 


fense of the Brazilian 


1948—133 


Johnson, Joseph 


People 


Johns, Orrick 


1947—152, 163 


1948 — 335, 363 


1945 — 121, 126 


1949—429, 430 


1949—324 


1948 — 274 


Johnson, Josephine 


Joint Committee for Trade 


1949—472 


1948—274 


Union Rights 


Johns Hopkins University 


1949 — 471 


1947 — 202, 210 


1955 — 242 


Johnson, Juanita 


1948 — 34, 381 


Johnson, Aaron 


1948 — 268 


1949 — 325, 452 


1948 — 94 


1949 — 464 


Joint Committee National 


1949 — 554 


Johnson, Ken 


Negro Congress and 


Johnson, Mr. and Mrs. 


1955—391 


United Public Workers 


Allan 


Johnson, Larry 


1948 — 271 


1948—194 
Johnson, Arlien 


1948 — 378 
Johnson, Dr. Mordecai W. 


1949 — 324 
Joint Committee of Trade 


1948 — 376 


1948—109, 318, 319, 320 


Unions in Social Work 


Johnson, Arnold 


Johnson, Oakley 


1948 — 34, 73 


1948—383 


1948 — 274, 338 


1949 — 325 


1959 — 32 


1949 — 471 


Joint Committee on Eco- 


Johnson, Arvid 


Johnson, Paul 


nomic Education of the 


1947 — 152 


1943 — 128, 130, 138 


Association of National 


Johnson, Beatrice 


Johnson, Ralph 


Advertisers and the As- 


1953 104, 105 


1948 — 188 


sociation of American 




1949 — 563 


Advertising Agencies 


Johnson, Rev. Bede A. 
1948—328 


Johnson, Reginald 


1949—650 


1947 — 179, 239 


Joint Committee to Lift the 


Johnson, Carl E. 


1948—171, 355 


Embargo 


1949 — 173 


1949 — 481 


1949—507 



298 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



Joint Defense Rallies Spon- 
sored by Los Angeles 
Public Workers — C.I.O. 

1948—55 
Joint Fact-Finding Commit- 
tee on Un-American 
Activities 

1943—206, 209, 383-385 

1945 — 5, 64, 65, 159, 209, 
210 

1947 — 81, 83, 86, 87, 105, 
132-134, 139, 142, 
188, 372 

1949—702, 707 
Joint Trade Union Confer- 
ence for Trade Union 
Rights 

1947—219 
Joliot-Curie, Frederic 

1949 — 490, 491, 496 
Jones, Charles 

1947 — 239 

1948—255, 355 
Jones, Claudia 

194S— 35, 186, 203, 205, 
209, 213 

1949 — 304, 562 

1951 — 269 
Jones, Darby 

1943—145, 164 

1948 — 315 

1951—83 
Jones, Dr. David D. 

1949—481, 500, 506, 512, 
514, 518, 519, 523 
Jones, David N. 

1949—519 
Jones, Dora 

194S— 163 
Jones, Ellis O. 

1943 — 92, 96, 145, 230, 232, 
251, 256, 258, 260- 
263, 266, 270, 272, 
275, 277 

1948—358 
Jones, Esther Lloyd 

1947—324 
Jones, Evelyn 

1943—145 
Jones, Georgia 

1948—215 
Jones, Prof. Howard 
Mumford 

1948 — 322 
Jones, Howard P. 

1948—333 
Jones, Isabel Morse 

1948—171 
Jones, Joe 

1948 — 141 
Jones, John A. 

1943—60, 63 
Jones, John Hudson 

1948—186, 233, 343 

1949—562 
Jones, Dr. Lewis Webster 

1948—322 
Jones, Lillian 

1943—154, 166, 171 
Jones, Robert E. 

1948—330 
Jones, Russel 

1948—187 

1949—563 
Jones, Thomas 

1948 — 378 

1949—557 
Jones v. State 

1949 — 254 
Jones, William N. 

1948—244, 273 

1949—429, 431, 471 
Jordan, C. H. 

1948—358, 359 
Jordan, Chester 

1948—161 



519, 
533. 



499, 
514, 



516, 
521, 
535, 



502, 
518, 



Jorgis, John N. 

1949 — 177 
Joseph, J. Julius 

1959 — 174 
Joseph, Joe 

1955 — 311 
Joseph, Matthew 

1945 — 126 
Joseph, Robert L. 

1948 — 210 
Joseph, Mr. and Mrs. 
Sydney 

194S — 194, 217 
Josephson, Jessie E. 

1955—391 
Josephson, Leon 

1949 — 447, 448, 524, 677 
Josephson, Matthew 

1948 — 194, 248, 273, 331 

1949 — 471, 481, 490, 49! 
501, 502, 506, 
510, 512, 514, 
517, 518, 
525, 528, 
537 
Josephy, Robert 

1949 — 481, 490, 
504, 512, 
521 
Josh, Sardar Sohan Singh 

1953—230 
Joshi 

1953—238 
Joshi, P. C. 

1949 — 181 
Journal of the Los Angeles 
County Medical Asso- 
ciation 

1955—263 
Journal of the State Bar of 
California 

1955—144 
Joy, Lester 

1948 — 356 
Joyce, Robert 

1949 — 481, 500, 537 
Juala Singh 

1953—218 
Juando v. Taylor 

1949—253 
Juarez, Benito 

1948—273 
Judd, Rita 

1951 — 278 
Judevich, Mr. 

1948—140 
Judson, Charles 

1943 — 153 
Jue, Tonv 

1947—89 

1949 — 425 
Jung, Harry S. 

1947—96 

1948—272 

1951 — 57 

1953 — 125, 126 
Junior Leaguers 

1951—9 
Jurasek, Anthony 

1953—256 
Jurasek, Frank 

1953—257 
Jurich, Joseph F. 

1945—147 

1949 — 448, 449, 451 

1953 — 63, 131 
Juried, Sofie 

1948 — 196 
Jurist, Irma 

1948—317 
Jurlin, Joe 

1955—388 
Juvinall, Rev. Andrew 

1947 — 242 

1948 — 358 

1949—436 



KFVD Radio Station 

1948—154 
KGO Radio Station, San 
Francisco 

1948 — 215, 218 
KNOJ 

1949 — 126 
KXLA Radio Station, Los 
Angeles 

1948—268 
KYA Radio Station, San 
Francisco 

1948 — 217, 218 
Rabat, Dr. Elvin A. 

1949—481 
Kadish, Dave 

1948 — 340 
Kadochnikov, Pavel 

1953 — 234 
Kafka, Jerry 

1955 — 430 
Kagan, Mimi 

1947 — 89, 91 

1949 — 425, 429, 431 
Kagan. Mimi, Dancers 

1953—253, 267 
Kaganovich 

1959—45 
Kaganovich, Lazar 

1947 — 362 
Kaganovitch 

1953 — 45 
Kagen, Helen 

1959 — 174, 176 
Kagle, Sam 

1947 — 78 

1949 — 424 

1951 — 231 
Kahn, Albert 

1949 — 502, 503, 505. 511, 
513, 516, 522, 524, 

526, 536 
Kahn, Albert E. 

194S— 115, 119, 130, 132, 
169, 208, 218, 324, 
326, 343 

1949_449, 451, 481, 485, 
486, 489, 490, 491, 
500, 505, 508, 515, 
516, 519. 522, 523, 

527, 530, 532, 535, 
537, 539, 618, 689 

1951—271, 272, 275, 276, 
278 
Kahn, Alexander S. 

1948 — 176, 377 
Kahn, Elinor 

1948—62 

1949 — 470 
Kahn, Ephriam 

1953 — 282, 283 
Kahn, Gordon 

1947 — 97 

1948 — 372-374 

1949 — 630 

1951—53 

1955—441 
Kahn, J. 

1955 — 389 
Kahn, Josephine 

1948 — 278 
Kahn, Peter, Jr. 

1947—179 

1948 — 202, 383 
Kahn, Peter M. 

1948 — 183, 209, 279 
Kai Nippon Seinenkai 

1943 — 323 
Kaiser, Clara A. 

1948—375 



299 



Kalar, Joseph 

1945 — 119 

194S — 273 

1949 — 471 
Kalatozo, Mikhail 

1948 — 365 

1949—524 
Kalgaard, Don 

1948 — 215, 220 
Kalinin, Michael 

1943—15 

1949—162 
Kalish, Betty 

1948—227 
Kalish, Samuel 

1943 — 136, 156, 163 
Kail, Dr. Alexis 

194S— 171 
Kallett, Arthur 

1953—174 
Kalley, Arthur 

(Alias Edward Adams) 

1943 — 102, 104 

1945 — 121 

1948 — 167, 328, 352, 392 

1949 — 302 
Kalman, Bernice 

1947 — 40 

1953—282 
Kalman, Gene 

1953— 2S2 
Kalman, Gertrude 

1953 — 277 
Kalman, Herh 

1948—215, 220 
Kalman, Herbert Stanley 

1953 — 255, 256, 257, 263, 
282 
Kalman, James E. 

1948 — 215 

1953—277 
Kalman, Ted 

1951—265 
Kalman, Theodore M. 

1953 — 277, 279, 282 
Kalman, Theresa 

1948—220 
Kalnitsky, Prof. George 

1949 — 481 
Kaltenborn, H. V. 

1948 — 244, 248 
Kamen, Dr. David Martin 

1951 — 229, 230, 238, 242 
Kamenev 

1953 — 36, 38, 39, 44, 46, 
65 

1957—30, 85, 91 
Kamenev, L. B. 

1951 — 143 
Kametsky, David Martin — 
see also Kamen, David 
Martin 

1951—230 
Kamin, Alfred 

1948 — 151 
Kamins, Dr. Maurice 

1947 — 239 

1948—355 
Kammet, Lawrence 

1948 — 375 
Kana, Gawa Deshikai 

1943—323 
Kanagy, Albert S. 

1955 — 417, 418, 419 
Kanaster, Jacob 

1948 — 259 
Kandel, Aben 

1943 — 123 

1948 — 193 
Kandel, Judith 

1948 — 277, 278 
Kane, Bryan 

1948—356 



Kanin 

1955 — 103 
Kanin, Garson 

1948—241 

1949—481, 500, 502, 512- 
514, 519, 523, 533 

1951 — 271 
Kanin, Michael 

1948 — 97, 198, 241, 279 

1949 — 510 

1951—53 
Kanins, Dr. Maurice 

1955 — 390 
Kanowitz, Leo 

1953 — 277, 27S, 282 
Kant 

1947—85 
Kaplan 

1955 — 278 
Kaplan, Irving 

1959—172, 173, 174 
Kaplan, Joseph 

1948 — 270 
Kaplan, Mrs. Joseph 

1947—239 
Kaplan, Leon 

1948 — 213, 214, 343 
Kaplan, Martin 

1947 — 145-158 

1948—8, 281, 298, 299, 300 
Kaplan, Maurice 

1943 — 171 

1957—35-42, 47, 53, 54, 55 
Kaplan, N. 

1955 — 389 
Kaplan, N. H. 

1955—389 
Kaplan, Sol 

1948—317 
Kaplin, Vic 

1955 — 388 
Kaplow, George 

1949 — 549 
Kaplunoff, Mr. 

1955 — 389 
Kaplunoff, Mrs. 

1955 — 389 
Kapp, David 

1949 — 543 
Kappa Delta Pi 

1953 — 151, 152 
Kappa Delta Pi, Laureate 
Chapter 

1953 — 151 
Kappa Delta Pi, Research 
Publication No. 3 

1953 — 151 
Karayorghis, Kostas 

1949 — 181 
Karl Marx 

1949—190 
Karl Marx, His Life and 
Work 

1949 — 193 
Karl Marx Selected Works 

1951 — 152 
Karl Marx Society of 
Brooklyn College 

1949—325 
Karnat, Stephen 

1948 — 278 
Karnes, Doris 

1948 — 356 
Karnes, Robert 

1948 — 356 
Karpatska Rus 

1949 — 181, 467 
Karpf, Dr. Maurice J. 

1947 — 96 

1948 — 183 
Karpf, Maurice J. 

1955 — 452 
Karplan, Seymour 

1948 — 280, 281 
Karpman, Dr. "Walter 

1955—288 



Karron, Ruby 

1948—259 
Karsner, Rose 

1948—243, 266 
Kartun, Derek 

1949 — 181, 626 
Karwoski, John 

1953—279, 282 
Kashins, Beulah 

1943—140 
Kasonin, Dr. and Mrs. Jacob 

1948 — 194 
Kasperov, Gregory 

1951 — 231 
Kass, Alvin 

1955 — 391 
Kass, Thems 

1948—259 
Kassner, Minna F. 

1948 — 272 
Kassyanowicz, Henry 

1949 — 492 
Kasurui, Tomo 

1943—346 
Kasustchick, I. 

1948—268 

1949 — 464 
Kathleen Bureau 

1943 — 373 
Katleman, Isobel 

1948 — 210 
Katlow, Beatrice 

1955—367 
Katlow, Dr. Edward 

1955—367, 370 
Katnic, Ivan 

1948 — 94 

1949 — 554 
Katterfield, D. E. 

1947 — 12 

1949—177 
Katz, Charles 

1947—64, 70, 170, 179, 
188, 189, 193, 239, 
250 

1948—97, 146, 148, 249, 
250, 255, 267, 279, 
332, 346, 355 

1949 — 417, 421, 47S, 542, 
689 

1951 — 57, 58, 59 

1955—315 

1959—115, 128 
Katz-Gallagher-Margolis 

1947 — 47, 70, 187-1S9, 192, 
250, 251, 254 

1948—267 

1949 — 421 
Katz, Isidore 

1948 — 265 
Katz, Julia 

1948 — 227 
Katz, Marshe 

1948 — 196 
Katz, Mini 

1947—90 
Katz, Morris 

1948—151 
Katz, Otto 

1948 — 119 
Katz, Paul 

1949 — 481, 508 
Katzeff 

1949—246, 247 
Kauffman, Harry 

1948 — 311 
Kauffman, William 

1947 — 91 

1949—425 
Kaufman, Mrs. Beatrice 

1948 — 262 
Kaufman, Ben 

1949—547 
Kaufman, Mrs. Edith 

1948—179 



300 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 



Kaufman, George 




Kellner, Chas. 




1948—210, 241, 


330, 343, 


1948—268 




389 




1949 — 464 




Kaufman, Dr. Joseph 


Kellogg Pact 




1959 — 184 




1943 — 42 




Kaufman, Milton 




1948 — 332 




1948 — 201, 202 




1949—31, 87, 541 




1949 — 442, 447, 


451 


Kellv, Betsy 




Kaufman, Sidney 




1951 — 267 




1947—151, 163 




Kellv, Ella Cook 




1948 — 389 




1947 — 167 




Kaufman, Sol 




Kelly, Gene 




1947—152 




1947—235, 237, 239 




Kaun, Dr. Alexander 


1948—60,